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ENGLISH COMPREHENSION 3

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English Comprehension Exercises

Reading Exercise 1

Passage I


In the desert plain that rises gradually from the shores of the Dead Sea in Jordan lies the ruin of an
Early Bronze Age fortified town, which some early explorers thought might be the Biblical city of
Sodom. Today this site is called Bab edh-Dhra, and scholars are trying to reconstruct the cultural
and biological history of the people who lived there between four and five thousand years ago.
Some of the most significant events in the history of Man were taking place during this period, as
cities in the Near East began to develop into a dominant feature of the emerging civilizations of
Summer in Mesopotamia and Dynastic Egypt. The cultural changes associated with this
development often have correlates in Man's biological history.
Less than a kilometer south of Bab-Dhra is a large cemetery where thousands of people were
buried. The tombs and skeletons offer evidence of the cultural and biological changes occurring
with the emergence of city life at Babedh-Dhra. Earlier work had suggested three major cultural
phases during the thousand years of history at Babedh-dhra. Between about 3150 and 3000 BC.,
the people apparently were nomadic pastoralists. With a perennial water supply, however, the site
was important as a meeting place for herdsmen watering their flocks; there may even have been a
small permanent settlement. Even then the cemetery was an important part of the culture; much
effort was expended in preparing the tombs, pottery and other gifts.
Between about 3000 and 2350 BC. the people were more settled; depended much more on
agriculture, and built a fortified town. Then the town was destroyed (we don't know by whom)
around 2350 BC. People continued to live in the ruins until the site was finally abandoned
altogether about 220 BC. What were the relationships of the successive populations of Babedh-
Dhra to each other and to other groups in the Near East? Were the cultural changes the result of
gradual change within a single group or of outside invasions? The skeletons offer clues and can tell
us things like the average length of life and the relative numbers of men, women, and children. In
addition, they can reveal something of the diseases afflicting the people of Babedh-Dhra and add to
our understanding of the history of disease. We also want to find out all we could about the burial
practices and what they could tell us about social structure.
During the pre-town phase at Babedh-Dhra, the dead typically were placed in shaft tombs. Shafts
four feet across were dug as deep as nine feet. Near the bottom, the tomb makers would dig
laterally, creating a small entryway just large enough for one person to squeeze through. Beyond,
they excavated a domed chamber about six feet in diameter and three feet high at the centre. As
many as five of those chambers might open off a single shaft. Typically, we found the bones of
three or more individuals in a single chamber. Except for the skulls and lower jaws, all the bones
would be intermingled. This means of course, that the bodies had been reduced to skeletons before
the bones were entombed. Perhaps bodies were temporarily buried where people died, and the
bones were recovered periodically and brought back to Babedh-Dhra for appropriate ceremonies
and permanent burial. Several of the skulls had been slightly broken during this second burial,
indicating that the first burial had lasted enough for the bone to become rather fragile.
Around the periphery of the chambers were pottery vessels and other tomb gifts: stone mace
heads, wooden shafts and bowls, and unfired clay female figurines. Contrary to the expectations of
some scholars, we found evidence of food offerings in vessels. One sealed jar contained protein
residues, probably of animal origin. We also discovered grape seeds. During the urban phase at
Babedh-Dhra, the people started building mud-brick burial houses at or near ground level, first
round ones and later rectangular. They were generally much larger than the shaft tombs and
contained many more skeletons.
1. According to the passage, why is this period significant in Man's history?
a. Architectural developments are representative of urban life
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b. The development of cities correlates with the advance of civilization
c. The domestication of animals increased agricultural yield
d. The nomadic way of life discouraged division of labour
2. During which phase in the history of Babedh-Dhra were shaft tombs primarily built?
a. Urban phase
b. Pastoral phase
c. Pre-town phase
d. Urban and pre-town phases
3. If the relative population distribution of prehistoric society could be determined, the best
archaeological evidence would be
a. Ceremonial sites
b. Written records that recorded burials
c. Burial sites
d. Habitation sites
4. A substance not found near the tomb chambers is
a. Wood
b. Iron
c. Stone
d. Clay
5. According to the passage, why was the site of Babedh-Dhra a potential area for urban
development?
a. It offered defensible borders
b. The fertility of the soil favoured agriculture
c. Mineral deposits favoured trade agreements
d. Water resources favoured settlement
6. According to the passage, the best archaeological evidence to suggest re-interment would be
a. Intermingling of skeletal remains
b. Ceremonial receptacles that contained various bone fragments
c. Laterally radiating burial shafts
d. Missing or broken bones
7. Archaeological evidence indicates that permanent habitation of the site at Babedh-Dhra ended
approximately
a. 3150 BC
b. 2700 BC
c. 2350 BC
d. The approximate date is not given

Passage II


Scholars concede that Tutankhamen's is "the richest royal tomb of antiquity ever found". Yet, since
it belonged to an obscure "boy king" who ruled only nine years (from about 1325 to 1334), it has
been assumed that mightier pharaohs must indeed have had richer tombs, although most of the
evidence has long since vanished. Another school of thought proposes that the Tutankhamen
treasure really was exceptional owing to the special circumstances of his origin.Tutankhamen was
more than a pharaoh, He was a milestone, a symbol of restored order after an interlude of chaos.
Egypt had long been dominated by the vast priesthood of the state god Amun-Re. The priests
profited from the spoils of Egypt's foreign conquests, and they shared power with the pharaohs.
Then, under Amenophis III, the stage was set for the dwindling of the priests' power, and under his
son, who became known as Akhenaten, disaster struck. Akhenaten had the effrontery to sponsor a
universal sun god called Aten. He abandoned the priestly stronghold at Thebes, sailed down the
Nile to a site he called Akhetaten (later Tell el-Amarna), and built a new religious capital.The
priests were irate, and the rest of Egypt worried. Akhenaten's new temples were unusually sunny;
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he encouraged a less rigid form of art, and he dared to have himself portrayed on monuments with
his wife and children. But the populace hated to give up all their beloved gods, and when
Akhenaten died, the reaction was inevitable. The priests recaptured their power, and the boy
Tutankhamen became pharaoh. To many of his subjects, he represented a welcome return to "old
times." For this reason, one modern scholar, Edward Wente of the University of Chicago's Oriental
Institute, suggests that, when Tutankhamen died at about the age of 18, his tomb may have been
outfitted with extra elegance.
Whatever the case, the contents of the tomb are full of clues to Egyptian history, to Egyptian ways
of life. Take the little alabaster unguent jar. Its elaborate curly handles draw us into early history.
Represented in the handle are two long-stemmed flowers, the lotus of Upper Egypt and the
papyrus plant of Lower Egypt. After a fierce battle, these two regions were united about 3,000
B.C., and subsequently the flowers were often pictured with their stems knotted together as an
emblem of peaceful unity.
The early Egyptian, like most of mankind, tried to protect himself against misfortune, and above
all, against being destroyed by death. His gods, amulets, and magic writings were all part of his
protective equipment. Tutankhamen's mirror case was shaped like an ankh, a cross with a loop at
the top. Potent symbols of life, ankhs were seen everywhere. Another ubiquitous emblem was the
eye, which appears on the clasp on Tutankhamen's bracelet. One of the holiest symbols of Egyptian
religion, the eye at different periods was identified with the sun and moon. Both men and women
used dark paints made of kohl to elongate their eyes, and tinted their eyelids-certainly not the only
time that self-beautification and religious symbolism overlapped.The uses of tomb treasure were
both magical and practical, with no sharp line between them. An example of double usefulness is
Tutankhamen's ivory headrest, with two lions on its base and Shu, the god of air, holding up the
curved head support. This would serve the king in a practical way in the afterworld- -just as it did
on Earth- -but, also, since the human head was regarded as the seat of life, a headrest had a
magical efficacy in the attempt to defy death.
8. In Egyptian history, the role of Akhenaten is considered controversial because
a. He embarked on costly military expeditions
b. He established a political centre at Thebes
c. He established monotheism in Egypt
d. He reinstated Amun-Re as a local god
9. The lotus and the papyrus were most closely associated with
a. Life after death
b. Political unity
c. Religious symbolism
d. Hieroglyphic writing
10. An 'ankh' was
a. Shaped like a cross
b. The Egyptian name for a tomb
c. A type of perfume
d. A curved head support
11. The tomb of Tutankhamen was historically significant primarily because
a. It was built during a period when Egypt was experiencing domestic tranquillity
b. The golden treasury room contained numerous religious artefacts
c. The mummified body of the pharaoh had been remarkably preserved
d. It was the greatest treasure that the ruins of Egypt had yielded
12. An ankh in Egyptian history
a. Was associated with the sun and moons
b. Was a symbol of death
c. Was associated with self-beautification
d. Was associated with eternal life
13. The artifacts that were discovered in the tomb were generally
a. Functional as well as religious
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b. Religious but not functional
c. Magical in nature
d. Utilitarian in nature
14. During the reign of Tutankhamen, all of the following occurred, except,
a. The restoration of the state god Amun-Re
b. A return to a time of domestic tranquillity
c. The continued decline in priestly power
d. A return to the traditional principles of Egyptian religion
Passage III


The noble, ancient and adored art of puppetry may be edging toward an endangered species list of
its own. Over the ages, puppets and their masters have given pleasure to all classes of societies,
among them the young, the old, the native and the sophisticated, the poor and the rich. Their
fascination has been universal and timeless. And, in many cases, puppet shows seem to have
preceded performances by people- -perhaps because of the superstitious awe with which various
peoples responded to idols and statues, particularly if they moved.
Puppets have been imbedded in mankind's memory for so many centuries that even today some of
that awe, as well as all of that delight, continues to work magic for those audiences able to find
professional, or even amateur, performances. But the chances of this art's surviving in the face of
such popular contemporary diversions as film and television could be doubtful, although it may
continue as an adjunct to mass communication, useful in commercials, propaganda, or education.
If so, the magical element of puppetry will have been lost, because it is the experience of being in
the actual presence of puppets- -at once real and unreal- -that causes one's imagination of flower,
opening another realm of feeling and seeing.
Such reactive emotions have a long history. In primitive times, the shaman or witch doctor divined
the power of am animated artefact and pronounced that supernatural forces could direct, cure and
present omens through these sacred objects, for the spirits had entered the objects and had
become them. This is as true for Zuni and Hopi serpent puppets as it is for the slow-moving idols
of the Egyptian priesthood, whose mechanised statues raised an arm or turned a head.
The religious aspect of dolls and puppets has been universal in both the West and the East. Where
idols have been banished, puppets have survived in the form of shadow theatre, probably the most
widely distributed tradition of puppetry. The shadow theatre has been popular for centuries from
North China throughout Southeast Asia, most of India, the Middle East, and Northern Africa. The
extent and variety of this form of theatre makes the rest of the world's puppetry seem a bit meagre
by comparison.
But any form of traditional theatre in Asia has a significantly different meaning from what we in
the West consider theatre. Walter A. Fairservis, Jr., research associate at the American Museum of
Natural History and professor of anthropology at Vassar, has written that Asian drama "is not to
be categorised as mere entertainment, for its basic purpose is to provide cultural security and
personal identity for all citizens of the culture involved. Much of Asian drama recounts the myths,
legends, and stories which are the familiar descriptions of why things are what they are, and why
people and gods do what they do".
Whether performed by people or puppets, Oriental theatre is ritualistic; the audiences want their
beliefs and hopes reinforced. They demand to see and hear the same stories retold, but the range of
the stories is vast- -often the plots and characters are taken from such epics as the Ramayana and
the Mahabharata. These Sanskrit texts with their hundreds of characters, their extraordinary
adventures, battles, love affairs, and political struggles, in which both gods and human beings are
similarly engaged, offer a rich and endless imagery to the theatre of the puppet.
15. According to the author, the influence of film and television
a. Has increased the mass appeal of puppetry
b. Has decreased the political effectiveness of puppetry
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c. Has reduced the magical aura associated with puppetry
d. Has had no appreciable effect on the growth of puppetry
16. Of the following, which factor would have been least influential in the development of puppet
theatre?
a. Puppetry as a political dialogue
b. Puppetry as a form of cultural security
c. Puppetry as a ritualistic ceremony
d. Puppetry as entertainment
17. The author is
a. Optimistic about puppetry's survival
b. Critical of the religious views of the eastern puppeteers
c. Concerned over the future of puppetry
d. Proud of western puppetry
18. Zuni serpent puppets are similar in purpose to
a. Fetish objects
b. Sanskrit stick figures
c. Animated shadow figures
d. None of these
19. The most popular form of puppet theatre is associated with
a. Marionette plays
b. Shadow plays
c. Traditional hand puppet plays
d. Sanskrit text plays
20. Which statement about puppetry is not true?
a. Myths are an appropriate subject area for puppet theatre
b. Puppets probably preceded actors on the stage
c. Puppetry is not useful as a propaganda too
d. Puppetry has a longer tradition in the East than in the West.

Answer Key 1

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (a)
11. (d) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (c) 15. (c) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (a) 19. (b) 20. (c)
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Reading Exercise 2
Passage I


From 'apparel to aerospace'. 'steel to software', the pace of technological innovation is quickening.
No longer can companies afford to miss generation of technology and expect to remain
competitive. Adding to the pressure, innovations are increasingly crossing industry boundaries. A
new fiber developed by the textile industry has potential for building materials and medical
equipment. Some companies are adept at using a diversity of technologies to create new products
that transform markets. But many others are floundering because they rely on a technology
strategy that no longer works in such a fast changing environment. The difference between success
and failure is not how much a company spends on research and development (R & D), but how it
approaches it.
There are two possible approaches. Either a company can invest in R & D that replaces an older
generation of technology-the "break through" approach-or its focus on combining existing
technologies into hybrid technologies-the 'technology fusion' approach. It blends incremental
technical improvements from several previously separate fields of technology to create products
that revolutionize markets.
In a world where the old maxim 'one technology one industry' no longer applies, a singular
breakthrough strategy is inadequate; companies need to include both the breakthrough and fusion
approaches in their technology strategy. Relying on breakthroughs alone fails because it focuses
the R & D efforts too narrowly ignoring the possibilities of combining technologies. Yet many
western companies still rely almost exclusively on the breakthrough approach. The reasons are
complex; a distrust of outside innovations and not-invented here engineering arrogance and
aversion to sharing research results.

1. Which of the following is FALSE according to the passage?
a. Technological innovation is taking place at fast pace
b. All technological innovations are applicable in other industries
c. Companies failing to adopt new technology may fail
d. Companies which adopt technologies of other industries have an advantage
2. Which of the following would correctly reflect the position regarding the two approaches to
technology adoption?
a. Both the approaches are to be used at the same time
b. 'Breakthrough' approach is only to be used.
c. 'Technology fusion' approach is only to be used
d. 'Breakthrough approach' is preferable for many companies
3. Which of the following features of technology has been highlighted most prominently by the
author of the passage?
a. Its improper utilization by some companies
b. The speed at which innovations are happening
c. The expenses involved in developing technology
d. The two approaches to adopting technology
4. Which of the following has the SAME meaning as the word 'generation' as it has been used in
the passage?
a. Family
b. Class
c. Offspring
d. Phase
5. What does the author want to highlight by using the example 'apparel to aerospace' and 'steel to
software'?
a. Many industries are trying to improve technology
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b. His knowledge about the various industries
c. The widespread technological innovations
d. The speed of the technological innovations
6. What, according to the author, is adding to the 'pressure' on the companies?
a. Applicability of technologies of other industries to them
b. Increasing speed of technological innovations
c. Work load on their R & D departments
d. Finding funds for increased R & D activities
7. What is the immediate effect, according to the passage, if a company does not innovate?
a. It closes down
b. It ceases to be competitive in the market
c. The prices of its products go up
d. Its R & D departments close down
8. What, according to the author, is the major drawback of the 'break-through' approach of
technological innovation?
a. It is expensive
b. It cannot give answers to modern technological problems
c. This approach has been overused
d. It does not take in development in other fields
9. Which of the following is the correct way, according to the author, of spending money on
research?
a. Spend more money on 'breakthrough' research
b. Spend no money on 'breakthrough' research
c. Spend more money on 'technology fusion' research
d. Spend no money on 'technology fusion' research
10. Which of the following has the SAME meaning as the word 'floundering' as it has been used in
the passage?
a. Changing
b. Failing
c. Unreliable
d. Fumbling
11. Which of the following has the SAME meaning as the word 'improvement' as it has been used
in the passage?
a. ett ent
Reforms
c. Advancement
d. Corrections
12. Why do Western Companies avoid the 'technology fusion' approach?
a. Disturb of outside researchers
b. Feeling that what one does alone is right
c. Failure to share results with others
d. All of those stated above

Passage II


Last Monday the little village of Donington-on-Bain, deep in the Lincolnshire Worlds, lost its last
contact through public transport with the outside world. Once, Donington (population 236)
boasted its own railway station. That closed a generation ago, and on April 1 the two bus services,
to Lincoln in one direction and Louth in the other, were withdrawn. Now the villagers of
Donington, a third of whom do not own a car, face a three mile trek for the nearest bus route.
Lincolnshire is not good bus country, with the population scattered around in little pockets over
the flat, rich farmland. The buses have to over long distances from place to place carrying only a
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few passengers at a time. The bus companies argue that they don't make enough money on these
journeys, and that even using the money they make on the busy routes to pay for the less busy ones
they can't make ends meet. So they cut back the services. There are fewer buses. Fewer people find
the service they need. For some the care has taken over.

13. The little village 'lost its last contact with the outside world' because
a. Its railway station was closed down
b. It was cut off due to heavy snow
c. Its two bus routes were cancelled
d. Its communication links were snapped
14. For want of a transport system, the village people have to
a. Use their own cars
b. Walk long stretches to reach a bus stand
c. Stay indoors most of the time
d. Take lifts from vehicle owners passing the village
15. Lincolnshire is not a 'good bus country' because
a. It is a mountainous region
b. It is too poor to afford a good bus service
c. It is very far off from the mainland
d. Its population is distributed in small pockets over a vast region
16. The bus operators do not want to run their services in Lincolnshire because
a. It is not an economically sound proposition
b. It is risky to ply buses there
c. The passengers do not pay up the fare
d. There is shortage of buses with them
17. The withdrawal of the services has
a. Made the village residents have a sigh of relief
b. Left the village people cold and indifferent
c. Inconvenienced the village residents
d. Shocked the village residents beyond belief.

Passage III


One of the most mysterious, best preserved, least known and most remarkable archaeological
spectacles in the world is the immense complex of geometrical symbols, giant ground-drawings of
birds and animals, and hundreds of long, ruler-straight lines, some right across mountains, which
stretch over 1200 square miles of the tablelands at Nazca. It was first revealed to modern eyes in
1926 when three explorers looked down on the desert from a hillside at dusk and briefly saw a
Nazca line highlighted by the low slanting rays of the Sun. But it was not until the Peruvian air
force took aerial photographs in the 1940s that the full magnificence of the panorama was
apparent. It was as if a dozen deserted airports were spread out across the plains. Hundreds of
what looked like 'landing strips' for aircraft were revealed. Among the many abstract patterns were
a giant spider, a monkey, a shark, reptiles and flowers, all drawn on the ground on a huge scale.
18. The 'remarkable archaeological spectacles' described in the passage are
a. Geometrical symbols
b. Huge ground drawings
c. Nazca tablelands
d. Deserted airports
19. The initial view of the spectacle was not clear because
a. It was seen from a hillside
b. It was seen from aircrafts
c. It was seen in the evening
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d. It was offset by rays of Sun
20. The aerial photographs
a. Failed to reveal anything significant about the spectacle
b. Revealed a distorted view of the spectacle
c. revealed as much as was already known about the spectacle
d. Revealed the full magnificence of the spectacle

Answer Key 2

1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (b) 15. (d) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (d)
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Reading Exercise 3

Passage I


Unemployment is an important index of economic slack and lost output, but it is much more than
that. For the unemployment person, it is often a damaging affront to human dignity and
sometimes a catastrophic below to family life. Nor is this cost distributed in proportion to ability to
bear it. It falls most heavily on the young, the semiskilled and unskilled, the black person, the older
worker, and the underemployed person in a low income rural area who is denied the option of
securing more rewarding urban employment.
The concentrated incidence of unemployment among specific groups in the population means far
greater costs to society than can be measured simply in hours of involuntary idleness or dollars of
income lost. The extra costs include disruption of the careers of young people, increased juvenile
delinquency, and perpetuation of conditions which breed racial discrimination in employment and
otherwise deny equality of opportunity.
There is another and more subtle cost. The social and economic strains of prolonged under
utilization create strong pressures for cost-increasing solutions. On the side of labor, prolonged
high unemployment leads to "share-the-work" pressures for shorter hours, intensifies resistance to
technological change and to rationalization of work rules, and, in general, increases incentives for
restrictive and inefficient measures to protect existing jobs. On the side of business, the weakness
of markets leads to attempts to raise prices to cover high average overhead costs and to pressures
for protection against foreign and domestic competition. On the side of agriculture, higher prices
are necessary to achieve income objectives when urban and industrial demand for foods and fibres
is depressed and lack of opportunities for jobs and higher incomes in industry keep people on the
farm. In all these cases, the problems are real and the claims understandable. But the solutions
suggested raise costs and promote inefficiency. By no means the least of the advantages of full
utilization will be a diminution of these pressures. They will be weaker, and they can be more
firmly resisted in good conscience, when markets are generally strong and job opportunities are
plentiful.
The demand for labor is derived from the demand for the goods and services which labor
participates in producing. Thus, unemployment will be reduced to 4 percent of the labor force only
when the demand for the myriad of goods and services-automobiles, clothing, food, haircuts,
electric generators, highways, and so on-is sufficiently great in total to require the productive
efforts of 96 percent of the civilian labor force.
Although many goods are initially produced as materials or components to meet demands related
to the further production of other goods, all goods (and services) are ultimately destined to satisfy
demands that can, for convenience, be classified into four categories: consumer demand, business
demand for new plants and machinery and for additions to inventories, net export demand of
foreign buyers, and demand of government units, Federal, state, and local. Thus gross national
product (GNP), our total output, is the sum of four major components of expenditure; personal
consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports, and government
purchases of goods and services.
The primary line of attack on the problem of unemployment must be through measures which will
expand one or more of these components of demand. Once a satisfactory level of employment has
been achieved in a growing economy, economic stability requires the maintenance of a continuing
balance between growing productive capacity and growing demand. Action to expand demand is
called for not only when demand actually declines and recession appears but even when the rate of
growth of demand falls short of the rate of growth of capacity.
1. According to the passage, unemployment is an index of
a. over utilization of capacity
b. economic slack and lost output
c. diminished resources
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d. the employment rate
2. While unemployment is damaging to many. it falls most heavily upon all EXCEPT the
a. white middle class
b. semiskilled
c. unskilled
d. underemployed
3. The cost to society of unemployment can be measured by all EXCEPT
a. lost incomes
b. idleness
c. juvenile delinquency
d. the death rate
4. Serious unemployment leads labor groups to demand
a. more jobs by having everyone work shorter hours
b. higher wages to those employed
c. "no fire" policies
d. cost-cutting solutions
5. According to the passage, a typical business reaction to a recession is to press for
a. higher unemployment insurance
b. protection against imports
c. government action
d. restrictive business practices
6. The demand for labor is
a. a derived demand
b. declining
c. about
d percent of the total work force
e. underutilized
7. Gross national product (GNP) is it measure of
a. personal consumption
b. net exports
c. our total output
d. government purchases of goods and services
8. According to the passage, a satisfactory level of unemployment is
a. 85 percent of the civilian work force
b. 90 percent of the civilian work force
c. 4 percent unemployment
d. 2 percent unemployment

Passage II


Companies are increasingly under pressure to create the feel of a small organization without
sacrificing the benefits of size, says a global Accenture study titled "Liberating the Entrepreneurial
Spirit". This helps create flexible structures that can react quickly to changing environment, says
the study. The challenge is to get the organization out of the way and retain the small company
soul. This will make it easier for people to show the drive that is essential to entrepreneurial
behaviour. "While it is important to attract good people to work for the company, the more
important thing is to give them their independence; otherwise they will go away," the study says.
One way to make the staff feel more responsible is to break the organization down into smaller
units. As Sir Richard Branson, CEO of Virgin, says in the study, "Convention dictates that big is
beautiful, but every time big ventures get too big we divide them up into smaller units. The results
have been terrific. By the time we sold Virgin Music, we had as many as 50 subsidiary record
companies, and not one of them had more than 60 employees."
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Other organizational approaches include spin-offs, which have become popular in the business of
ecommerce, thus encouraging small-scale initiatives. For instance, Nokia runs a scheme that gives
seed money to employees who want to take an idea to the next level or try out an activity that is
new to them. According to the Accentor study, organizations are also putting increasing
importance on publicizing employee achievements. While rewarding success, leaders of
entrepreneurial companies also must be willing to reward - or at least not penalize - intelligent
failure.
Listen to what Peter Brabeck, CEO of Nestle Worldwide, has to say: "Every time I have to approve
a promotion, I ask, "What was the biggest mistake this person has made?" Because, if somebody
hasn't made a big mistake along the way, he hasn't had the courage to make big decisions. Or the
chance to learn.'
Drawing on a survey of 880 senior executives in 22 countries, Accentor has found that an
overwhelming 95 per cent believe that entrepreneurship is "important" to their success, but
executives are clearly nervous about giving their workforce the freedom to act. While 70 per cent
complain that their employees lack entrepreneurial spirit, half believe that it is possible for
employees to be 'too entrepreneurial'. Executives interviewed are confident of their own abilities;
however, 89 per cent say they are acting entrepreneurially.
A new style of leadership is required to create a genuinely entrepreneurial environment, says the
study. The focus should be on collaboration and effective teamwork rather than promotion of
individual maverick figures within the organization.
9. The author's line of argument - towards the beginning of the PASSAGE is well reflected in all of
the following, except.
a. Small is nimble.
b. Small is spiritualistic.
c. Small is better.
d. Small is flexible.
10. Which of the following is not one of the ironical findings of Accenture's study, as reported in
this passage?
a. Many executives discouraged inculcating a sense of entrepreneurial freedom among employees
and supported restricting it to a select few.
b. A lot of executives feared that their employees were just not fit to exercise the freedom that the
spirit of entrepreneurship was liable to afford them.
c. Many executives were not in favour of encouraging entrepreneurship among their employees
and thought that they themselves were entrepreneurs.
d. Some executives who thought they were entrepreneurs feared the potential impact of
widespread enterpreneurism.
11. It would seem many companies were convinced that
a. technological competence created greater entrepreneurial potential.
b. organizational gains were significantly, and necessarily, offset by "non-entrepreneurial" losses.
c. entrepreneurial motivation was characterized by a spirit of creative independence.
d. all of the above.
12. The said study stresses the greater value in retaining talent than obtaining it. This is
a. inferable
b. not inferable
c. partly true
d. possibly true
13. By seeking to reward intelligent failure, some companies were, essentially,
a. fostering strategical thinking among their employees
b. promoting the entrepreneurial spirit
c. discouraging maverick success stories
d. promoting failure for its educative value
14. 95% of the senior executives covered in the study can be said to be
a. nervous about their entrepreneurial abilities
14
b. certain that their own entrepreneurial capabilities mattered, above all else
c. convinced that their organizati success resulted from the "important" entrepreneurial roles
that they had played there
d. of the view that in business entrepreneurship mattered a great deal
Passage III


The West's intervention in Kosovo was a reaction to the Serb's final solution to the problems of the
recalcitrant province. After all, if you cannot change attitudes, change people. The Serbs attempted
to drive out the Albanian majority by using soldiers and civilians for mayhem and murder. It was
not an arbitrary, irrational act; it was merely the last inhuman escalation of a conflict that had
been lost in the mediaeval clashes between Islam and Christianity - their increasingly secular
descendants wage the same war, having learnt nothing and forgotten nothing in seven centuries.
A past of separate schooling, separate, histories and separate development, in different languages
with different scripts, has fuelled enough rancour in the Balkans to make Northern Ireland's
divisions look like a minor fraternal triff. The engine for all this hate was race and religion, the
most powerful social forces that "scientific socialism" attempted to airbrush out of politics and
history over a century ago. Yet those contemporary Marxists, who continue to explain this failed
genocide as the workings of a politics that was defending the gains of real socialism against the
threats of western-style privatisation, must still believe in the tooth fairy and Santa Claus. I say this
with enormous sadness. I fell as bereft as anyone whose faith has been shaken. I believed in the
universal truth. It is a lie. All the evidence here is to the contrary; there are those for whom mutual
misery is preferable-provided their own misery is marginally less acute than their neighbours' - to
a partnership in prosperity. Life is neither fair nor equitable. Nature, red in tooth and claw, is a
benign force in comparison to man's inhumanity to man. "Never again" will unfortunately be the
cry of tomorrow, not yesterday. I have seen the future and it stinks.
The West, after its bombing campaign, finally drove the Serb army out of Kosovo, saw it leave a
bloody trail of "goodbye" atrocities on the route of its withdrawal - with children shot, families
butchered and women raped. In the wake of these, elements of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
and their fellow travellers caused the Serbs left behind and their Roman "collaborators" to be
revisited upon by the very same atrocities, just before the West's troops arrived to prise the two
apart. Today, 12 months on, little has changed. The Serb armies have been cowed down by the
armour of the Kosovo Implementation Force (KFOR) and hamstrung by the new political dawn in
Belgrade. The Kosovo "nation in waiting" has a litter of political parties, which variously want
independence yesterday, today or tomorrow. The military wing of the PDK (Kosovo Democratic
Party) is taking the war and ethnic cleansing to Serbia, in areas near the border where there is an
Albanian majority, using the 5 km that separates Western troops from the Serb military to train,
exercise and fight. The military, which went into Kosovo for the best of motives, driven by a
political opinion generated by live coverage of misery and massacre, now despairs of ever getting
out. There is no exit strategy, and no promise - in a world where the new President of the United
States, George W Bush, said during the presidential election debates with former Vice-President Al
Gore that he wanted to pull the U.S. troops out - that European public opinion will continue to be
willing to allow Europe to shoulder this current burden, let alone take up a heavier load. The
cameras and Kate Adie have left, and organized crime and terrorism have arrived.
Today Pristina is virtually a Serb-free zone, its 200 or so remaining Serb families are huddled
together in a block of flats, with Royal Marine Commandos on 24-hour guard, afraid to go
shopping without an armed guard: the children go to Serb schools with military escort. Recently
someone fired a rocket grenade into a - luckily-empty flat. In the countryside, it is not much better.
Mixed villages have an occupying force of armed police, which did not prevent two Serb
pensioners, a husband and wife, from having their throats cut and being left to bleed to death in
their garden, sometime before christmas. Serb villages nestling in a sea of Albanians are like
15


isolated cantonments where inhabitants run the gauntlet every time they venture forth. To avoid
this, in some areas there are train services available only to Serbs. In reality they are economically
outside the rest of Kosovar society, with no jobs and no prospects, and in many cases dependent on
Serbian handouts and pensions.
All of which means that Kosovo is living a lie. The much-advertised return of the Serbs who
initially fled involves barely two hundred of them. The troops are merely freeze-framing a process
which, when released, will inevitably run on to the unmixing of the Serbs and Albanians within
Kosovo. They are doing a thankless task well; brought in to fight a war, they now have to act as
armed policemen, bodyguards and entrepreneurs trying to kickstart a parallel Serb economy in a
new system of apartheid. Some steps can be taken to assist the process. Agreeing to eliminate the
ribbon of territory around Kosovo, where its terrorists hide, will help a little. Changing the mix of
troops and civilians from the West can make a contribution. Main battle tanks are less useful than
people with the knowledge of renewable energy technologies in an environment where power
supply is fitful and Serb villages are right at the head of the list of areas where power is to be
switched off. Yet, in the end, it may well be that we have recognised that for the future Serbs and
Albanians are immiscible and the best way forward is to collude in a new kind of apartheid, where
within one "state" there are two "nations" that live parallel lives, lives that do not touch each other.
15. The self-evident truth is belied, says the author, because
A. there is evidence to believe that people are inherently cruel.
B. there are people who derive pleasure from the suffering of others.
C. no human action is in accordance with it.
D. societies are monocultural by nature, hence intolerant ones.
a. A and B
b. B and D
c. A, B and C
d. All of the above
16. Pick the odd man out.
a. Pristina
b. Kosovo
c. Belgrade
d. Serbia

Answer Key 3

1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (b) 15. (d) 16. (a)
16
Reading Exercise 4
Passage I


Among the continents, Europe is unique in several respects: its coast is the most indented of all, its
climate the most temperate, and it is the only continent the autonomy of which is culturally rather
than geographically determined. Europe is, in fact, only a peninsula of Asia, and, but for its
historical and cultural peculiarities, there would be no reason to view it as a separate continent. In
Europe, as in other areas of the world, geography is merely a conditioning and not a determining
factor in cultural evolution; this is reflected by the fact that its major cultural areas do not
correspond with its main topographical divisions. Not one of the large, more or less isolated
geographical divisions the British Isles or the Scandinavian, Iberian, or Balkan peninsulas, for
example is culturally homogeneous, for any tendency towards such cultural polarization has been
negated by numerous other influences, including linguistic, religious and political expansions and
repeated technical and social revolutions.
The ethno-cultural structure of Europe nevertheless shows more uniformity than is found in other
parts of the world. None of the other four continents succeeded as Europe did in realizing a racial
homogeneity such as Indo-European, a religious and moral order such as Christendom, an almost
unanimous defense of common values such as the Crusades and the campaigns against the Turks,
Tartars, and Moors, a common intellectual ethos such as Latinity, a uniform economic-political
structure such as feudalism, or such a great similarity of social structure, based on economic
classes. Explanations of this European cultural unity and of Europe's technical and economic
leadership tended in the 19th century to focus on the idea of the superior racial characteristics of
Europeans. Geographical and ecological explanations, however, seem at present to have a better
scientific basis. Among Europe's geographical advantages have been listed its variety of
landscapes, its climatic mildness, its wealth of natural resources, and a location that has left it
open to influences from Asia and Africa, thus minimizing the possibility of insular stagnation.
1. One of the reasons for classifying Europe as a separate continent is
a. It is a peninsula of Asia
b. Many major rivers run through it
c. It has special geographic features
d. It has its own cultural uniqueness
2. That it is not geography alone which shapes the cultural evolution of an area is sought to be
proved by the author by
a. The spread of Christendom in Europe
b. The success of the Crusades
c. The easy spread of Asian and African influences in Europe
d. The fact that geographically contiguous areas within Europe are culturally diverse
3. Crusades were undertaken by
a. The Turks to spread Islam
b. The British to spread their empire
c. Europeans to defend their common valued. By Tartars to spread the Latin language
4. An instance of European cultural homogeneity not mentioned in the passage is
a. The predominance of a language group
b. Similar social structures
c. A common religion
d. A feeling of racial superiority
5. It can be surmised that the author believes that
a. Europe should not be treated as a continent
b. Europeans cannot claim racial superiority over others
c. Balkan peninsula is culturally homogeneous
d. Ecology is a useful science
17
6. Europe, according to the author, escaped cultural isolation because
a. Of the uniform spread of Christianity
b. It has the most indented coastline
c. Of its geographic location
d. Of its technical and economic leadership
7. According to the author, feudalism was the dominant economic structure
a. In the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iberian and the Balkans
b. Among the moors
c. That led to the racial superiority of Europeans
d. Resulting from influences from Asia and Africa
8. The technical leadership of Europe is currently attributed, among other factors, to
a. The racial superiority of Europeans
b. Its climatic condition
c. Social homogeneity
d. Its being a peninsula of Asia
Passage II
When a new movement in Art attains a certain vogue, it is advisable to find out what its advocates
are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their tenets may seem today, it is possible
that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the
case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on
which it is based may be right it can hardly be classed as Literature. This, in brief, is what the
Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been continually speeding up, till now we
live in a world of noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions
have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new
form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We
must pour out a cataract of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or
finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use
many sizes of type and different coloured inks on the same page, and shorten of lengthen words at
will. Certainly their descriptions of battles are vividly chaotic. But it is a little disconcerting to read
in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian
officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river and then to find that the line consists of
the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: "Pluff! Pluff! a hundred and eighty-five
kilograms." This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be
classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition that
a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really
this: Have we essentially changed?
9. The main idea of this selection is best expressed as
a. The past versus the future
b. Merits of the Futurist movement
c. What constitutes literature
d. An evaluation of Futurist poetry
10. When novel ideas appear, it is desirable, according to the writer, to
a. Discover the aims of their adherents
b. Ignore them
c. Follow the fashion
d. Regard them as normal
11. The Futurists claim that we must
a. Increase the production of literature
b. Look to the future
c. Develop new literary forms
18
d. Avoid unusual words
12. The writer believes that Futurist poetry is
a. Too emotional
b. Too new in type to be acceptable
c. Not literature as he knows it
d. Essential to a basic change in the nature of mankind
13. The Futurist poet uses all the following devices EXCEPT
a. Imitative words
b. Qualifying adjectives
c. Different colored inks
d. A stream of essential words

Passage III


The universe consists almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, probably with less than 1 percent of
the heavier elements. The Earth, on the other hand, consists almost entirely of the heavier
elements. Helium is a very rare element on Earth, so rare in fact that it was first discovered as an
unidentified line in the Sun's spectrum in 1868, some 30 years before it was detected on Earth.
Hydrogen is moderately abundant on Earth, largely because it combines with oxygen to form
water, whereas helium is an inert element.
The variety of helium and the other inert gases neon, krypton, and xenon on earth is good evidence
that the Earth was formed by the accretion of small solid objects, or planetesimals. (Argon is a
special case, since most of the Earth's argon has been formed within the planet by the radioactive
decay of potassium.) These planetesimals had no atmosphere, and the atmosphere of the Earth has
been derived by the out gassing of combined occluded gases within these planetesimals. This
process has operated through-out geological history and is probably still continuing; volcanic
activity not only brings up solid material from the Earth's interior but also large amounts of gases,
principally water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, and nitrogen. The oxygen in the present
atmosphere is almost entirely the product of photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide and water
are converted to carbohydrate and free oxygen. Direct information on the composition of the
Earth's crust is available in the form of thousands of analyses of individual rocks, the average of
which provides a reasonably precise estimate of the bulk composition. For the mantle and the core
the information is indirect and thus much less precise. The origin of the Earth by the accretion of
planetesimals is a well-founded hypothesis, however, and meteorites are probably examples of
planetesimals that have survived from the preplanetary stage of the solar system. It thus seems
likely that the Earth was formed by the accretion of solid bodies with the average composition of
stony meteorites. The accretion process, however, led to massive segregation of the elements.
Much of the iron was reduced to the metallic state and sank to the centre to form the core, carrying
with it the major part of the siderophile elements. Lithophile elements, those with a greater affinity
for oxygen than iron, combined as oxide compounds, mostly silicates, and provided material for
the mantle and crust. Chalcophile elements would tend to form sulphides; however, few sulphides
are stable at the high temperatures of the Earth's interior, so the fate of the Chalcophile elements
during the early history of the Earth is somewhat uncertain. This primary geochemical
differentiation of the Earth can be interpreted in terms of the system iron-magnesium-silicon-
oxygen-sulphur, because five elements make up about 95 percent of the Earth. There was
insufficient oxygen to combine with the major metallic elements iron, magnesium, and silicon;
because magnesium and silicon have a greater affinity for oxygen than iron, these elements
combined completely with oxygen, and the remaining oxygen combined with part of the iron,
leaving the remainder as the metal iron and iron sulphide. As indicated above, the metal sank to
form the core, carrying with it the major part of the chalcophile elements; it does not seem to have
formed a distinct shell within the Earth and probably remains primarily in disseminated form
through the mantle and the core.
19


14. The prolific occurrence of hydrogen on earth is accounted for by the fact that
a. It is a predominant component of the whole universe
b. The earth consists of a number of heavy elements which combine with it
c. The earth was formed out of a number of planetesimals
d. It is a component of water which forms two thirds of the earth's surface
15. One of the common features of helium and hydrogen is
a. Both are inert gases
b. Both of them were first discovered in the sun
c. Both occur in abundance in the universe
d. Both occur during volcanic eruptions
16. The components of the earth's atmosphere occurred out of all of the following except
a.. Eruption of volcanoes
b. Photosynthesis by plants
c. Meteorites hitting the earth
d. Occluded gases with in planetesimals
17. One of the elements that has a greater affinity for oxygen than iron is (as explicitly stated in the
passage)
a. Silicon
b. Helium
c. Sulphur
d. Mantle
18. Elements which combine more readily with iron than with oxygen are called
a. Lithophiles
b. Chalcophiles
c. Siderophiles
d. Disseminated
19. It can be surmised that, if more oxygen were available at the time of formation of the earth
a. There would have been more water on the earth
b. The earth's formation might not have taken place at all
c. There would have been more helium on earth
d. There would have been less of iron sulfide in the earth's composition
20. Helium was first discovered on earth
a. Through spectrography
b. In 1838
c. In 1868
d. In 1898

Answer Key 4

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (c)
11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (d) 17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (c)
20


Reading Exercise 5

Passage I


Establishment of an independent republic does not necessarily mean democratic government. In
Latin America, the new Governments fell under the control of wealthy and aristocratic landowners,
almost invariably of European blood. The masses of poor, illiterate persons knew nothing of self-
government and civil rights, and they raised no objections to he new masters who had replaced the
Spanish authorities. Constitutions were drafted, and elections were held; all the machinery of
democratic government was apparently in operation. But, in reality, governments were dominated
by small groups of politicians and aristocrats headed by a 'caudillo' or dictator. When an
administration fell, the only change was in the new oligarchy which assumed power. Although the
masses took little interest in politics first, they increasingly began to realise their power as a
political force. Unions have been organised in the industrial centres and have given workers a
feeling of unity and power. Illiteracy, as indicated above, is being reduced by large scale public
education. Immigrants from European countries, some of them with a liberal or left wing
background, have encouraged the common people to challenge the power of the ruling groups.
Poor economic conditions have aroused many workers and landless farmers from their
indifference and pushed them into political activity. The countries of Latin America in which
constitutional government and popular participation in politics seem most firmly established are
Costa Rica, Uruguay, Mexico and Chile.
Unrest, revolution, and bloodshed are common conditions in Latin America. Between 1940 and
1959, over 30 major revolutions occurred. In most of these, however, the masses played little part,
and the results seldom disturbed the pattern of oppressive dictatorship. But democratic winds are
blowing. The fact that there are now few old-style dictators left in Latin American is proof that the
people are becoming politically mature.
1. The masses in Latin America are becoming politically mature due to all the following reasons
except
a. Combating illiteracy
b. Forming unions
c. Turning all their governments into democracies
d. Challenging the power of entrenched political groups
2. Latin American is characterised by
a. Frequent revolutions
b. A high state of literacy
c. A large middle class
d. A liberal ruling class
3. The passage refers to the existence of democracy in
a. Haiti
b. Argentina
c. Ecuador
d. Chile
4. One of the problems facing Latin American is her lack of
a. Trade with other countries
b. Natural resources
c. Methods of combating depletion of natural resource
d. A strong articulate middle class
5. Many workers in Latin American have now been aroused from their indifference by their
a. Illiteracy
b. Lack of self-government
c. Poor economic conditions
d. Lack of civil rights
21


6. The revolutions between 1940 and 1960 were caused by
a. Arousal of masses
b. Military
c. Feuding aristocratic groups
d. Communists
7. Independent governments in Latin America. Are always democratic
b. Are seldom democratic
c. Are communist dominated
d. Are propped up by foreign governments

Passage II


It is an old saying that knowledge is power. Education is an instrument which imparts knowledge
and, therefore, indirectly controls power. Therefore, ever since the dawn of civilisation, persons in
power have always tried to supervise or control education. During the Christian era, the
ecclesiastics controlled the institutions of education and diffused among the people the gospel of
the Bible and religious teachings. The gospels and teachings were nothing but a philosophy for the
maintenance of the existing society. It taught the poor man to be weak and to earn his bread with
the sweat of his brow, while the priests and the landlords lived in luxury, and fought duels for the
slightest offence. During the Renaissance, education passed more from the clutches of the priest
into the hands of the prince. In other words, it became more secular. It was also due to the growth
of the nation-states and the powerful monarchs who united countries under their rule. Thus, under
the control of monarchs, education began to devise and preach the infallibility of its master, the
monarch or king. It also invented and supported such fantastic theories like the Divine Right
theory, and that the king can do no wrong etc. With the advent of the industrial revolution,
education took a different turn, and had to please the new masters. It now no longer remained the
privilege of the baron class, but was thrown open to the new merchant-class of the society. Yet,
education was still confined to the new elite. The philosophy which was in vogue during this period
was that of 'laissez faire', restricting the function of the State to the keeping of law and order, while,
in fact, it was the law of the jungle which prevailed in the form of free competition and the survival
of the fittest.

8. Why have persons in power always tried to supervise and control education?
a. Because they wanted to educate the whole public
b. Because they wanted to deprive the common man of the benefit of education
c. Because it involved a huge expenditure to the state exchequer
d. Because it is an instrument of knowledge and therefore of power.
9. Who controlled the institution of education during the Christian era?
a. The church and the priests
b. The monarchs
c. The secular leaders of society
d. The common people
10. Who controlled education during the Renaissance period?
a. The merchant class
b. The prince
c. The priests
d. The new elite
11. What does the philosophy of 'laissez faire' stand for?
a. Individual freedom in the economic field
b. Full development of the individual's personality
c. Universal education
d. Rule by the merchant class
22
12. What did the theory of Divine Right of Kings stipulate?
a. The king is God
b. The kings have a right to expect that they be worshipped as God
c. The right of governing has been conferred upon kings by God and therefore they cannot be
questioned
d. The kings can control temples
13. What did the ruling class in the Christian era think of the poor?
a. They are beloved of God
b. They deserved the sympathy of the rich
c. They had to be educated like the rich
d. They should be weak and earn their livelihood through hard work.
14. The 'law of the jungle' is synonymous with
a. The rule by business elite
b. The theory that the strongest will be most successful
c. The rule by the uneducated
d. Maintenance of law and order
15. 'Laissez faire' was the result of
a. The Renaissance
b. The Divine Right theory
c. Industrial Revolution
d. The growth of the nation-states

Passage III


Ferns thrive in climates ranging from barren deserts to the frozen Arctic. Moreover their fifteen
thousand kinds include tree ferns eighty feet tall and filmy ferns of under an inch. The
reproductive agents of ferns are spores, which although microscopic, serve as scientific tools in
several ways. Besides providing insight into plant ecology and evolution, they are an important
guide ion dating geologic formations. The highly individualised shapes of spores from different
species of ferns have proved an unexpected asset to petroleum geologists. Being commonplace,
widely dispersed, and tough, the spores of ancient ferns entered the fossil record in great numbers.
By studying these fossil spores, experts can tell a good deal about how those ancient plants
evolved. And because they know the times when the various species lived, they can take vertical
'core' samples of rock strata in unfamiliar regions, identify particular types of fossil spores in these
strata, and thereby determine the time when the spore-bearing formations were laid down.
This dating process plays a key role in the oil business, where knowing how deep to drill
exploratory wells is critical. Too shallow a bore-hole will fail to reach oil, whereas too deep a hole
will raise costs. The oil expert's answer is to learn progressively the ages of the rocks struck by
exploring drills. When boring exploratory wells, oil drillers routinely take core samples of the rock
strata encountered by the drill. Many strata between 200 and 400 million years old typically
contain fern spores. And since petroleum geologists generally know the ages of the oil-bearing
strata they seek, spore dating can often tell them whether to stop drilling or proceed.
16. The first two sentences of the passage serve primarily to
a. Describe what a fern is and how it functions
b. Emphasise the diversity and widespread nature of ferns
c. Explain why different ferns function in different ways
d. Introduce a description of the fern's reproductive process
17. According to the passage, determination of the ages of rock strata takes advantage of which of
the following characteristics of ferns?
I. Fern spores can be seen only with a microscope
II. Spores of different species have different shapes
23


III. Different species of ferns became extinct at different times
a. III only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. I. II and III
18. Petroleum geologists would be likely to order a stop to deeper drilling if they found which of
the following?
a. Spores of ferns of an unwieldy size
b. Fern spores older than the strata being sought
c. Rock strata containing several kinds of fern spores
d. Spores from any extinct fern species
19. It is likely that, for purposes of dating, the most precise information would come from the
spores of ferns that
a. Existed for a relatively short time
b. Ranged over a variety of geographic conditions
c. Attained a relatively large height
d. Never became fossilized
20. The criticality of the prior knowledge of the projected depth of an oil well arises out of
I. The urgency of production of oil
II. The need to minimise the cost
III. Avoiding the risk of missing a potential oil reserve by not drilling deep enough
a. I only
b. II only
c. II and III
d. I, II and III

Answer Key 5

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (d)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (c) 16. (b) 17. (d) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (b)
24
Reading Exercise 6
Passage I


Man is a singular creature. He has a set of gifts which make him unique among the animals: so
that, unlike them he is not a figure in the landscape - he is a shaper of the landscape. In body and
in mind he is the explorer of nature, the ubiquitous animal, who did not find but has made his
home in every continent. It is reported that when the Spaniards arrived overland at the Pacific
Ocean in 1769 the California Indians used to say that at full moon the fish came and danced on
these beaches. And it is true that there is a local variety of fish, the grunion, that comes up out of
the water and lays its eggs above the normal high-tide mark. The females bury themselves tail first
in the sand and the males gyrate round them and fertilise the eggs as they are being laid. The full
moon is important, because it gives the time needed for the eggs to incubate undisturbed in the
sand, nine or ten days, between these very high tides and the next ones that will wash the hatched
fish out to sea again. Every landscape in the world is full of these exact and beautiful adaptations,
by which an animal fits into its environment like one cog-wheel into another. The sleeping
hedgehog waits for the spring to burst its metabolism into life. The humming-bird beats the air
and dips its needle fine beak into hanging blossoms. Butterflies mimic leaves and even noxious
creatures to deceive their predators. The mold plods through the ground as if he had been designed
as a mechanical shuttle. So millions of years of evolution have shaped the grunion to fit and sit
exactly with the tides. But nature - that is, biological evolution - has not fitted man to any specific
environment. On the contrary, by comparison with the grunion, he has a rather crude survival kit;
and yet - this is the paradox of the human condition - one that fits him to all environments. Among
the multitude of animals which scamper, fly, burrow and swim around us, man is the only one who
is not locked into his environment. His imagination, his reason, his emotional subtlety and
toughness, make it possible for him not to accept the environment but to change it. And that series
of inventions, by which man from age to age has remade his environment, is a different kind of
evolution - not biological, but cultural evolution. I call that brilliant sequence of cultural peaks the
Ascent of Man.
1. The grunions lay eggs on full-moon day because
a. They need light for doing so
b. They cannot incubate during darkness
c. The male grunion needs light to gyrate round them
d. They have to seek space above the high-tide mark
2. The example of the grunion is given in order to
a. Highlight the observant nature of California Indians
b. Describe the hatching habits of a species of fish
c. Illustrate the adaptation of a creature to its environment
d. Highlight the part played by the moon in fisheries
3. The main difference between man and other animals is that
a. He can climb cultural peaks
b. He has a crude survival kit
c. His evolution is more cultural than biological
d. He can observe the habits of other creatures
4. Man is a ubiquitous animal because
a. He can change the environment
b. He has a crude survival kit
c. Nature has not fitted him into any specific environment
d. He has made his home in every environment
5. What is the paradox of the human condition?
a. He has been able to cross Pacific Ocean overland
b. He is not fitted to any specific environment, and therefore can live under any environment
25
c. Man has changed his environment from age to age
d. Man is the only animal capable of scampering, flying, burrowing and swimming

Passage II


The question whether law and liberty are antithetical or friendly to each other has baffled the
scholars for a long time. Diametrically opposite views have been expressed on this issue. On the
one hand the Idealists hold that the State is an embodiment of reason and justice and its laws
promote and strengthen individual liberty. Laws not only protect the rights and liberties of the
people but also provide conditions for the development of human faculties. The state by enacting
laws for compulsory education, regulation of working hours etc, tries to protect and promote the
interests of the children and weaker sections. No doubt, the state is a useful institution and aims at
general welfare, but it would be wrong to categorically state that all laws promote individual
liberty. If the laws are enacted by the ruling class strengthening its own position, such laws shall
certainly lead to curtailment of liberty and may even result in a type of bondage. Usually the laws
made by the despotic rulers curtail human liberty and blind obedience to such laws is suicidal for
human development.
According to the other views expressed by the Individualists and Anarchists, the law and the
liberty are antithesis to each other. Each law puts certain restrictions on individual liberty and the
more of one leads to the less of the other. In other words they assert that law and liberty are always
in inverse ratio. The Individualists consider the state as a 'necessary evil.' It is necessary because of
the selfish nature of man and the existence of crime. But it is nonetheless an evil because every
action of the state implies a restriction on the liberty of the individual. The Anarchists go a step
further and assert that the state is 'an unnecessary evil'. They consider the state as a positive
instrument of oppression and want to do away with it at the earliest. They believe that the
individual shall be able to enjoy real liberty only when the state disappears.
The view of the Individualists and Anarchists seem to be incorrect in so far as they take liberty in
absolute terms and envisage the absence of all restraints on the conduct of the individual. Actually
the laws are enacted to regulate the social behaviour of the people and they invariable impose
certain restraints in the larger interest of the society. In the absence of such laws or restraints
liberty would mean merely the liberty of the strong and give rise to chaos and disorder. As liberty is
meant for all the sections of society, restrictions are essential for its enjoyment by all.
Thus both views are not fully correct. We cannot say for certain that all laws promote liberty, as we
cannot say that all laws curtail liberty. In fact much depends on the nature and the contents of the
laws. Generally, the laws made by democratic bodies promote liberty because the elected
representatives of the people give due consideration to the wishes and interests of the people while
enacting these laws. In a modern welfare state, the government has to enact a large number of laws
with a view to provide facilities for the maximum development of the members of society. With a
view to provide equal facilities to all the sections, it has to impose certain restraints on the liberty
of the stronger people. In the absence of such restraints or regulations, the liberty will be the
exclusive prerogative of the strong, and the liberty of the weak will be fully dependent on the will of
the strong. Viewed in this sense, law promotes liberty.
6. The view with which Idealists are not likely to agree is
a. Many of the laws enacted by the state are nor useful for the citizens
b. The children and weaker sections have to be protected through laws which may seem to curtail
individual liberty
c. Since a state is an embodiment of reason and justice, a citizen must implicitly obey the laws
made by it
d. Laws provide conditions for the promotion of human faculties
7. Which two groups of people are nearest in agreement in regard to the need of the state?
a. Idealists and Individualists
b. Idealists and Anarchists
26


c. Individualists and Anarchists
d. The author and the Anarchists
8. In this passage, the author is trying to
a. Widen the gap between the views of various groups
b. Reconcile the views of various groups
c. Distort the views of various groups
d. Argue for the abolition of the state
9. The individualists consider the state a 'necessary' evil because
a. It protects them against Anarchists
b. It provides jobs to many
c. It provides compulsory education
d. Man is basically selfish and, if unchecked, is likely to indulge in crimes
10. The author justifies laws because they
a. Protect the minority rich against crimes by the majority poor
b. Are made by democratic bodies
c. Generally protect the weak against the strong
d. Result in a type of bondage
11. The laws of the modern society are mainly intended to
a. Regulate international trade
b. Protect the interests of the rich
c. Provide conditions for the development of the citizens
d. Curtail individual liberties
12. Which of the following laws will the author not support?
a. Compulsory hanging of a murderer
b. Law fixing minimum age of factory workers
c. Detention of a person who lectures against a Prime Minister
d. Compelling parents to send their children to school
13. The passage has most probably been taken from
a. A campaign speech in an election
b. A book review
c. A book on political theory
d. A book on economics and law

Passage III


In the nations of Western Europe and North America, where industrialisation began, economic
growth was a slow and extended process of acquiring capital, resources, learning and technology.
The activities involved in moving from invention to application, and then on to investment and
finally to return, spanned decades. In the United States, for example, it took about 200 years to go
from $250 to about $7,000 in per capita GNP; the process went much faster in Japan, but still it
took more than a century to go from about $100 to about $4,000. Today we would expect the
process to go much more rapidly in many of the developing nations, the central reason for this
being the existence of the gap between the developed and the developing that many deplore as the
source and cause of underdevelopment. In the following pages we will describe 10 forces that will
aid this growth, each unique to the developing nations and each taking advantage of the gap
between them and the developed nations. But before going on to examine these positive factors, we
must first note that there are many aspects of the current world environment that do not facilitate
development - that is, ways in which the developed nations might actually impede or even reverse
progress in the developing nations. Some of them are: excessive destruction or damage to
indigenous social structures, morale or traditional beliefs and character; the generation of
excessive expectations; harmful or excessive exploitation by foreigners; political and social unrest
and other strains caused by the foreign presence itself; misplaced benevolence; and harmful
27


fashions or ideologies. Probably most important among these are the many effects that can result
from the impact of two cultures on each other - particularly when one of the cultures is more
modern and powerful, or at least is judged to have many features that seem worth adopting. The
impacted culture can develop a rather severe inferiority complex or other pathology. Many experts
once considered this desirable in that they saw the goal of development as the breaking apart of the
old society and the rebuilding of a new society more or less along Western lines. But this view has
generally been replaced by the belief that there should be mutual adaptation. The Japanese, and to
some degree the Chinese, have shown us that it is often very worthwhile to save much of the old
society, to attempt to reform, modify and adapt the new techniques, technologies and institutions
so as to fit them into the existing framework - and, of course, vice versa. It now seems likely that
each society that successfully modernises will find it's own way to industrialisation and then
eventually to a post-industrial society. Thus this process may be analogous to the perspective
common to Asian religious in which there are "many mountains up to God and many roads up
each mountain".
14. According to the author, the gap between the developed and developing nations
a. Is capable of accelerating the development of the latter
b. Is likely to impede the development of the latter
c. Can never be bridged
d. Will invariable break up the old society in developing nations
15. According to the author, the Japanese have
a. Successfully synthesised the desirable aspects of both the old society and the new culture.
b. Grown faster than the Chinese
c. Reached the per capita GNP of US in 100 years
d. Reached the post-industrial stage.
16. The world situation has been poised to
a. Result in the unimpeded growth of developing nations
b. The unhindered exploitation of the developing nations by the richer ones
c. Aid the growth of developing nations provided the supporting factors are exploited properly
d. Bring about a homogeneity in world culture
17. According to the author, the developing nations
a. Will all develop on the same pattern
b. Will be excessively exploited by foreigners
c. Are likely to develop each in its own unique way
d. Will need massive aid from developed countries for growth
18. The phrase 'misplaced benevolence' in the passage means
a. Aid to a wrong country
b. Military aid
c. Aid that perpetuates dependence
d. Aid that is misappropriated
19. The tone of the author of the passage is
a. Unduly harsh
b. Objective
c. Humorous
d. Pedantic

Answer Key 6

1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (c)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (a) 16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (b)
28
Reading Exercise 7
Passage I


Many people seem to think that science fiction is typified by the covers of some of the old pulp
magazines: the Bug- Eyed Monster, embodying every trait and feature that most people find
repulsive, is about to grab, and presumably ravish, a sweet, blonde, curvaceous, scantily-clad Earth
girl. This is unfortunate because it demeans and degrades a worthwhile and even important
literary endeavour. In contrast to this unwarranted stereotype, science fiction rarely emphasises
sex, and when it does, it is more discreet than other contemporary fiction. Instead, the basic
interest of science fiction lies in the relation between man and his technology and between man
and the universe. Science fiction is a literature of change and a literature of the future, and while it
would be foolish to claim that science fiction is a major literary genre at this time, the aspects of
human life that it considers make it well worth reading and studying - - for no other literary form
does quite the same things.
The question is: what is science fiction? And the answer must be, unfortunately, that there have
been few attempts to consider this question at any length or with such seriousness; it may well be
that science fiction will resist any comprehensive definition of its characteristics. To say this,
however, does not mean that there are no ways of defining it nor that various facets of its totality
cannot be clarified. To begin, the following definition should be helpful: science fiction is a literary
sub- genre which postulates a change (for human beings) from conditions as we know them and
follows the implications of these changes to a conclusion. Although this definition will necessarily
be modified and expanded, and probably changed, in the course of this exploration, it covers much
of the basic groundwork and provides a point of departure.
This first point - - that science fiction is a literary sub-genre - - is a very important one, but one
which is often over-looked or ignored in most discussions of science fiction. Specifically, science
fiction is a sub-genre of prose fiction, for nearly every piece of science fiction is either a short story
or a novel. There are only a few dramas which could be called science fiction, with Karel Capekis
RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots) being the only one that is well known; the body of poetry that
might be labelled science fiction is only slightly larger. To say that science fiction is a sub-genre of
prose fiction is to say that it has all the basic characteristics and serves the same basic functions in
much the same way as prose fiction in general - - that is, it shares a great deal with all other novels
and short stories.
Everything that can be said about prose fiction, in general applies to science fiction. Every piece of
science fiction, whether short story or novel, must have a narrator, a story, a plot, a setting,
characters, language and theme. And like, any prose, the themes of science fiction are concerned
with interpreting man's nature and experience in relation to the world around him. Themes in
science fiction are constructed and presented in exactly the same ways that themes are dealt with
in any other kind of fiction. They are the result of a particular combination of narrator, story, plot,
character, setting, and language. In short, the reasons for reading and enjoying science fiction, and
the ways of studying and analysing it, are basically the same as they would be for any other story or
novel.

1. Science fiction is called a literary sub-genre because
a. It is not important enough to be a literary genre
b. It cannot be made into a dramatic presentation
c. It has its limits
d. It shares characteristics with other types of prose fiction
2. Which of the following does not usually contribute to the theme in a piece of science fiction?
a. Character
b. Plot
c. Setting
29
d. Rhyme
3. The view of science fiction encouraged by pulp magazines, while wrong, is nevertheless
a. Popular
b. Elegant
c. Fashionable
d. Deranged
4. An appropriate title for this passage would be
a. On the Inaccuracies of Pulp Magazines
b. Man and the Universe
c. Toward a definition of Science Fiction
d. A Type of Prose Fiction
5. The author's definition suggests that all science fiction deals with
a. Monsters
b. The same topics addressed by novels and short stories
c. The unfamiliar or unusual
d. The conflict between science and fiction
Passage II
The demographic transition, a conceptual device used by demographers to explain the relationship
between population growth and levels of development, has three stages. In the first, which
characterises traditional societies, both birth and death rates are high. Societies have existed under
these circumstances for long stretches, for thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years,
without any appreciable change in population size. Births and deaths are largely in balance. In the
second portion of the demographic transition, living conditions get better as public health
improves, vaccines become available, and food production expands. In this stage births remain
high but deaths fall. The result is rapid population growth. A society at this point would typically
have a crude birth rate of 45 and crude death rate of 15, yielding an annual population growth of 3
per cent. The third stage sees living conditions improve further, birth control become widely
available and used, and births declining to again roughly offset deaths. A balance between births
and deaths in a modern society usually occurs with crude birth and death rates of around 13. The
United Kingdom, West Germany, and Hungary are among the dozen or so countries that have
completed the demographic transition, re-establishing an equilibrium between births and deaths.
Societies can remain in either the first or the final stage of the demographic transition indefinitely.
This is not true, however, of the middle phase. Populations growing at 3 percent per year multiply
twenty-fold in a century. Many developing countries have been in the middle stage since roughly
mid-century. Those now in the fourth decade of 3 percent annual population growth are en-route
to the twenty-fold increase in a century that this arithmetic dictates. Unfortunately, it is difficult to
imagine any country, even one that was sparsely populated at mid-century, surviving such an
increase with its biological support systems and social institutions intact. The evidence of recent
years suggests that countries stuck in the second stage of more than a few decades experience
mounting population pressures, pressures that eventually destroy forests, grasslands, and
croplands. As these resources deteriorate, mortality rates begin to rise to re-establish the balance
between births and deaths that nature demands. Countries that do not make it to the demographic
equilibrium of the third stage will eventually return to the demographic equilibrium of the first.
Nature provides no long-term alternative. The mechanics of this "demographic regression", rooted
in the changing balance between population size and basic resources, are becoming clear. For
countries that remain in the second stage for an extended period, population growth eventually
shrinks the cropland per person. Such areas are also likely to be losing topsoil due to erosion. In
these situations, the technological advances in agriculture - - plus any increases in fertiliser use
that can be afforded - - may not be sufficient to maintain per capita food production. The
government must either use foreign exchange to import food or obtain food assistance from
30


abroad. Because societies in the middle stage of the demographic transition are largely agrarian, a
decline in per capita food production invariably translates into a decline in per capita income.
6. All the following are significant features of the second stage in demographic transition except
a. Improvement of public heath
b. Destruction of forests
c. Depletion of foreign exchange
d. Democratisation of politics
7. Countries stuck in the second stage for a long time are likely to return to the first stage because
of
a. Decline in birth rate
b. Decline in death rate
c. Increase in death rate
d. Increase in birth rate
8. The equilibrium between births and deaths is re-established in the third stage countries through
a. Decline birth rates
b. Increasing death rates
c. Better health facilities
d. Stabilisation of birth & death rates at 3%
9. The per capita income of a second stage country
a. Increases because of use of fertilisers
b. Increases because of saving of foreign exchange
c. Decreases because of limitation of basic resources
d. Remains stable because of decreasing population
10. The demographic history of various countries shows
a. The countries can remain in the first stage for centuries
b. The countries have remained in the third stage for centuries
c. The countries pass through the three stages in recurring cycles
d. The birth rate has been 13 per thousand since the beginning of history
11. The crude birth rate and crude death rate are calculated
a. As a percentage of the population
b. As a percentage of the per capita income
c. As a ratio of the total land area to the population
d. On a base of per thousand of population

Passage III


Fabianism has been subjected to criticism on numerous grounds. In the first place Prof. H. G.
Wells says it carries an ambiguous legacy. The Fabians claimed to believe in the principles and
tactics of Roman General Fabius viz "to wait and strike hard when the opportune time comes". At
the same they also professed faith in constitutional and peaceful methods. There is a clear
contradiction between their belief in striking hard at the opportune time and faith in constitutional
and peaceful methods. Secondly, the Febians have been criticised for lack of honest and straight-
forwardness. The Fabian writers do not speak out plainly and shift their stand according to
circumstances. In view of this shifting stand some critics level a charge of opportunism against
them. Third, the Fabians were not practical people and relied too much on methods like
persuasion, change of heart, improvement of human nature etc, to bring about socialism. Fourth,
the Febians assign enormous functions to the state, which posed a serious threat to the freedom of
the individual. It is wrong to assume that every increase in the activities of the state is a step
forward in the direction of socialism. The state machinery represented by its army of civil servants
can be as great an exploiter as the capitalists. Fifth, the Fabians favoured payment of
compensation to the landlords and industrialists on nationalisation which has also been criticised.
Though they do not use the term compensation and prefer to use the term 'appropriate relief',
31


there is no difference between the two. According to Laski, if large scale nationalisation is resorted
to, huge compensation or 'appropriate relief' shall have to be provided. This shall necessitate heavy
public taxation. All this is likely to aggravate rather than solve the problem. He, therefore, favours
only partial payment of compensation.Finally, some critics say that Fabians were not genuine
socialists but put forward a moderate philosophy to curb the revolutionary urge of the working
classes for their liberation from the capitalist yoke. In fact, they wanted to perpetuate capitalism by
suggesting certain parliamentary reforms and minor adjustments with a view to placate the
working classes. Despite the above criticism of Fabians it cannot be denied that they made valuable
contributions to the labour movement in England. They tried to bring about a harmonious
blending of the individualism and Marxism, avoiding the pitfalls of both.
12. Fabians have been criticised on all the following grounds except
a. Contradiction between their methods and objectives
b. Supporting military dictatorship
c. Advocating a method which would ultimately curb civil rights
d. Perpetuation of capitalism.
13. The author considers that individualism
a. Is impractical
b. Has pitfalls
c. Is rooted on faith in revolutions
d. Was the tenet of the Roman General
14. Fabians are considered to be opportunities by some critics because
a. They indirectly support landlords
b. They have an ambiguous legacy
c. They often exhibit inconsistency in their standd. They are as great exploiters as capitalists
15. Payment of compensation to landlords and industrialists will result in
a. Fabianism
b. Marxism
c. Parliamentary reforms
d. New taxation measures
16. Fabians were not considered genuine socialists by some critics because
a. They followed a Roman General
b. They opposed Marx
c. They did not advocate harsh methods
d. They aimed to placate the labour while sub-serving the interests of capitalist classes.

Answer Key 7

1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (a)
11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (d) 16. (d)
32
Reading Exercise 8
Passage I


Atheism is the denial of God as the first principle and is thus anti-theism, the opposite of theism.
The words atheist and atheism can be found as early as in the works of Plato: they recur in the
Christian Era in the Letter of Paul to the Ephesians and in the works of the Fathers of the Church,
where, for example, St. Ignatius of Antioch attacks the pagans, calling them atheist, and Justin
Mestyr defends the Christians, claiming that they adore the true God and are thus not atheists.
Atheism is opposed to any religion or worship of God; this is indicated by the synonym for atheist:
freethinker. To many of its theological critics, atheism is synonymous with impiety, irreligion,
disbelief, and even moral corruption, on the ground that every principle and every higher ethical
law is rejected.
Atheism can be divided into theoretical atheism and practical atheism. Theoretical atheism is the
denial of God based upon a system of thought that excludes the possibility of the existence of the
Absolute. Practical atheism is the denial of god as reflected in the way one conducts his private and
public life, leaving the question of God out of consideration and basing conduct solely on finite
values. Theoretical atheism can be either negative or positive. Explicit negative theoretical atheism
is attributed to those who unequivocally deny the existence of God and who suppose a concept of
the world and of the destiny of man that radically excludes the necessity of the transcendent first
principle or of an immortal human soul. Implicit negative theoretical atheism, or crypto-atheism,
is attributed to those who, although they affirm the existence of God or of the Absolute, deprive
him of some essential attribute. This type of atheism is also known as atheism "by consequence".
The encyclopaedia prepared by the 18th-century French philosophers Denis Diderot and Jean d'
Alembert equates skepticism (which questions the ability of the human mind to know),
indifferentism (which states that all religions are equally valid), and even agnosticism (which
claims that the question of God's existence cannot be answered) with negative atheism because
they close off all the paths that lead to God.
Positive theoretical atheism, which predominates in modern thought, replaces the
acknowledgement of the transcendent first principle with the autonomy of the subjective thinking
element (the cogito) within man and action, freedom and necessity; for the transcendence of God
and for personal immortality, it substitutes the emergence of man in the world. Theoretical
atheism, insofar as it is a vindication of the total autonomy of man and of his absolute freedom, is
also called postulated atheism in the sense that God cannot and must not exist if man is to be
guaranteed freedom and responsibility for his duties and his actions. Positive atheism is thus an
anthropological atheism in which God is replaced by man.
Practical atheism consists of ignoring or neglecting any relationship to God in one's actions, or in
living as if God did not exist. According to Paul, in the letter to Titus, it is the situation of those
who claim to know God but deny him in the things they do. Practical atheism, therefore, involves
the orientation of one's life exclusively toward the attainment of earthly goals.
1. Among modern atheists, the most popular theory is
a. Explicit negative theoretical atheism
b. Implicit negative theoretical atheism
c. Skepticism
d. Positive theoretical atheism
2. In one his letters, Paul had equated atheism with
a. The adoration of the true God
b. The knowledge of God but denial of him in the things one does
c. Opposition to any religion or acknowledgement of God
d. The inability of the human mind to know of the existence of an Absolute.
3. The difference between explicit theoretical atheism and implicit theoretical atheism is
a. Regarding the ability of the human mind to think to things other than worldly
33
b. Regarding whether the question of God's existence can be answered or not
c. That the former supports practical atheism while the latter questions it
d. That the former denies the existence of God while the latter affirms it
4. The positive atheism postulates the incompatibility of
a. Man and his free actions
b. Transcendence of God and man's personal immortality
c. Existence of God and man's freedom for performing his duties
d. Man's knowledge and his being
5. Critics of atheism hold that
a. It is sinful to deny the existence of God
b. God should not be replaced by Man in one's thinking
c. It rejects not only the existence of God, but every principle and every higher ethical law
d. It closes off all the paths that lead to God
5. The philosophies which have been considered to be alike by some scholars are
a. Agnosticism, skepticism, indifferentism and negative atheism
b. Positive atheism, practical atheism and agnosticism
c. Anthropological atheism, practical atheism and cogito
d. Practical atheism, paganism and crypto-atheism
6. It can be surmised that theoretical atheism
a. Starts on the premises that there can be no God
b. Arrives at the conclusion that there is no God on the basis of reasoned thought
c. Advocates the conduct of one's life based on purely finite values
d. Recommends that one's behaviour should be ordered as if God did not exist

Passage II


Efforts have been made for some time to develop a means of preserving valuable marble and
limestone sculpture.
It was only in the mid-20th century, however, that the seriousness of the problem became
universally recognised. Much sculpture exhibited out-of-doors suffers from the effect of air
pollution. With Italian sculpture from the 14th century onward, the problem is acute. Such work
often suffers from its age or what could well be called stone fatigue. The two main elements
detrimental to stone sculpture are agreed to be the high concentration of sulphur dioxide usual in
modern industrial environments and frost, which obviously has been a constant historic factor.
When both detrimental effects the concurrent, a relatively rapid destructive cycle is activated. The
degeneration of the stone surface by the repeated expansion of freezing water and the fast thawing
in the morning sun opens pores of the stone to the industrial gases, which quickly change the
chemical nature of calcium carbonate stones to calcium sulphate. This brings about an increase of
the stone's volume, resulting in a shedding of the degenerate layer.
Attempts to clean sculpture in the past have often proved ineffective or positively harmful. Before
cleaning can be undertaken, the nature of the dirt must be determined. A marble statue may be
affected by incorrect cleaning, deliberate toring (oiling or waxing; the latter includes the result of
handing), and sulfation, the reaction of sulphur oxides in the air with the calcium in the stone.
Later, dirt must be dealt with before removal of the film caused by the sulfation is possible. Most
superficial dirt can be removed by applying a solvent such as methylene chloride or toluene on a
patch at a time and removing the dissolved methylene dirt with a series of clean swabs. This
treatment leaves the marble clean except for the film of sulfation, which can vary in colour from
cream to black. Attempts to remove this deposit with soap and water are unlikely to be successful,
as tap-water does not dissolve the calcium sulphate, and the soap reacts with the calcium
carbonate to form still another waterproof film. The problem is easily solved by using deionized
water (ultrapure water),
34
which dissolves the sulfation film. The demonised water is suspended in position in a mud-like
pack for some 12 hours, the suspender being magnesium silicate. At the end of this period, the now
dry mud is brushed off, and the marble is rinsed once more with demonised water. The remaining
problem is to prevent a repetition of the decay.
One method is to use a solution of two parts of cosmoloid wax and one part of Ketone N resin
made up in white spirit to form a thin cream. This is massaged into the surface of the marble,
leaving no excess. This coating inhibits the action of sulphur dioxide and sulfation. The whole work
is then brushed over with talc, which eliminates the dust-attracting property of the wax-resin
coating. Subsequent cleaning need only take the form of wiping with damp cotton when necessary.
This treatment, however, is not suitable for painted or glided sculpture. Mist spraying with tap
water is more practical for outdoor sculpture.
Modern adhesives are so effective in repairing broken sculpture that care must be taken in using
them as the chances of altering the repair after they have set is remote. Both the epoxy and
polyester resins employed as adhesives are used only on clean, dry stone. The adhesive must be
applied must be applied so that it does not appear on the surface, as it tends to yellow with age and
become visible.
7. The development of a means of preserving marble sculpture has become an urgent need now
because
a. Of their being affected by frost
b. There is more dust in the atmosphere in recent times
c. Modern adhesives can do great harm to marble sculpture
d. Industrial pollution and frost together can cause accelerated damage to old sculptures
8. Most of the stones used for sculpture in medieval times consisted predominantly of
a. Calcium sulphate
b. Calcium carbonate
c. Magnesium silicate
d. Sulphur oxide
9. The use of methylene chloride is advocated in order to
a. Remove the sulfation film on marble rock
b. To dissolve the calcium sulphate on the surface of the marble
c. To decelerate the thawing action of the sun on morning frost
d. Remove the dust on the surface of the sculpture before tackling the sulphate layer.
10. Deionized water is advocated in place of
a. Ordinary tap water
b. A water and soap solution
c. Methylene chloride or toluene
d. Modern adhesives like epoxy and polyester
for restoring marble statues.
11. The use of cosmoloid wax and Ketone N resin is recommended for
a. Cleaning and restoring marble statues to their original condition
b. Repairing broken stone and marble sculpture
c. Protecting marble sculpture against future damage
d. Removing the dissolved methylene dirt.
12. One warning given by the author for the restoration of stone sculpture is that
a. Mist-spraying should not be resorted to for outdoor sculpture
b. Soap and water should not be used under any circumstances
c. Epoxy resin should not be used if the stone is damp
d. Sulphate must be removed before tackling other types of dust.
13. It can be surmised that decay of stone sculpture is
a. Faster in colder countries than in warmer climates
b. Cannot be avoided even with all modern knowledge
c. Is more a physical than a chemical process
d. Not preventable without causing damage to the outer surface.
35
Passage III


Criticism of literature, of music, of the visual arts, or of any other of the arts can be a controversial
enterprise. For one thing, disputes arise about the purpose and nature of the judgements made by
critics; for another, disputes arise about the nature and properties of what it is that critics discuss -
-the works of art themselves; and for still another, disputes arise about the possibility of
generalising about all the arts, each of which differs significantly from the others in many
respects.Each of these disputes is really a complex cluster, involving nearly all of the persistent
issues involved in the practice of criticism. Although this article cannot pursue all of these issues, it
will attempt of provide an orientation that will facilitate their investigation.
It may be safely said that criticism in all the arts is concerned with the description and assessment
of particular works. Although some hold that the critic's proper function is only the appraisal or
evaluation of works of art, it is certain that nothing can be evaluated unless it is describable
beforehand. Accuracy of description can in fact be so extremely different, particularly for complex
or unfamiliar works and traditions, that some critics devote their efforts largely to matters of a
descriptive sort.It may also be said that all critics of the arts are concerned with the description
and evaluation of works of art as works of art, even if they are more interested in moral, political,
religious, ideological, or other considerations. For example, the moral criticism of works of art
presupposes that the actual properties and features of a given work first may be fixed and then
may be examined further according to moral considerations. Similarly, religious, political, or other
considerations can only follow some relatively objective determination of what it is that is being
examined. If is in this sense that criticism of the arts is primarily aesthetic. Although the objectivity
of a description or an evaluation may be argued, as well as the propriety of concentrating on only
the aesthetic aspects of a work, the central point is not open to dispute; if given works of art are to
be appraised on any grounds, they must be independently describable beforehand. One cannot
judge what one cannot identify and describe.
Quarrels also arise about what may rightly be construed as the properties of works of art. For
example, to say that a novel expresses a certain Gothic longing or that a painting symbolises the
end of feudalism or that a work of sculpture represents a bird in flight presupposes some theory of
what work of art is . The object cannot be described truthfully unless it is of a sort that can exhibit
the properties ascribed, and quarrels often arise about what may rightly be construed as the
properties of works of art as such. To see this is to see the sense in which descriptive statements
are theory-laden. The theory of criticism and the theory of the nature of a work of art are largely
aspects of the same question.
Provisionally, then, the criticism of works of art may be considered, at least minimally, as aesthetic
criticism - that is, centred on the actual properties of the works considered. Correspondingly,
appreciation of art may be said to be aesthetic when the art is savoured or enjoyed in terms of the
properties that may be discriminated in it. Appreciation, in this sense of the term, may be
informed by criticism, since both are focussed on the same properties. This point should be
emphasised because it has been held by Tolstoy and others that a genuine appreciation of art must
be a nave, direct, or uninformed response. If serious thought and labour go into creation of works
of art, however, there is no reason why a similar effort will not be needed to appreciate or criticise
them.
14. One of the subjects not mentioned in the passage as the origin of disputes regarding art
criticism is
a. The works of arts themselves
b. The possibilities of generalisation about all arts
c. The motive of the creator of the art
d. The purpose of the judgements of the art critics
15. The basic purpose of art criticism according to the author is
a. To educate the public on the various art forms
b. To pass a moral judgement on the work under review
36
c. To describe and assess particular works
d. To create a controversy
16. The criticism of art is primarily aesthetic because
a. Most of the critics do not have knowledge of other fields such as religion of politics
b. Unless a work is first evaluated as work of art, judging it from any other point of view is not
possible
c. Critics do not normally wish to enter into controversies which will involve ideology
d. Art consists of many branches such as literature, music and the visual arts
17. The author of this passage strongly believes that
a. A critic's main function is appraisal and not description
b. A critic cannot assess a work of art unless he is also capable of describing it
c. Every work of art must also have a moral significance
d. Qualities are often attributed to works of art which they do not intrinsical possess
18. One of the views of the author that can be surmised from the passage is
a. That appreciation and criticism of a work of art are two sides of the same coin
b. That novels normally express a Gothic longing
c. Art must be patronised by either the Government or the Church to thrive
d. That controversies regarding the purpose of at criticism are unnecessary and motivated
19. Writers like Tolstoy believed that art can be genuinely appreciated
a. Only by those well-versed in art criticism
b. Only by those who knew how to describe an art form
c. Only by other artists
d. Only by commoners through their immediate impulse
20. The author apparently believes that
a. Tolstoy was correct in his approach to art criticism
b. The properties of any particular art from can be unambiguously pre-determined
c. A major part of any criticism of art must be devoted to its description
d. Art criticism requires as much skill and knowledge as the production of the art itself.
Answer Key 8
1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (d)
11. (b) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (c) 16. (c) 17. (b) 18. (b) 19. (a) 20. (d)
37
Reading Exercise 9
Passage I


Every state has a constitution, since every state functions on the basis of certain rules and
principles. It has often been asserted that the United States has a written constitution, but that the
constitution of Great Britain is unwritten. This is true only in the sense that, in the United States,
there is a formal document called the Constitution, whereas there is no such document in Great
Britain. In fact, however, many parts of the British constitution exist in written form, whereas
important aspects of the American constitution are wholly unwritten. The British constitution
includes the Bill of Rights (1689), the Act of Settlement (1700-01), the Parliament Act of 1911, the
successive Representation of the People Acts (which extended the suffrage), the statues dealing
with the structure of the courts, the various local government acts, and many others. These are not
ordinary statues, even though they were adopted in the ordinary legislative way, and they are not
codified within the structure of a single orderly document. On the other hand, such institutions in
the United States as the presidential cabinet and the system of political parties, though not even
mentioned in the written constitution, are most certainly of constitutional significance. The
presence or absence of a formal written document makes a difference, of course, but only one of
degree. A single-document constitution has such advantages as greater precision, simplicity, and
consistency. In a newly developing state such as Israel, on the other hand, the balance of advantage
has been found to lie with an unmodified constitution evolving through the growth of custom and
the medium of statutes. Experience suggests that some codified constitutions are much too
detailed. An overlong constitution invites disputes and litigation, is rarely read or understood by
the ordinary citizen, and injects too much rigidity in cases in which flexibility is often preferable.
Since a very long constitution says too many things on too many subjects, it must be amended
often, and this makes it still longer. The United States Constitution of 7,000 words is a model of
brevity, whereas many of that country's state constitutions are much too long - the longest being
that of the state of Louisiana, whose constitution now has about 255,000 words. The very new,
modern constitutions of the recently admitted states of Alaska and Hawaii and of the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have, significantly, very concise constitutions ranging from 9,000
to 15,000 words. The 1949 Constitution of India, with 395 articles, is the wordiest of all national
constitutions. In contrast, some of the world's new constitutions, such as those of Japan and
Indonesia, are very short indeed. Some constitutions are buttressed by powerful institutions such
as an independent judiciary, whereas others, though committed to lofty principles, are not
supported by governmental institutions endowed with the authority to defend these principles in
concrete situations. Accordingly, many juristic writers distinguish between "normative" and
"nominal" constitutions. A normative constitution is one that not only has the status of supreme
law but is also fully activated and effective; it is habitually obeyed in the actual life of the state. A
nominal constitution may express high aspirations, but it does not, in fact, reflect the political
realities of the state. Article 125 of the 1936 constitution of the Soviet Union and article 87 of the
1954 constitution of the People's Republic of China both purport to guarantee freedom of speech,
but in those countries even mild expressions of dissent are likely to be swiftly and sternly
repressed. Where the written constitution is only nominal, behind the verbal faade will be found
the real constitution containing the basic principles according to which power is exercised in actual
fact. Thus in the Soviet Union, the rules of the Communist Party describing its organs and
functioning are more truly the constitution of that country than are the grand phrases of the 1936
Stalin constitution. Every state, in short, has a constitution, but in some, a real constitution
operates behind the faade of a nominal constitution.
1. The lengthiest constitution in the world is that of
a. Great Britain
b. India
c. Puerto Rico
38


d. Soviet Union
2. The instance of a country without a written constitution mentioned in the passage is
a. People's Republic of China
b. Japan
c. Israel
d. Indonesia
3. The unwritten parts of the US constitution deal with
a. Courts
b. Presidential cabinet
c. Relationship between the Centre and the States
d. Fundamental rights
4. In the United States
a. The newly admitted states have lengthy constitutions
b. The newly admitted states have concise constitutions
c. The political parties have no constitutional significance
d. The constitution can be termed 'nominal'
5. In countries with 'normative' constitutions,
a. There will be very little freedom of speech
b. There are effective instruments to enforce their provisions
c. Political realities are different from what are enshrined in them
d. There are frequent amendments to them
6. By 'nominal' constitution, the author means
a. A written constitution
b. One that contains lofty ideals
c. A lengthy constitution
d. A constitution that is not being enforced
7. One of the drawbacks of a long constitution is
a. Its publication is expensive
b. It is difficult to understand
c. It may require to be amended frequently
d. It is difficult to enforce
8. According to the author, the difference between a written and an unwritten constitution
a. Has no significance
b. Is just one of degrees
c. Has been exaggerated by politicians
d. Cannot be defined

Passage II


Rodents are the largest order of mammals, both in number of species and in individuals,
outnumbering all other warm-blooded quadrupeds and bipeds combined. There is considerable
variation in this order, which includes beavers, porcupines, rats, lemmings, badgers, and the
familiar cage pets, gerbils and hamsters. Rodents are ubiquitous, inhabiting almost every
continent, either as natives or as immigrants. Most are hypertense and forever on the alert for
predators, since rodents are the principal item of the menus of most furred and feathered
carnivores. The common denominator among rodents is their teeth - oversize, chisel-like incisors
that grow constantly throughout their lives and that are kept sharp and trimmed by constant
chewing on wood, nuts, plastered wells, or other hard matter. Untrimmed, their teeth will grow
into inward - curving tusks that can seriously injure or even kill them. The most familiar rodents
are rats and mice, whose usefulness as laboratory animals and as important links in the food chain
is virtually unrivalled. In laboratories all over the world, domesticated rats and mice are the prime
subjects of scientific experiments and research projects that aim to cure human diseases and
39
determine the effects of myriad drugs on human beings. Because rodents are similar to humans in
the adaptability of their eating habits, rats and mice are invaluable to scientists doing studies on
diet and nutrition. Another asset is the rodents' life span; in the wild, rats and mice rarely live
longer than one year, because they are preyed on by a large number of animals, including snakes,
dogs, cats, owls, and hawks, but, in captivity, they may live as long as three years. Such a period is
just right for studies on ageing, growth, and heredity. In addition, rats and mice are a perfect size
to house and handle with ease in laboratories. In the United States alone, scientific studies use
some 18 million rats each year. It is the rare person who has not reaped, directly or indirectly, the
benefits of the medical and psychological research done with these adaptable rodents.
To most people, the destructiveness and havoc that rats and mice wreak on the environment far
outweigh any of their virtues. Yet the vast majority of rodents are actually beneficial and essential
to the overall balance of nature; they furnish food for other animals and prey on insects, whose
numbers they keep in check. These rodents should never be confused with the true villains of the
order: the brown or Norway rat, the black rat, and the innocent- looking house mouse. As carriers
of plague, typhus, and other epidemic diseases, this trio has inflicted death and misery on the
world since prehistoric times. The Black Death, the most catastrophic plague in history, killed
approximately one-quarter of the population of medieval Europe and was almost certainly spread
by rats, which serve as hosts for plague-bearing fleas.
9. The author states that the laboratory rodents' life span is especially helpful to scientists studying
a. The effect of captivity on laboratory animals
b. Means of controlling the rodent population
c. Population distribution and predatory patterns
d. Genetic characteristics and growth patterns
10. The passage mentions all of the following facts about rodents EXCEPT that they
a. Eat insects
b. Are amphibious
c. Are easy to handle
d. Chew constantly
11. It can be inferred that the author thinks rodents are useful for all of the following reasons
EXCEPT that they
a. Tend to be very alert
b. Can make excellent laboratory animals
c. Are similar to humans in some ways
d. Are a source of food for other animals
12. According to the author, which of the following is (are) true of rodents?
I. They are a staple in the diets of many predators
II. Many laboratory rodents live longer than wild rodents do
III. Most species spread devastating diseases
a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II only
13. Which of the following best describes the development of this passage?
a. Major points, minor points
b. Statement of problem, examples proposed solution
c. Introduction, positive factors, negative factors
d. Introduction, cause, results

Passage III


An urgent problem is now threatening libraries throughout the world. Their collections. which are
crucial for such diverse purposes as economic development, educational research and recreational
40
pursuits, are in danger of disintegrating. The problem is mainly due to one cause - the type of
paper on which books have been printed for almost the past one and a half centuries. Until the
1850s, paper was produced from linen or cotton rags and proved to be relatively long-lasting. In
the mid-19th century, however, the popular demand for paper and the commercial need for an
economic method of production led to the use of mechanically ground wood pulp. Paper
manufactured from wood pulp is highly acidic and therefore inherently unstable. It contains lignin
- a major factor in causing paper to discolour and disintegrate. The useful life-span of most 20th-
century book papers has been estimated to be no more than a few decades.
Libraries comprise an important part of the market for printed books and they are increasingly
aware of the fragility of this material. The extent of the deterioration of library collections is
alarming. Surveys conducted at various institutions reveal that 26 per cent to 40 per cent of the
books they hold are seriously embrittled and thus unavailable for normal use. Programmes are
now being developed with two main aims in mind - on the one hand, to improve the physical
condition of library collections, especially by the process called 'mass de-acidification' (which is
designed to eliminate acid from the paper of published books and insert a buffer compound that
will provide protection against future acid attack from the environment); and on the other, to
transfer the contents of existing books to another medium (such as microfilm or optical disk).
Libraries will only be able to carry out these tasks with the assistance of other experts such as book
conservators and high-technology specialists. But there is another group with whom librarians
have traditionally enjoyed strong affinities and whose co-operation will be crucial if the problem of
decaying collections is to be arrested - namely, the printing and publishing industries. The existing
problem - that of book collections already assembled in libraries - is of vast proportions, but it is
intensified by the continuing use of acid-based paper in book publishing. The key issue is how to
preserve the books of the future, not simply those of the past. If the future dimensions of the
conservation problem are to be curbed, there will need to be widespread adoption of paper, which
is of archival quality. This change does not relate to a narrowly perceived need because the long-
term preservation of library collections is important - both for the overall social benefits they bring
as well as for the special advantages they bestow on the printing and publishing industries. In the
first place, libraries are of critical importance to the future well-being of citizens since they provide
the knowledge base of society. They contain the record of humanity - the accumulation of ideas
and insights and discoveries on which social effort and progress are possible. The destruction of
libraries would represent an immense cultural loss, a form of collective amnesia, which would
affect every member of society. In the second place, printers and publishers have an economic
interest in turning to paper of archival quality. So long as libraries are acquiring books with a short
life-span they will be forced to devote an increasing share of their budgets to conservation. These
budgets are already severely strained by the combined impact of inflation and currency
devaluation, and there is scarcely any prospect of enlarged government funding. As a result,
libraries will be compelled to balance the preservation of their collections against the expansion of
those collections. In short, the choice will be between conservation and acquisition - and the funds
for conservation are likely to come from acquisition budgets. This unpalatable choice will damage
both libraries and the printing and publishing industries and can only be minimised in its effects
by a bold decision to convert to the use of permanent paper.
14. The tone of the passage is one of
a. Informed concern
b. Destructive criticism
c. Derisive ridicule
d. Helpless alarm
15. The phrase 'archival quality' implies
a. A smooth paper
b. Thick paper
c. Long-lasting paper
d. Alkaline paper
16. Wood-pulp as raw materials for paper was developed because of
41


a. The shortage of linen
b. The need to produce large quantities of paper
c. The need to develop non-acidic paper
d. Scientific research
17. If paper should last long
a. It should be made from cotton rags
b. It should be non-acidic
c. It should be alkaline
d. Preservatives must be used
18. One of the reasons not mentioned in the passage in favour of producing long-lasting paper is
a. It will help preserve the knowledge-base of society
b. It will enable more books to be bought by libraries
c. It will lead to more governmental allocation to libraries
d. It will help the publishing industry
19. Purchase of new books by libraries are bound to be curtailed because of all the following
reasons except
a. Drastic reduction in governmental funding
b. The need for spending more money for conservation of old books
c. The need to microfilms books
d. Inflationary trends
20. Continued use of wood-pulp paper in book will affect
I. Libraries
II. General public
III. The publishing industry
IV. The governments
a. I and III only
b. II and III only
c. I, II, III and IV
d. I, II & III only

Answer Key 9

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (b)
11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (c) 16. (b) 17. (b) 18. (c) 19. (a) 20. (d)
42
Reading Exercise 10
Passage I


Among the continents, Europe is unique in several respects: its coast is the most indented of all, its
climate the most temperate, and it is the only continent the autonomy of which is culturally rather
than geographically determined. Europe is, in fact, only a peninsula of Asia, and, but for its
historical and cultural peculiarities, there would be no reason to view it as a separate continent. In
Europe, as in other areas of the world, geography is merely a conditioning and not a determining
factor in cultural evolution; this is reflected by the fact that its major cultural areas do not
correspond with its main topographical divisions. Not one of the large, more or less isolated
geographical divisions - the British Isles or the Scandinavian, Iberian, or Balkan peninsulas, for
example - is culturally homogeneous, for any tendency toward such cultural polarization has been
negated by numerous other influences, including linguistic, religious and political expansions and
repeated technical and social revolutions.
The ethno-cultural structure of Europe nevertheless shows more uniformity than is found in other
parts of the world. None of the other four continents succeeded as Europe did in realizing a racial
homogeneity such as Indo-European, a religious and moral order such as Christendom, an almost
unanimous defense of common values such as the Crusades and the campaigns against the Turks,
Tartars, and Moors, a common intellectual ethos such as Latinity, a uniform economic-political
structure such as feudalism, or such a great similarity of social structure, based on economic
classes. Explanations of this European cultural unity and of Europe's technical and economic
leadership tended in the 19th century to focus on the idea of the superior racial characteristics of
Europeans. Geographical and ecological explanations, however, seem at present to have a better
scientific basis. Among Europe's geographical advantages have been listed its variety of
landscapes, its climatic mildness, its wealth of natural resources, and a location that has left it
open to influences from Asia and Africa, thus minimizing the possibility of insular stagnation.
1. One of the reasons for classifying Europe as a separate continent is
a. It is a peninsula of Asia
b. Many major rivers run through it
c. It has special geographic features d. It has its own cultural uniqueness
2. That it is not geography alone which shapes the cultural evolution of an area is sought to be
proved by the author by
a. The spread of Christendom in Europe
b. The success of the Crusades
c. The easy spread of Asian and African influences in Europe
d. The fact that geographically contiguous areas within Europe are culturally diverse
3. Crusades were undertaken by
a. The Turks to spread Islam
b. The British to spread their empire
c. Europeans to defend their common values
d. By Tartars to spread the Latin language
4. An instance of European cultural homogeneity not mentioned in the passage is
a. The predominance of a language group
b. Similar social structures
c. A common religion
d. A feeling of racial superiority
5. It can be surmised that the author believes that
a. Europe should not be treated as a continent
b. Europeans cannot claim racial superiority over others
c. Balkan peninsula is culturally homogeneous
d. Ecology is a useful science
43
6. Europe, according to the author, escaped cultural isolation because
a. Of the uniform spread of Christianity
b. It has the most indented coastline
c. Of its geographic location
d. Of its technical and economic leadership
7. According to the author, feudalism was the dominant economic structure
a. In the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iberia and the Balkans
b. Among the moors
c. That led to the racial superiority of Europeans
d. Resulting from influences from Asia and Africa
8. The technical leadership of Europe is currently attributed, among other factors, to
a. The racial superiority of Europeans
b. Its climatic condition
c. Social homogeneity
d. Its being a peninsula of Asia
Passage II
When a new movement in Art attains a certain vogue, it is advisable to find out what its advocates
are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their tenets may seem today, it is possible
that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the
case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be - even admitting that the theory on
which it is based may be right - it can hardly be classed as Literature. This, in brief, is what the
Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been continually speeding up, till now we
live in a world of noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions
have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new
form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress. We
must pour out a cataract of essential words, unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or
finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them; we must use
many sizes of type and different coloured inks on the same page, and shorten of lengthen words at
will. Certainly their descriptions of battles are vividly chaotic. But it is a little disconcerting to read
in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian
officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river - and then to find that the line consists of
the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers: "Pluff! Pluff! a hundred and eighty-five
kilograms." This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be
classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition:
that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is
really this: have we essentially changed?
9. The main idea of this selection is best expressed as
a. The past versus the future
b. Merits of the Futurist movement
c. What constitutes literature
d. An evaluation of Futurist poetry
10. When novel ideas appear, it is desirable, according to the writer, to
a. Discover the aims of their adherents
b. Ignore them
c. Follow the fashion
d. Regard them as normal
11. The Futurists claim that we must
a. Increase the production of literature
b. Look to the future
c. Develop new literary forms
44
d. Avoid unusual words
12. The writer believes that Futurist poetry is
a. Too emotional
b. Too new in type to be acceptable
c. Not literature as he knows it
d. Essential to a basic change in the nature of mankind
13. The Futurist poet uses all the following devices EXCEPT
a. Imitative words
b. Qualifying adjectives
c. Different coloured inks
d. A stream of essential words

Passage III


The universe consists almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, probably with less than 1 percent of
the heavier elements. The Earth, on the other hand, consists almost entirely of the heavier
elements. Helium is a very rare element on Earth, so rare in fact that it was first discovered as an
unidentified line in the Sun's spectrum in 1868, some 30 years before it was detected on Earth.
Hydrogen in moderately abundant on Earth, largely because it combines with oxygen to form
water, whereas helium is an inert element.
The variety of helium and the other inert gases neon, krypton, and xenon on earth is good evidence
that the Earth was formed by the accretion of small solid objects, or planetesimals. (Argon is a
special case, since most of the Earth's argon has been formed within the planet by the radioactive
decay of potassium.) These planetesimals had no atmosphere, and the atmosphere of the Earth has
been derived by the out gassing of combined occluded gases within these planetesimals. This
process has operated through-out geological history and is probably still continuing; volcanic
activity not only brings up solid material from the Earth's interior but also large amounts of gases,
principally water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, and nitrogen. The oxygen in the present
atmosphere is almost entirely the product of photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide and water
are converted to carbohydrate and free oxygen. Direct information on the composition of the
Earth's crust is available in the form of thousands of analyses of individual rocks, the average of
which provides a reasonably precise estimate of the bulk composition. For the mantle and the core
the information is indirect and thus much less precise. The origin of the Earth by the accretion of
planetesimals is a well-founded hypothesis, however, and meteorites are probably examples of
planetesimals that have survived from the preplanetary stage of the solar system. It thus seems
likely that the Earth was formed by the accretion of solid bodies with the average composition of
stony meteorites. The accretion process, however, led to massive segregation of the elements.
Much of the iron was reduced to the metallic state and sank to the centre to form the core, carrying
with it the major part of the siderophile elements. Lithophile elements, those with a greater affinity
for oxygen than iron, combined as oxide compounds, mostly silicates, and provided material for
the mantle and crust. Chalcophile elements would tend to form sulfides; however, few sulfides are
stable at the high temperatures of the Earth's interior, so the fate of the chalcophile elements
during the early history of the Earth is somewhat uncertain. This primary geochemical
differentiation of the Earth can be interpreted in terms of the system iron-magnesium-silicon-
oxygen-sulphur, because five elements make up about 95 percent of the Earth. There was
insufficient oxygen to combine with the major metallic elements iron, magnesium, and silicon;
because magnesium and silicon have a greater affinity for oxygen than iron, these elements
combined completely with oxygen, and the remaining oxygen combined with part of the iron,
leaving the remainder as the metal iron and iron sulphide. As indicated above, the metal sank to
form the core, carrying with it the major part of the chalcophile elements; it does not seem to have
formed a distinct shell within the Earth and probably remains primarily in disseminated form
through the mantle and the core.
45


14. The prolific occurrence of hydrogen on earth is accounted for by the fact that
a. It is a predominant component of the whole universe
b. The earth consists of a number of heavy elements which combine with it
c. The earth was formed out of a number of planetesimals.
d. It is a component of water which forms two thirds of the earth's surface
15. One of the common features of helium and hydrogen is
a. Both are inert gases
b. Both of them were first discovered in the sun
c. Both occur in abundance in the universe
d. Both occur during volcanic eruptions
16. The components of the earth's atmosphere accrued out of all of the following except
a. Eruption of volcanoes
b. Photosynthesis by plants
c. Meteorites hitting the earth
d. Occluded gases with in planetesimals
17. One of the elements that has a greater affinity for oxygen than iron is (as explicitly stated in the
passage)
a. Silicon
b. Helium
c. Sulfur
d. Mantle
18. Elements which combine more readily with iron than with oxygen are called
a. Lithophiles
b. Chalcophiles
c. Siderophiles
d. Disseminated
19. It can be surmised that, if more oxygen were available at the time of formation of the earth.
a. There would have been more water on the earth
b. The earth's formation might not have taken place at all
c. There would have been more helium on earth
d. There would have been less of iron sulfide in the earth's composition
20. Helium was first discovered on earth
a. Through spectrography
b. In 1838
c. In 1868
d. In 1898

Answer Key 10

1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (a)
11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (c) 16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (d)
46
Reading Exercise 11
Passage I


That Egypt was a land in which civilization was nurtured was the direct result of the Nile; the Nile
made Egypt, and the valley of the Nile was Egypt. Only that part of the country susceptible to
flooding could provide a livelihood for the population. The vast areas of desert to the east and west
of the green, fertile valley were barren, inhospitable wastes; it was possible to find interesting
things in these deserts - fine, hard stones, precious metals, and some game - but such places could
hardly be considered parts of the country of Egypt. In a sense Egypt was an island, cut off from
other habitable lands - to the north by the sea and in all other directions by deserts. Being thus
isolated, it was both protected from invasion and insulated from external influences.
This isolation contributed in no small degree toward the conservative, inward-looking character of
life of Egypt. For the Egyptian there could be no doubt that his country was quite distinct; it was a
universe on its own, unrelated to other lands abroad. To be away from Egypt was to be divorced
from reality; being an Egyptian meant living in Egypt, worshipping. Egyptian gods (who had
nothing to do with the world outside), dying and, above all, being buried in Egypt. The special
features of Egyptian life reflected this egocentric view, which treated all things Egyptian as being of
their kind unique. Egyptian techniques in working materials were in many respects different from
those practised else-where in the ancient world; artistic methods and conventions, established at
the very beginning of the Dynastic Period, were quite peculiar to Egypt; even Egyptian writing, the
hieroglyphic script, was a medium of communication developed specifically for the use of the
tongue spoken in Egypt, and it was incapable of adaptation to the requirements of other languages.
In techniques, art, and writing, the methods developed in the earliest times remained, in general
terms, satisfactory for the needs of the Egyptian people and over the centuries required only the
modifications resulting from natural development within a fairly closed culture. This self-
sufficiency, which amounted almost to a sort of cultural stagnation, is well demonstrated in the
matter of writing. When it became necessary to correspond diplomatically with other countries,
the cuneiform script and the Akkadian language were used; this script, which was employed for
many different ancient languages, displayed a versatility that Egyptian hieroglyphs never acquired.
One unfortunate result of the isolated but comfortable character of Egyptian life was that people
outside regarded Egypt as specially favoured and therefore as a desirable prize to be conquered.
For many centuries the greedy aspirations of foreigners amounted to no great threat because of the
difficulties of invading Egypt across broad desert tracts or the sea; furthermore, the likely invaders
were never of sufficient power and strength to undertake full-scale warfare. There was, however,
nothing to prevent small groups of nomads and traders from entering Egypt and settling down,
particularly in the sparsely populated region of the Delta. The threat posed by such groups
eventually became very real; but at first there seemed to be no cause for alarm, and the rulers of
Egypt were rarely obliged to engage in serious defensive warfare. In general, Egypt was a peaceful
country; its people were pacific - they made poor soldiers and always despised the military life,
preferring the peaceful lives of the farmer and the scribe.
1. The delta area of Nile was
a. Very fertile and densely populated
b. Fertile but sparsely populated
c. Contained barren, inhospitable wastes
d. Where Egyptian hieroglyphs developed
2. The isolation of Egypt was mainly due to
a. The superiority complex of the Egyptians
b. Its language having nothing in common with other languages
c. The fear of Egyptians that they were otherwise vulnerable to invasion
d. Its geographic situation
3. The ancient languages of the world
47
a. Were all based on Egyptian hieroglyphs
b. Were so different from one another, that it was impossible to develop a single script in which
many of them could be written
c. Were such that many of them could be written in a common script
d. Caused the isolation of one country from another
4. In ancient times, Egypt consisted of
I. The Nile valley
II. The Nile delta
III. The deserts on both sides of the valley
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. I and III only
d. I, II and III
5. The modifications in Egyptian art, science and technology were induced by
a. Diplomatic contacts with the outside world
b. Nomadic settlers in the Nile delta
c. Invading and conquering countries
d. Local needs and natural development
6. Other countries, desiring to conquer Egypt, were attracted by
a. The precious metals and gems available there
b. The superior technologies developed by Egyptian
c. The comfortable character of Egyptian life
d. Beauty of the Egyptian hieroglyphs
7. It can be surmised that the centuries long isolation of Egypt was ultimately ended by
a. Sudden invasion of superior armies from across the ocean
b. Slow and insidious migration by nomads and traders from other countries
c. Cataclysmic floods in the Nile
d. Frequent contact with other countries using the cuneiform script
8. The author implies that
a. A country which isolates itself from others cannot develop its art forms
b. In spite of their geographical isolation from other countries, Egyptians could generally take a
world-view of things
c. Egyptians were always conscious of the threat to their independence from more powerful
countries and were generally in military readiness
d. Even in a closed society, art, culture and technology are bound to grow, though slowly
Passage II
Despite the many cultural and political differences among nations, the objectives and curriculum
at least of elementary education tend to be similar. Nearly all nations are officially committed to
mass education, which is viewed as eventually including a full elementary education for all. An
increasing agreement may therefore be found among nations to the effect that preparation for
citizenship is one of the major objectives of elementary education. In terms of curriculum, this
objective suggests an emphasis on language competence, arithmetic skills, and basic social studies
and science. The proportion of school time devoted to each of these areas may vary from nation to
nation, but taken as a whole, they typically comprise the bulk of the curriculum.
Some observers viewing the less developed nations have suggested that such a curriculum does not
cover enough ground and that community or vocational skills should be included. Many
innovations in this direction have been attempted. Local crafts are taught in the basic schools of
India, for example; agriculture has been introduced in some of the primary schools of Uganda,
Kenya, and Tanzania; and introductory skills in wood and metal working are included in the
curriculum of mainland China. The specific reasons for teaching hand skills in the elementary
48
school vary from nation to nation. In a few nations, such teaching is viewed as providing vocational
or pre-vocational skills; in some nations it is hoped that the products of the children's work will be
marketable and hence defray the expenses of schooling; and in still other nations handwork is seen
as a way of instilling an appreciation for labour. Objections have been voiced to these changes,
however, by some parents and students who fear that the introduction of "practical" subjects may
lessen the possibility of entrance to secondary schools - a widely held pupil aspiration.
Perhaps more experimentation and innovation in curriculum and teaching methods have taken
place at the elementary level than in secondary education. In the more progressive schools
throughout the world, attempts are being made to synthesize subjects previously taught separately.
Examples of this are efforts to combine reading with literature and history with geography. In
North America and western Europe, innovations such as team teaching, the use of more teachers'
aides or clerks, and the establishment of ungraded schools have been tried. Most significant and
pervasive, however, has been the widespread and growing acceptance of the principle that
elementary education should focus on activity and experience as well as on subject matter. This
principle as yet is reflected only in some of the elementary schools of a few nations, but may well
lead to a worldwide movement involving more informality in the learning environment, more
student-initiated projects, and a greater variety in the content of elementary schooling.
9. The author implies that
a. Vocational training is likely to improve the language skills of students
b. It is desirable to have a common curriculum for elementary education in developing countries
c. All countries lend to emphasize secondary and collegiate education at the expense of elementary
education
d. Elementary education should not confine itself to teaching of theoretical subjects alone, but
should also teach crafts and skills.
10. All the following have been mentioned as purposes of vocationalizing elementary education
except
a. Earning some revenue for the school by sale of objects produced by students
b. Teaching agriculture to students
c. Lack of adequate trained teachers to teach traditional subjects
d. Instilling an appreciation of labour
11. That education should be vocationalized is the policy of
I. Governments of developing countries
II. Educationists in developing countries
III. Only India, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and China.
a. I only
II only c.
III only d.
I and II
12. The criticism against vocationalization of elementary education is based on the fear that
a. Students would get disenchanted with education and may not pursue higher studies
b. The higher expenditure that this would need would result in meagre provision for higher
education
c. Having learnt practical skills, students would be diverted for jobs at a young age, jeopardising
their higher education
d. There are not enough trained teachers who can teach vocational skills to students
13. The principle popularly accepted today seeks
I. The abolition of graded schools
II. The teaching of non-vocational subjects
III. Teaching of vocational skills
a. I only
b. II only
c. II and III
d. I, II and III
49
14. The most commonly held objective of elementary education is
a. To teach vocational skills to students
b. To earn revenue out of students' products
c. Informality in the learning environment
d. Preparation of young persons for future citizenship
Passage III


The fact that petroleum is almost always found in marine sedimentary rocks has long been a basic
argument in favour of a marine origin for this material. It is certainly true that some oil has been
found in igneous and metamorphic rocks, but migration from a sedimentary source bed is a
reasonable explanation for these occurrences. Proof of a marine origin has been forthcoming in
recent years by the sensitive analyses of recent marine sediments, which show that they contain
small amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons, evidently generated either directly by marine
organisms or by their subsequent decomposition. Natural petroleum is a complex mixture of
hundreds of different hydrocarbons, but its bulk composition is remarkably constant, about 85
percent carbon and 15 percent hydrogen. It may include small amounts of basic compounds
containing oxygen, sulfur and hydrogen content of other elements is exceedingly . Petroleum ash
unlike coal ash, is not noted for its trace element content. Some petroleum ash contains
appreciable amounts of vanadium, however, and has been utilised as a source of this element. A of
nitrogen-bearing organic compounds known as porphyrins include a metal atom
in their molecular nature; usually this atom is iron, but other elements in this region of the
periodic table, especially vanadium, nickel and copper, may play a similar role. The vanadium
content of some petroleum ash probably originates as a vanadium porphyrin in some of the
organisms involved in petroleum formation. Petroleum is always accompanied by natural gas, but
many natural gas fields have no petroleum associated with them. This can probably be ascribed to
greater possibility for migration for a gas as compared to a liquid. It is also possible that some
natural gas is generated from coal deposits. Natural gas consists largely of methane, but small
amounts of more complex hydrocarbons may be present, and it may contain unwanted
components such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas containing
hydrogen sulfide is known as "sour gas" and for long was an undesirable material because of the
various nature of this compound; recently, however, it has been found profitable to extract the
hydrogen sulfide by converting it to sulfur and then utilise the hydrocarbons.
Natural gas is the sole source of one element, helium, the industrial demand for which has steadily
increased in recent years. Comparatively few occurrences of natural gas contain sufficient helium
for the extraction to be commercially profitable. Currently, the western world's need for helium is
largely met by extraction from wells in western Texas. The explanation for this local concentration
of helium in some natural gas fields is still a matter for discussion; the only reasonable source is
from the disintegration of radioactive elements in the crust, but the mechanism of concentration
remains something of an enigma.
15. It can be surmised from the passage that
a. Metamorphic rocks do not have a marine origin
b. Helium is generally extracted from natural petroleum
c. Oxygen forms a major component of natural petroleum
d. Natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide is more profitable to extract than pure natural gas
16. One research to prove the marine origin of petroleum involved
a. The extraction of helium from petroleum
b. The isolation of sulfur from natural gases
c. Analysis of recent marine sediments
d. The discovery of vanadium porphyrin in petroleum ash
17. One of the elements near to copper in the periodic table is
50


a. Oxygen
b. Sulfur
c. Nitrogen
d. Vanadium
18. The following always occur together
a. Vanadium and petroleum ash
b. Natural gas and sulfur
c. Petroleum and natural gas
d. Carbon and hydrogen
19. Helium occurs on earth
a. As part of the natural gas containing sulfur
b. From marine sedimentary rocks
c. In igneous and metamorphic rocks
d. From decomposition of radioactive elements
20. One problem which has baffled solution so far is
a. Why petroleum is not found in igneous rocks
b. How vanadium occurs in some petroleum ash
c. How helium gets concentrated in some gas fields
d. Why natural gas consists mostly of methane

Answer Key 11

1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (c)
11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (a) 16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (c)
51


Reading Exercise 12

Passage I


The term low-temperature phenomena refers to the behaviour of matter at temperatures below the
boiling point of liquid nitrogen, about -1960C (-3210F). At temperatures close to absolute zero -
273.20C (459.70F) the thermal, electric, and magnetic properties of many substances undergo
great change, and indeed, the behaviour of matter may seem strange when compared to that at
room temperature. Superconductivity and super-fluidity can be cited as two such phenomena that
occur below certain critical temperatures; in the former, many metals and alloys show no
resistance whatsoever to the flow of electricity, and, in the latter, liquid helium can flow through
tiny holes impervious to any other liquid.
Although the phenomena displayed by matter at low temperatures are many and diverse, they
constitute a coherent body of study by virtue of the second law of thermodynamics, which
introduces the concept of entropy and provides a criterion for the direction of spontaneous change
to a final equilibrium condition for any system at fixed absolute temperature. A system may be
thought of as an isolated assemblage of a large number of particles; i.e., a group of atoms,
molecules, subatomic particles, or some combination of them. The macro (large scale) state of a
system as a whole can be described by a few thermodynamic (i.e., macro) variables such as
pressure, volume, energy, entropy, and temperature. These few constraints can usually be satisfied
by a tremendous number of arrangements (micro ways) of the modes of motion of the constituent
particles in the system. Entropy is a measure of this number of detailed, different possible micro
states open to the macro system, and it increases as this number increases.
Extremely tiny energy differences, the effects of which are not observable at ordinary
temperatures, can be of great importance in arriving at a final observable low-temperature
configuration - that is, physical arrangement - of the particles of a system. For physical science, the
low-temperature region is an important field of study, because only within its confines can there be
experimental elucidation of the nature of the interactions leading to the above mentioned tiny
energy differences. The effects manifested are often novel and unique, and in the case of
superconductivity they are also of great technological importance.
Finally, there is a fundamental reason behind the fact that many phenomena not peculiar to the
low-temperature region are best studied at low-temperatures. The atomicity of the surroundings
causes irregular fluctuations or noise in any measurable physical variable of a system such that the
mean square fluctuation in any observable at equilibrium is directly proportional to the absolute
temperature. Working at low temperatures thus means an enhanced sensitivity for all instruments
in distinguishing real physical phenomena from background thermal noise.
1. One of the properties of nitrogen is that
a. it freezes at -196C
b. it becomes gas at -321F
c. it vanishes at -273C
d. It entropy is complicated
2. Super-fluidity occurs in a substance
a. when it is heated beyond its boiling point
b. when it is cooled below freezing point of water
c. when it is cooled below the boiling point of liquid nitrogen
d. when electricity is passed through it
3. One of the substances with which the super-fluidity of a substance can be tested is
a. electricity
b. magnesium
c. low temperature
d. helium
4. Study of phenomenon displayed by matter at low temperatures is a branch of
52


a. electro-magnetics
b. thermal physics
c. thermodynamics
d. electro-technology
5. 'Entropy' is a measure of
a. the temperature at which a substance becomes a super-conductor
b. the number of atoms in a given quantity of substance
c. the number of elements in an alloy
d. the number of different possible motions of the particles of a system
6. The effects of tiny energy differences of the particles of a system
a. can be observed at high temperatures
b. have no practical application
c. are strange and unique
d. create considerable thermal noise.
7. The study of even the normal phenomenon at low-temperature region
a. is quixotic and expensive
b. can expose scientists to radiation
c. can give more accurate results
d. requires super-sensitive instruments.
8. The importance of the study of low-temperature regions lies in the fact that
a. it can explain extremely small energy differences
b. it can ultimately lead to the elimination of energy differences
c. it can help more accurate measurement of the value of absolute zero degree temperature
d. it can enable super-fluidity at still higher temperatures.

Passage II


Modern logistics systems must meet the requirements of (1) limited war without the threat of
nuclear attack, (2) limited war with a nuclear threat, and (3) nuclear war on a global scale.
The procurement of weapons for such a wide range of threats is complicated. The most vital and
also the most difficult calculation involves the time factor between the development and testing of
a new weapon and its actual production. This reflects difficulties in the methods by which defence
policy is decided: the central control of programs, budgeting, and expenditure; the construction of
a framework of strategic policy against which the requirements for new weapons can be assessed;
and the machinery to control the competing demands of rival services for expensive weapon
systems.
It takes from seven to ten years to develop a weapon system from drawing board to operational
use. If the weapon's useful life is another ten or more years, then the defence planner has to assess
values about 20 years ahead against the uncertain background of technical progress and economic,
defence, and foreign policies. Critics argue that this time scale makes errors of judgement
inevitable because the weapon can be outdated before it is operational. The best answer is available
is careful scrutiny of projects to ensure their operational need and cost effectiveness, but, despite
all precautions, wrong decisions can be made. After the Korean War (1950-53), for example, the
U.S. and U.K. planned weapon systems to maintain a global military presence and a nuclear
delivery system, but the time and cost taken to develop these new weapons were underestimated.
By 1961, research and development costs represented a third of a complex weapon system. The
cost of military research and development in the U.K. was four-fifths of the nation's total research
allocation. The arms race increased costs by making weapons obsolete even before they become
operational. Changes in operational requirement and design led to delays in production and
cancellation of major projects. The cancellation of the British Blue Streak nuclear missile and the
costly argument between the U.S. Army and Air Force over two similar ballistic missile systems,
Thor and Jupiter, show the difficulties.
53
By 1960, problems of cost dominated the whole field of weapon procurement. Smaller nations
could not find the money to design and produce sophisticated weapon systems; yet they could not
ignore the advance of technology, and affluent America could hardly afford to continue its mistake
of the past decade. Uncertainties in strategic planning aggravated the problem of allocation of
resources. In the U.S. and the U.K., the defence departments assumed mandatory powers over all
stages of weapon procurement.
When the need for a new weapon has been established, the concerned service normally makes a
"feasibility study" that gives a detailed description of the weapon, its required operational
performance, and the anticipated cost in time, resources, and money. If this report is accepted, a
"project study" normally follows to establish certain cost and development criteria. If the study
shows that these conditions cannot be met, the project can be abandoned without wasting more
than 5 percent of the total estimated cost. Though such feasibility and project studies may take
from 18 months to two years to complete, they are assumed to avoid much waste.
One U.S. Secretary of Defence in the 1960s encouraged U.S. universities and other institutions to
study strategic threats and force requirements. These studies are called systems analysis. They
seek to define, for example, whether in a nuclear war most lives would be saved by a full civil
defence organization, an active missile defence, or a powerful nuclear delivery system with a
counter-force capability. The techniques of cost effectiveness and quantitative analysis are applied
to weapon systems - i.e., to intercontinental ballistic missiles on the one hand, and airlift and air
support requirements in limited war on the other.
9. The most difficult factor in assessing the requirement of modern defence logistics is
a. the financial implications
b. the enemy's potential
c. the useful life of a new weapon
d. the time element
10. One of the factors that a defence planner cannot foresee that has been specifically mentioned
in the passage
a. the future course of foreign policy
b. the demands of rival services
c. the cost of the weapons
d. the allocations for defence research
11. In producing a complex weapons system,
a. four-fifths of the cost is on research
b. one-third of the cost is on research
c. wrong decisions are always made
d. obsolescence cannot be avoided at all
12. The Anglo-American plan on global nuclear delivery system was given up
a. because of inter-services rivalry
b. because of under-estimation of the cost involved
c. because the defence departments were given mandatory powers for arms procurement
d. because the feasibility study proved negative
13. The feasibility and project studies regarding a weapons system
a. are made by selected universities
b. are detrimental in practice because of the delay caused by them
c. become obsolete even before they are completed
d. can save 95% of an otherwise faulty project
14. A 'systems analysis' study
a. accurately forecasts future escalation rates
b. evaluates alternative choices against desirable criteria
c. is always undertaken by a university
d. takes 18 months to two years to be completed
15. The number of years that a defence planner should normally have in view is
a. seven to ten
54
b. about twenty
c. five
d. fifteen
16. The probable cost of a new weapons systems is first estimated in
a. the feasibility study
b. the project study
c. systems analysis
d. the universities
Passage III


A botanical garden, or botanic garden, as it is often called, was originally a collection of living
plants designed chiefly to illustrate relationships within plant groups. Today, most botanical
gardens are concerned primarily with exhibiting ornamental plants, insofar as possible in a
scheme that emphasises natural relationships. Thus, the two functions are blended: eye appeal and
taxonomic order. Plants that were once of medicinal value and extremely important in early
botanical gardens are now chiefly of historical interest and are not particularly represented in
contemporary collections. A display garden that concentrates on woody plants (shrubs and trees)
is often referred to as an arboretum. It may be a collection in its own right or part of a botanical
garden.
A major contemporary objective of botanical gardens is to maintain extensive collections of plants,
labelled with common and scientific names and regions of origin. Plant collections in such gardens
vary in number from a few hundred to several thousand different kinds, depending on the land
area available and the financial and scholarly resources of the institution.
As world population become urbanised, botanical gardens are increasingly recognised as among
the important cultural resources of civilised nations. Botanical gardens offer the city dweller part
of the natural environment he no longer has access to; furthermore, they offer a mental escape
from population pressure and suggest new interests and hobbies having to do with the natural
world.
What can be called the roots of the botanical garden as an institution are traceable to ancient
China and many of the countries bordering the Mediterranean. These actually were centres for the
raising of fruit trees, vegetables, and herbs used in making the crude medicines of the time. After
the discovery of printing, the manuscripts on plants, which had been in existence for centuries,
became more widely circulated, and these stimulated further publication of descriptive works
called herbals. The herbalists and their herbals, in turn, stimulated the founding of botanical
gardens. By the end of the 16th century, there were five such gardens in Europe, and by the mid-
20th century, several hundred. The first two were in Italy, at Padua and Pisa (1545). At first, such
gardens were associated with the medical schools of universities. Professors of medicine were
mainly the botanists of that time, and their "physic gardens" served for the training of students as
well as for growing plants to make medicines. But they served in other ways as well. Carolus
Clusius, a noted botanist of the 16th century, for example, brought together an extensive collection
of flowering bulbs at the botanical garden in Leiden, the Netherlands, which proved to be the
beginning of the Dutch bulb flower industry.
In the early 1800s, Jean Gesner, a Swiss physician and botanist, noted that by the end of the 18th
century there were 1,600 botanical gardens in Europe. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the
science of botany took form, and many of the important botanists of the period were directors of
the botanical gardens of their day. Since that time, the classical botanical garden as a teaching and
medicinal garden declined, to be replaced by gardens devoted mainly to plant culture and the
display of ornamental plants and plant groups of special interest.
17. This passage has probably been extracted from
a. a book on medicine
b. a biography of a botanist
55


c. an encyclopaedia
d. a history of the Dutch bulb-flower industry
18. The word 'taxonomic' used in line 4 most nearly means
a. ornamental
b. poisonous
c. plant relationships
d. medicinal
19. One of the species that is displayed in an arboretum is
a. ornamental plants
b. shrubs
c. herbs
d. flowering bulbs
20. A new factor of importance of botanical gardens in the twentieth century is due to
a. commercialisation of flower gardening
b. urbanisation of the population
c. substantial government funding of such gardens
d. herbal research
21. The present day botanical gardens, according to the passage, have
I. cultural significance
II. commercial significance
III. recreational significance
IV. educational significance
a. I, II, III and IV
b. I and II only
c. I and IV only
d. I and III only
22. The founding botanical gardens in the middle ages was mainly by
a. kings
b. botanists
c. the Chinese
d. herbalists
23. Botany was elevated to the status of a science
a. by the Chinese in ancient times
b. by the herbalists in the 16th century
c. by the Italians in 1545
d. by the directors of botanical gardens in 18th century
24. The flower bulbs of Netherlands
a. are native to the country
b. had been imported from China
c. had been collected from many sources
d. are medicinal in nature

Answer Key 12

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (a)
11. (b) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (b) 20. (b)
21. (d) 22. (d) 23. (d) 24. (c)
56


Reading Exercise 13

Passage I


American federalism has been described as a neat mechanical theory. The national government
was said to be sovereign in certain areas of governmental concern, such as the regulation of
interstate commerce. State governments were said to be sovereign in certain other areas, such as
regulation of intrastate commerce and exercise of the police power. One writer has described this
as the "layer cake" concept of American federalism. In the top layer are neatly compacted all the
powers of the national government; in the bottom layer are found the separate and distinct
functions and powers of state governments.
How nice it would be if the American federal system could be so easily and conveniently analysed!
But Professor Martin Grodzins of the University of Chicago has gone on to describe federalism in
practice as more like a marble cake, with an intermingling of functions, than like a layer cake, with
functions separate and distinct. This intermingling can be seen best, perhaps, by examining the
example of railroad traffic. If it crosses a state line, it constitutes interstate commerce, coming
under control of the national government. Rail shipments originating and ending within a single
state constitute intrastate commerce, thus - the theory tells us - falling under regulation of state
governments. However, both the interstate and intrastate shipments may have moved over the
same rails. In this simple example, one might easily read the urgent necessity for close co-
operation between state and national governments. This need has not gone unrecognised by
administrators of governmental programs at the state, local, and national levels.
Nevertheless, national and state interests often conflict in the political arena. Pressures may be
brought to bear on state legislators which differ from those felt by members of the national
Congress. Disagreement over the proper division of powers between states and the national
government often lies beneath a conflict of interests. But no "best" formula has been discovered for
drawing a dividing line between state powers and national powers.The men who wrote the United
States Constitution did the best they could in the face of circumstances which confronted them at
the time. The state-national power dispute had raged persistently ever since. What are "states'
rights"? It is obvious that, throughout United States history, "states' rights" has arisen repeatedly
as the anguished wail of any interest which felt it was being treated unsympathetically at a given
moment by the national government. The source of the cry would seem to depend on whose ox is
being gored.
1. In the author's point of view, the basic problem in establishing clear guidelines related to
interstate commerce would be
a. As the power of the federal government increases, the power of the states decreases
b. State and national governments have not effectively co-operated in defining their areas of
control
c. Federal authorities have abused their constitutional power to regulate commerce
d. The rapid proliferation of transportation networks has undermined federal authority
2. Federalism is best described as
a. Dividing the powers of the federal government into three distinct branches of government
b. A system that provides for continuous checks on federal authority
c. A system that limits central government power
d. A system in which the state and federal governments have distinct functions
3. The author implies that modern federalism
a. Has limited the states' police powers
b. Can be categorised as a distinct two-tier system of government control
c. Is best explained as a system with diffused functions
d. Has not recognised the legitimate need for states' rights
4. Of the following, which would not be a primary reason for lack of co-operation between federal
and state governments?
57
a. Duplication of government services
b. Diversity of state laws
c. Regional planning
d. Conflict of interest
5. According to the passage, since there is no clear-cut formula for dividing state and national
powers.
a. State governments have been forced to delegate certain functions to the federal government
b. Conflicting state and national interests will have to be resolved in the political arena
c. Interstate co-operation is primarily a thing of the past
d. The role of the state has not been significantly altered
6. Intrastate commerce is
a. Commerce that is within state boundaries
b. Commerce that is between different states
c. Commerce that is primarily regulated by the national government
d. Commerce that depends on regional planning
7. A major factor in limiting federal-state co-operation would be
a. Extradition legislation
b. Conflicting political pressures
c. The growth of state police powers
d. National highway legislation

Passage II


The United States civil rights movement in its most important sense is as old as the introduction of
human slavery in the New World. From the beginning, the essential conflict of the civil rights
movement was inherent in the contradiction between, on the one hand, the practical economic
advantages and social status associated with slavery and racial oppression and, on other hand, the
Judeo-Christian ideals of love and brotherhood and their translation into the democratic ideology
of equality and justice. The presence of African slaves, visibly different from their owners in culture
and colour of skin, intensified this contradiction.
One could read the early history of the United States as an attempt to resolve the conflict by
continuing slavery while making grudging concessions to religious and democratic ideology. The
effort to try to convert some of the African slaves to Christianity and to teach some to read English
could be interpreted as the first "victory" of the civil rights movement, but at the same time it
paradoxically intensified the conflict. It would have been more consistent logically to leave the
African slaves unconverted and uneducated if they were to be kept in slavery. Even the economic
demands of slavery, however, required that the slaves be skilled, adaptable, and efficient. The fact
that such skills were being developed called attention to the humanity of the African and the
beginning of the end of human slavery in a society committed to social and political democracy.
The dynamics of the contemporary civil rights movement continues to reflect this struggle between
the desire to deny Black people full and unqualified status as human beings and the unquestioned
evidence that such denial cannot be based on fact. Once the Civil War and Reconstruction were
past, signs of a civil rights renaissance did not emerge until the 1940's, when Black resentment
mounted against segregation in the armed services and discrimination in employment. A new
period of overt and sustained protest had begun. In 1941, A. Philip Randolph threatened a march
on Washington to force President Roosevelt to issue the first executive order compelling fair
employment of Black people. Testimony to the depth of the ambivalence of the American nation of
civil rights was the fact that Roosevelt, himself generally considered one of the most liberal and
farseeing Presidents in United States history, only reluctantly issued this order. This conflict
between Roosevelt and Randolph marked the beginning of a new militance and assertiveness on
the part of Black people that has been sustained in different ways by different leaders ever since.
8. The first two paragraphs of the passage are primarily concerned with which of the following?
58


a. Challenging the value of an established point of view
b. Drawing conclusions based on newly discovered evidence
c. Presenting the details of a solution to a problem
d. Discussing the historical foundation of a problem
9. According to the author, an example of the "essential conflict" (line 2) of the United States civil
rights movement is the conflict between
a. Black and White religious beliefs about love and brotherhood
b. The economic benefits derived from slavery and the cost of teaching slaves skills
c. The usefulness of cheap labour and the unfairness of human enslavement
d. Judeo-Christian ideals and the moral ideology of a democratic nation
10. According to the passage, some citizens early in United States history dealt with the issues of
slavery and racial oppression by
a. Arguing that slavery was portrayed in the religious writings of both Jews and Christians and
was, therefore, acceptable
b. Depriving slaves of all training in an attempt to prevent their assimilation into society
c. Keeping Black people enslaved but granting them the right to practice the religion of the choice
d. Converting slaves to Christianity and educating them while still attempting to maintain the
institution of slavery
11. The passage suggests that the civil rights movement in the United States was LEAST eventful
during which of the following ten-year period?
a. 1855-1864
b. 1865-1874
c. The 1920's
d. The 1940's
12. The passage suggests that A. Philip Randolph's confrontation with President Roosevelt was
significant because it
a. Resulted in an executive order ending segregation in the armed forces
b. Represented a turning point in the methods used by those involved in the United States civil
rights movement
c. Marked the first time that a Black civil rights leader had dealt personally with a United States
President
d. Revealed the willingness of minority groups in the United States to adjust their demands for the
good of the nation
13. The next paragraph of the passage is most likely do deal with
a. The historical account of how Africans were brought first as slaves to the United States
b. The role played by the blacks in the Second World War
c. How the Civil Rights movement was carried further in the 1950's and 60's by leaders like Martin
Luther King
d. The stand that the Church took vis-a-vis the Civil Rights movement in USA

Passage III


Medieval thought differed radically from modern thought: whereas medieval scientists did not
doubt that certain precepts of the Church or the existence of God constituted true knowledge,
science today accepts as knowledge only that which can be verified scientifically. In the early
Middle Ages, mystical revelation was quite common. Partly because of the relative isolation of
places of learning and the loss of many classics, logical arguments were not accepted, especially in
theology - the "queen of the sciences."
When many ancient classics were reintroduced into Europe (by means of translation into Latin of
Arabic versions of the Greek) from Moslem Spain, new patterns of thought began to emerge; these
were considerably expanded by the Crusades. When Aristotle (and the commentaries upon him by
Averroes) were translated into Latin, revealed truth was no longer the accepted authority. The
59
Bible, works of the Church fathers, and Church decrees were not rejected, but it was felt that they
should be reconciled with logic and philosophy. The Scholastics were the group of clerics who
undertook the task of applying logic and philosophy to theology. In his work Si et Non (Yes and
No), Peter Abelard (1079-1142) of Paris stated the conflicting arguments of the various authorities,
in order to show their weaknesses. As a consequence, his colleagues considered him a heretic. Not
until the thirteenth century did the Latin translations of Aristotle and Averroes make their full
impact. Two of the most important Scholastics of this period were Saint Albertus Magnus and
Saint Thomas Aquinas. In his Summa Theologiae, Albertus Magnus tried to reconcile the thought
of Aristotle with medieval ideals; he was also interested in Aristotelian science. His most famous
pupil was Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-74). In his major work, the Summa Theological, Thomas
Aquinas set forth his precepts. He held that the supreme force in the universe was God, and that
He ruled by reason. Both God and His creations could be explained by logic. Thomas Aquinas did
not reject faith or revelation; however, he said that certain things beyond the grasp of man (such as
the creation of the universe and the Trinity) should be taken on faith. Saint Thomas's view of
reality was modelled on that of Aristotle. He held that there were ideal forms or universals
(essences for all concepts and objects), but that these ideal forms were present in each object and
not in heaven. Thus, the essence of all men was their humanity.
By the fourteenth century, mysticism had become widespread and there was a loss of faith in logic;
another system of thought, Nominalism, replaced the theories of Saint Thomas. Among the
forerunners of Nominalism was Duns Scotus (1265- 1398). Nominalists rejected the philosophical
explanation for things that could not be perceived or experienced; they held that tangible objects
had reality, not essences. For convenience, man gave a common name to similar things, but this
implied nothing about the essence or reality of those things. Nominalists said that divine matters
could only be explained by mystical faith whereas tangible objects were capable of being studied
logically. This reversion to mysticism accompanied the desire to look at objects thoroughly, and
this desire eventually led to the scientific approach.
14. In the philosophies of Saint Thomas Aquinas, all of the following are true except
a. He believed that God controlled the universe
b. He believed that acceptance of certain religious concepts on faith alone was in keeping with
Christian thought
c. He believed that tangible as well as intangible were real
d. He recognised that the inconsistencies in the Bible were not capable of being logically deduced
15. The best argument to account for the development of medieval thought would be
a. The Church no longer sufficed as an educational institution
b. Church scholars recognised that the Bible could be accepted wholly on scientific precepts
c. With the reintroduction of the ancient classics, revealed truth was not accepted as the standard
for inquiry
d. Latin and Greek translations of the Bible enabled the clerics to preach a secular religion
16. Of the following, which statement would be contrary to the precepts of Saint Thomas Aquinas?
a. Applying logic to religious theory would not conflict with the Bible
b. Ideal forms existed but not in the objects themselves
c. Man was capable of fully understanding divine mysteries
d. The Bible was the revealed word of God
17. Which of the following philosophers would have rejected the major philosophies of Aristotle?
a. Duns Scotus
b. Peter Abelard
c. Averroes
d. Saint Albertus Magnus
18. In what century did Saint Thomas Aquinas write Summa Theological?
a. 11
th

b. 12
th
c. 13
th
d 14
th

60


19. The passage implies that Nominalists were the forerunners to the scientific method because
a. They recognised that intangible objects has reality
b. The Bible could be verified scientifically
c. Medieval science began with the Nominalists
d. Tangible objects could be looked at thoroughly
20. Of the following, which statement about medieval Europe is false?
a. Lectures on the classics were usually given in the vernacular
b. The classes were reintroduced into Europe from Moslem Spain
c. Arabic translations of the Greek were translated into Latin
d. The Crusades helped to expand classical knowledge

Answer Key 13

1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (c) 12. (b) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (c) 16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (a)
61
Reading Exercise 14
Passage I


Only during the nineteen-thirties did Puerto Rico begin to deviate from colonial patterns and
develop her own industry. Though this study investigates mainland cultural influences in the
Island's economic development since 1930, attention is not focused on enterprises operated from
the mainland. These enterprises have flourished since the beginning of tax exemption, but their
operations are not characteristic of Puerto entrepreneur-ship. The influence of mainland
entrepreneurs on the Island and of government programs, however, has not been ignored.
I eschewed any attempt to determine what changes were good or bad for Puerto Rican life.
Economic efficiency often comes at the expense of social efficiency or the good life, but I withheld
judgment as far as possible.
The two most important forces operating in business are physical and cultural. Geography,
climate, cost of transportation, and location of population are all measurable. Culture, however,
involves psychological elements. No effort has yet made to relate these problematic cultural factors
to economic development, but by placing them within the economic process. I hope at least to
define the problem.
Data was drawn from interviews with established businessmen knowledgeable about the history of
business in the Island, interviews with younger entrepreneurs involved in important
manufacturing, prior statistics, government documents, and journalists' analysis covering the
period of mainland control. The older businessmen were employers of over a hundred workers,
though several managed family businesses of five hundred or more. The younger group headed
firms employing less than fifty workers.
For comparative purposes, data on entrepreneurial activity in the mainland came from interviews
with urban manufacturers and with a panel whose members were selected for diversity in business
activity in rural areas.
Questionnaires covered origins of the firm, character of mainland contacts, employee relations,
and government relations. Cultural influences were deduced rather than inquired about directly.
Mainland business practices were used as inexact basis for comparison. The in exactness arises
from the fact that comparable business activities are larger than those in the Island and operate at
a later stage of economic development. Furthermore, the influence of culture on business in the
United States has not been thoroughly analysed. Surprisingly, intensive research in the smaller test
area supplied better information than exists for the larger area. This is generally true of
investigations into business-culture relationships in larger Western countries.
In spite of these problems, it is possible to formulate hypotheses regarding the comparative
character of mainland and Puerto Rican entrepreneurship and the relation of general cultural
factors to business. It is first necessary, however, to sketch some aspects of Puerto Rican history
that determined the environment for entrepreneurship.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
a. Paraphrase a document
b. Provide an introduction
c. Explain the implications of a proposal
d. Refute previously accepted theories
2. The author's analysis is based on all of the following except
a. Personal interviews
b. Previous studies
c. Newspaper accounts
d. Psychology textbooks
3. The author suggests that cultural factors withstand systematisation because they
a. Occur infrequently
b. Change constantly
62
c. Are unrecognizable
d. Are intangible
4. The passage implies that the author wishes to describe the economic changes in Puerto Rico in a
tone that is
a. Humble
b. Reflective
c. Inspirational
d. Objective
5. The authors states that the discussion will include the period since 1930 because during that
period
a. Mainland influences were completely eliminated
b. Puerto Rico began to develop locally owned business
c. Government programs were created to aid private businessman
d. Puerto Rican businesses began to sell more products on the mainland
Passage II
The zoological units (technically, polups) of every coral mass are of basic coelenterate design, each
a simple and usually tiny thimble of translucent tissue, fringed, flowerlike, with a corona of waving
tentacles, and each loaded with symbiotic algae. The coral polyp surrenders some of its autonomy;
affixing its limestone hut snugly to those of its neighbours. What factors or benefits support this
type of social cohesion are unknown. In any case, the resulting limestone structure is
architecturally distinct for each coral species, of which there are some twenty-five hundred
throughout the marine world. A cursory glance into a pool reveals platters, tiers, cerebrally
convoluted lumps, fans, a forest of antler-like branchings - each representing a discrete species.
Frustrating, however, to any attempt at quick identification is the fact that a coral colony growing
in a quiet tide pool may vary considerably in configuration from that of the identical species
located on the buffeted outer reef. Clearly, the form into which the individual stone chambers are
welded is affected by the physical character of the environment.
After the normal demise of coral polyps, their calcareous remains persist, and on these grow new
polyps, with new limestone thus over being added to the sun-exposed outer surface of the ancestral
structure. In the course of geological time, this amassment of coral gravestones - along with a
miscellaneous accumulation of mollusk shells, arthropod and echinoderm husks, foraminifera
shells, and the leavings of such calcareous sea plants as Lithothamnion and Porolithon - builds
shores, atolls, and islands of staggering bulk. Some reefs grow with only moderate speed, others so
rapidly as to render obsolete any navigation charts older than twenty years.
The vast tonnage of limestone underlying every reef's viable upper crust may extend downward
even thousands of feet, and this seems puzzling in view of calcareous deposition having occurred
only in the sun-illumined shallows of the surface zone. A generally accepted explanation holds that
atolls and other coral structures thicken vertically in response to the sea floor's slow subsidence,
provided, of course, that reef growth at the surface is fast enough to keep pace with bottom
sinkage.
Among destructive elements continually at work on the reef are, paradoxically, those hosts of
creatures that themselves find the limestone labyrinth a refuge - the bacteria and protozoa; the
sponges, echinoderms, and worms; the mollusks, shrimps, and crabs; the legions of glittery reef
fishes - all rubbing, boring, burrowing, and tearing at what the coral masons and their algae
collaborators have hewn from sunlight, water, and mineral. And finally, the sea itself, with its
eroding tides, violent storms, and crushing surf, contributes to the reef's destruction.
6. This passage is primarily concerned with discussing the
a. Identification of coral
b. Life cycle of coral
c. Nature of coral deposits
63
d. Origin of islands, atolls, and reefs
7. According to the passage, what happens to the remains of dead coral polyps?
a. They dissolve into the water
b. They become a base for new deposits
c. They are inhabited by algae
d. They are quickly destroyed by erosion
8. According to the passage, the relationship between coral polyps and algae is one of
a. Parasitism
b. Enmity
c. Predation
d. Co-operation
9. Which of the following can be inferred about the ocean floor under a very thick coral reef?
I. It has been slowly sinking over a long period of time
II. It is composed of limestone
III. It used to be near the surface of the ocean
a. I only
b. II only
c. I and II only
d. I and III only
10. The style of the passage can best be described as
a. Argumentative
b. Rhetorical
c. Contemplative
d. Expository

Passage III


The Circumlocution Office was (as everybody knew without being told) the most important
department of the government. No public business of any kind could possibly be done at any time
without the acquiescence of the Circumlocution Office. It was equally impossible to do the plainest
right and to undo the plainest wrong without the express authority of the Circumlocution Office.
This glorious establishment had been early in the field, when the one sublime principle involving
the difficult art of governing a country was first distinctly revealed to the modern mind. It had
been foremost to study that bright revelation and to carry its shining influence through the whole
of the official proceedings. Whatever was required to be done, the Circumlocution Office was
beforehand with all the public departments in the art of perceiving - How Not To Do It.
It is true that How Not To Do It was the great study and object of all public departments and
professional politicians all round the Circumlocution Office. It is true that every victorious political
party, elected because it had upheld a certain thing as necessary to be done, was no sooner come
into office than it applied its utmost faculties to discovering How Not To Do It. All this is true, but
the Circumlocution Office went further.
The Circumlocution Office went on mechanically, every day, keeping this wonderful, all-sufficient
wheel of statesmanship, How Not To Do It, in motion. The Circumlocution Office was down upon
any ill-advised public servants who were going to do it (or who appeared to be, by any surprising
accident, in remote danger of doing it) with a memorandum, and a letter instructions that
extinguished them.
This spirit of national efficiency in the Circumlocution Office had gradually led to its having
something to do with everything. Mechanics, philosophers, petitioners, people with grievances,
people who wanted to prevent grievances, people who couldn't get rewarded for merit, and people
who couldn't get punished for demerit - all were indiscriminately tucked up under the
Circumlocution Office's mountain of loose papers. Indeed, numbers of people were lost in the
Circumlocution Office. Unfortunates who had been wronged, who in slow lapse of time had passed
64


safely through other public departments, got referred at last to the Circumlocution Office and
never reappeared in the light of a day. Committees met upon them, secretaries minuted upon
them, commissioners gabbled about them, clerks registered, checked, and ticked them off, and
they melted away. In short, all the business of the country went through the Circumlocution Office,
except the business that never came out of it; and that was prodigious.
11. Which of the following titles best describes the passage?
a. An Objective Record of the Circumlocution Office
b. How to Use the Circumlocution Office
c. An Ironic View of a Government Institution
d. Crimes and Abuses of the New Government
12. The style and point of view suggest that the passage is most likely drawn from which of the
following sources?
a. The report of an official of the Circumlocution Office
b. A carefully researched account by a historian
c. The diary of a successful politician
d. A description of a problem by a satiric observer
13. Which of the following best describes the author's style in the second paragraph?
a. Comical inflated with superlatives
b. Highly specific in its examples
c. Alternately formal and informal
d. Heavily dependent on personal memories
14. The author would most likely view the Circumlocution Office as which of the following?
a. A brutal monster
b. A beneficent dictator
c. A gigantic roadblock
d. An admirable masterpiece
15. The author uses all the following to support the main point of the passage except
a. Repetition of a motto
b. Grandiose language
c. Listing of examples
d. Extensive quotation

Answer Key 14

1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)
11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (b)
65
Reading Exercise 15
Passage I


Flying alone in an open plane is the purest experience of flight possible. That pure experience is
felt at its most intense in Acrobatic flying, when you are upside down, or pointed at the sky or at
the earth, and moving in ways that you can only in the unsubstantial medium of the air. Acrobatic
flying is a useless skill in its particulars-nobody needs to do a loop or a roll, not even a fighter pilot,
but this skill extends your control of the plane and yourself and makes extreme actions in the sky
comfortable. When you reach the top of a loop, upside down and engine at full throttle, and tilt
your head back to pick up the horizon line behind you, you are as far outside instinctive human
behaviour as you can go-hanging in space, the sky below you and the earth above, inscribing a
circle on emptiness. And then the nose drops across the horizon, your speed increases and the
plane scoops through into normal flight, and you are back in the normal world, with the earth put
back in its place. The going out and coming back are what makes a loop so satisfying.
After a while, that is. At first it was terrifying, like being invited to a suicide that you didn't want to
commit. "This is a loop," my instructor said casually. He lowered the plane's nose to gain airspeed,
and then pulled sharply up. The earth, and my stomach, fell away from me; and we were upside
down, and I could feel gravity clawing at me, pulling me out into the mile of empty space between
me and the ground. I grabbed at the sides of cockpit and hung on until gravity was on my side
again.
"You seemed a little nervous that time," the instructor said when the plane was right side up again.
"You've got to have confidence in that seat belt, or you'll never do a decent loop. So this time, when
we get on top, I want you to put both arms out of the cockpit." And I did it. It was like stepping off
a bridge, but I did it, and the belt held, and plane came round. And after that I could fly a loop. It
was, as I said, satisfying.

Passage II


The black plane dropped spinning, and flattened out spinning the other way; it began to carve the
air into forms that built wildly and musically on each other and never ended. Reluctantly, I started
paying attention. Rahm drew high above the world an inexhaustibly glorious line; it piled over our
heads in loops and arabesques. The plane moved every way a line can move, and it controlled three
dimensions, so the line carved massive and subtle slits in the air like sculptures. The plane looped
the loop, seeming to arch its back like a gymnast; it spiralled and knifed west on one side's wings
and back east on another; it turned cartwheels, which must be physically impossible; it played with
its own line like a cat with yarn. How did the pilot know where in the air he was? If he got lost, the
ground would swat him.
His was pure energy and naked spirit. I have thought about it for years. Rahm's line unrolled in
time. Like music, it split the bulging rim of the future along its seem. It pried out the present. We
watchers waited for the split second curve of beauty in the present to reveal itself. The human
pilot, Dave Rahm, worked in the cockpit right at the plane's nose; his very body tore into the future
for us and reeled it down upon us like a curling peel.
Like any fine artist, he controlled the tension of the audience's longing. You desired, unwittingly, a
certain kind of roll or climb, or a return to a certain portion of the air, and he fulfilled your hope
slantingly, like a poet, or evaded it until you thought you would burst, and then fulfilled it
surprisingly, so you gasped and cried out.
The oddest, most exhilarating and exhausting thing was this; he never quit. The music had no
periods, no rests or endings; the poetry's beautiful sentence never ended; the line had no finish;
the sculpture forms piled overhead, one into another without surcease. Who could breathe, in a
world where rhythm itself had no periods?
I went home and thought about Rahm's performance that night, and the next day, and the next.
66


I had thought I knew my way around beauty a little bit. I knew I had devoted a good part of my life
to it, memorizing poetry and focusing my attention on complexity of rhythm in particular, on
force, movement, repetition, and surprise, in both poetry and prose. Now I had stood among
dandelions between two asphalt runways in Bellingham, Washington, and begun learning about
beauty. Even the Boston Museum of Fine Arts was never more inspiring than this small north-
western airport on this time-killing Sunday afternoon in June. Nothing on earth is more
gladdening than knowing we must roll up our sleeves and move back the boundaries of the
humanly possible once more.
1. According to the author of Passage I, training in Acrobatic flying
a. Has only theoretical value
b. Expands a pilot's range of capabilities
c. Is an essential part of general pilot training
d. Come naturally to most pilots
e. Should only be required of fighter pilots
2. The word "medium" means
a. Midpoint
b. Appropriate occupation
c. Method of communication
d. Environment
e. Compromise
3. To "pick up the horizon line" is to
a. Lift it higher
b. Sport it visually
c. Measure its distance
d. Choose it eagerly
e. Increase its visibility
4. Passage I suggests that the author's grabbing at the sides of the cockpit was
a. Instinctive
b. Terrifying
c. Essential
d. Habit-forming
e. life-threatening
5. By putting both arms out of the cockpit, the author
a. Chooses the path of least resistance
b. Enables himself to steer the plane more freely
c. Relies totally on his seat belt to keep him safe
d. Allows himself to give full expression to his nervousness
e. is better able to breathe deeply and relax
6. The author's use of the word "satisfying" represents
a. A simile
b. An understatement
c. A fallacy
d. A euphemism
e. A hypothesis
7. The author of Passage II mentions her initial reluctance to watch the stunt flying
in order to
a. Demonstrate her hostility to commercial entertainment
b. Reveal her fear of such dangerous enterprises
c. Minimize her participation in aerial acrobatics
d. Indicate how captivating the demonstration was
e. Emphasize the acuteness of her perceptions
8. By fulfilling "your hope slantingly" the author means that
a. The pilot flew the plane at an oblique angle
67


b. Rahm distorted the desires of his audience
c. The pilot had a bias against executing certain kinds of rolls
d. Rahm refused to satisfy the audience's expectations directly
e. The pilot's sense of aesthetic judgement was askew
9. The references in Passage II to "asphalt runways" and "the Boston Museum of
Fine Arts" serve to
a. Illuminate the difference between the East and the Pacific Northwest
b. Evoke traditional aesthetics in order to discard it unorthodox notions of beauty
c. Give a sense of how far the author has had to travel
d. Show how unlikely a setting this was for such a profound aesthetic experience
e. Convey a faithful picture of the two places.
10. At the end of Passage II, the author is left feeling
a. Empty in the aftermath of the stunning performance she has seen
b. jubilant at the prospect of moving from Boston to Washington
c. Exhilarated by her awareness of new potentials for humanity
d. Glad that she had not wasted any more time memorizing poetry
e. Surprised by her response to an art form she had not previously believed possible
11. The author of Passage II does all of the following EXCEPT
a. Pose a question
b. Develop a simile
c. Refute an argument
d. State a conclusion
e. Draw a contrast
12. Compared to Passage II, Passage I is
a. Less informative
b. More tentative
c. More argumentative
d. More speculative
e. Less lyrical
13. How would the author of Passage II most likely react to the assessment of
acrobatic flying?
a. She would consider it too utilitarian an assessment of an aesthetic experience
b. She would reject it as an inaccurate description of the pilot's technique
c. She would admire it as a poetic evocation of the pilot's art
d. She would criticize it as a digression from the author's main point
e. She would regard it as too effusive to be appropriate to its subject

Passage III


Even a muddy pond contributes to the ecosystem that affects the environment. A vernal or
springtime pool is only a few feet deep and lasts only from March until midsummer but yields a
considerable number of diverse life forms. Like all of nature, there are predators and victims, and a
particular living being may be one or the other, depending on its age and characteristics. One may
find masses of spotted salamander eggs floating just under the surface of the pond, left behind by
adults who entered the pond early in the season before predators arrived. Other amphibians and
reptiles return to the recurrent pond year after year to reproduce, as their ancestors have done for
years.
Various forms of algae grow well in the murky water, if there is sufficient sunlight. They in turn
produce and transmit oxygen to the salamander embryos and other young that are not yet able to
survive outside of water. Diving beetles feast on eggs and larvae deposited in the pond by the
salamanders and other amphibians that have called it home. Tadpoles are born in the late spring
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and feed on the algae. The pond also invites wood frogs staking their territory and courting
potential mates, calling as laud as quacking ducks.
By the end of the short season, the pond dries to spongy mud and then dries further, becoming
covered with leaves and debris, until the following spring when the process repeats itself.
14. The word vernal in the second sentence means most nearly the same as
a. Springtime
b. Pool
c. deep
d. Transitory
15. What is the author's purpose stated in the first sentence "Even a muddy pond
contributes to the ecosystem that affects the environment"?
a. To explain that a vernal pool is very muddy
b. To describe how the vernal pool fits into the larger environmental picture
c. To explain that mud is important to the environment
d. To show how algae grows
16. The word yields in the second sentence means most nearly the same as
a. Produces
b. Contributes to
c. Kills
d. Harms
17. The word diverse in the second sentence means most nearly the same as
a. Distinct
b. Living
c. Numerous
d. Primitive
18. The word i in the third sentence refers to
a. Predator
b. Pond
c. Living being
d. Nature
19. Which sentence in the first paragraph indicates that a young life form might be
prey to an older life form?
a. A vernal or springtime pool is only a few feet deep and lasts only from March until midsummer
but yields a considerable number of diverse life forms.
b. Like all of nature, there are predators and victims, and a particular living being may be one or
the other, depending on its age and characteristics.
c. One may find masses of spotted salamander eggs floating just under the surface of the pond, left
behind by adults who entered the pond early in the season before predators arrived.
d. Other amphibians and reptiles return to the recurrent pond year after year to reproduce, as their
ancestors have done for years.
20. Which sentence in the first paragraph indicates that life forms continue to act in
the same way as the same life forms did previously?
a. A vernal or springtime pool is only a few feet deep and lasts only from March until midsummer
but yields a considerable number of diverse life forms.
b. Like all of nature, there are predators and victims, and a particular living being may be one or
the other, depending on its age and characteristics.
c. One may find masses of spotted salamander eggs floating just under the surface of the pond, left
behind by adults who entered the pond early in the season before predators arrived.
d. Other amphibians and reptiles return to the recurrent pond year after year to reproduce, as their
ancestors have done for years.
21. The word murky in the first sentence of the second paragraph means most nearly
the same as
a. Clear
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b. Cloudy
c. Cold
d. Life-producing
22. The word they in the first sentence of paragraph two refers to
a. Salamander embryos
b. Young
c. Forms of angle
d. Sunlight
23. Which of the following does the author imply in the first two sentences of
paragraph two?
a. The life forms in the pool live in water their entire lives.
b. Some of the life forms live in water first and later on land.
c. The life forms found in the pool do not require oxygen to live.
d. Algae is strictly a food source

Answer Key 15
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (d) 10. (c)
11. (b) 12. (e) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (b) 16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (b) 20. (d)
21. (b) 22. (c) 23. (b)

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