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3/19/2012

3/19/2012  Engineers’ main concern: › mechanical properties of the metal, however, › Compositions › Shaping
 Engineers’ main concern: › mechanical properties of the metal, however, › Compositions › Shaping
 Engineers’ main concern:
› mechanical properties of the metal,
however,
› Compositions
› Shaping history
› Heat treatment
Have tremendous effect on the behavior of
the material.
 Extractive Metallurgy > deals with processing of the natural occurring raw materials converting in
 Extractive Metallurgy
> deals with processing of the natural occurring
raw materials converting in to useful metals
and alloys.
 Adaptive Metallurgy (Physical Metallurgy)
> which deals with identifying, controlling and
varying the properties of the metals and
alloys as per requirement of the mankind.
 Metals are the backbone of the engineering industry being the most important Engineering materials.
 Metals are the backbone of the
engineering industry being the most
important Engineering materials.
 In comparison to other engineering
materials such as wood, ceramics, fabric
and plastics, metals are used in:
› Large tonnage
› Offers very wide range of properties
› Highest possible strength
 Mechanical strength  Ductility & toughness  Hardness  Fatigue strength  Corrosion resistance
 Mechanical strength
 Ductility & toughness
 Hardness
 Fatigue strength
 Corrosion resistance
 Wear resistance
 Creep resistance
 Resistance to heat and oxidation
damage
 Resistance to radiation damage
Wear resistance  Creep resistance  Resistance to heat and oxidation damage  Resistance to radiation

3/19/2012

3/19/2012  Iron is allotropic in nature because it can exist in many forms at different
 Iron is allotropic in nature because it can exist in many forms at different
 Iron is allotropic
in nature
because it can
exist in many
forms at
different
temperatures
› See cooling
curve having
different crystal
structure at
different
temperature
T e m p e r a t u r e Carbon content
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Carbon content
 Iron › Chemical Symbol – Fe › exist in different forms at different temperature.
 Iron
› Chemical Symbol – Fe
› exist in different forms at different temperature.
This properties gives the rise to many different
alloys and unique ability to alter properties of iron
alloys by heating and cooling at different rates.
 “Heat Treatment”
› is the heating and cooling of various metals and
alloys for attaining certain mechanical properties.
› The Fe-C Phase diagram will show how iron
behaves with carbon addition.
 And when carbon is added in iron, it form the iron alloy called “Steel”.
 And when carbon is added in iron, it
form the iron alloy called “Steel”.
 Alloy means a material that has metallic
properties and is composed of two or
more chemical elements of which at
least one is a metal.
 In this presentation we will discuss the
iron carbon alloy and its phase diagram.
which at least one is a metal.  In this presentation we will discuss the iron

3/19/2012

 Ferrite – % carbon up to 0.006% Phase – solid ferrite  Pearlite –
 Ferrite – % carbon up to 0.006%
Phase – solid ferrite
 Pearlite – when carbon content reaches
0.83%
Phase – solid Pearlite or (ferrite + cementite)
 Cementite – when carbon content increased
up to 1.7%.
Phase – solid Pearlite + cementite
-Improve the toughness - Improve the machinability - Increase the hardness - Refine the grain
-Improve the toughness
- Improve the machinability
- Increase the hardness
- Refine the grain structure
- Increase the ductility
-Remove the residual stresses
- Improve the wear resistance
 Pearlite structure › produced when austenite is cooled in very slow rates.
 Pearlite structure
› produced when austenite is cooled in very slow
rates.
 Austenite > is the structure above the eutectoid point or the phase above the
 Austenite
> is the structure above the eutectoid
point or the phase above the critical
temperature of 723 deg C ( 1333 deg F)
Phase – solid
Most heat treatment process should reach first
the austenitic structure (homogenous) prior to
cooling to reach the desired material
properties.
 Pearlite  Bainite  Martensite
 Pearlite
 Bainite
 Martensite
 Bainite › is a result when austenite is cooled at a rate (controlled temperature)
 Bainite
› is a result when austenite is cooled at a rate
(controlled temperature) lower than what is needed
to form martensite.

3/19/2012

 Martensite › a microstructure produced after quenching Quenching - The process of cooling austenite
 Martensite
› a microstructure produced after quenching
Quenching
- The process of cooling austenite very
rapidly or at a controlled rate to achieve
a desired microstructure.
* The rapid cooling suppresses the
formation of austenite to α + Fe3C
Use/applications - materials that demand a
hard material (e.g. knives, razor blades,
surgery tools, cutting tools, etc).
knives, razor blades, surgery tools, cutting tools, etc). No one is knowledgeable enough to know everything…
No one is knowledgeable enough to know everything… So take time to read and learn
No one is knowledgeable
enough to know everything…
So take time to read and learn
new things.
- Thank you very much for your time -
learn new things. - Thank you very much for your time -  The addition of
 The addition of carbon to steel causes the material to freeze over a temperature
 The addition of carbon to
steel causes the material to
freeze over a temperature
range and form another
structure with improve
properties.
 Carbon has the effect of
increasing hardness and
strength by heat treatment.
 This is the main reason why
carbon steel is widely used in
the engineering industry