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lr;ij:l t i ml i nur indu >*

A * -
i * "f t. " 1 . U *
!i J
Attj einer Ihtrg
l'unies,, hl akn oui dci 1 . nur
Ohci i der aile Hitler:
I ruhen (lehcn ItcgeiiKiheiier.
l ' ml der , rau si i n i l ui i h da. sCiuei
r i i i gov. l i liscn Dart Haare,
l i t i i l \ r r skui er i Itrusi und Kr.lUw
Sn/. m vielt' hundert lahre
Ohm in da sullen Klause.
UratiKcn m cs still LIIHI i r uxl l uh,
Alio sind in";, " };e/ogcii,
Waldes einsam singen
In den leeren r-cnslerNigei]
Line l l mh/c i l (.'ihn da unten
Aril ( k i n Rhein in Sonnenscheine,
Musikanten spielen intiiilcr,
Und diese hone Kraul, die weinet
I .illen asleep on his WJtili
upl hc r ei sl hc ol dk ni phi .
Yonder rainstorms pass hv
. mil llu- m Ws rustle i hrnuej i l l u
I.Hike ivurk.
Overgrown Ins heard anil hair,
| ielnlieil ami mi l l es.
lie has Iscen si nni g mam unt unes
l l pl hei ei i i Ins silenl eell.
Wi l l i i i i i l , ii is Mill .nul pcncHi l ;
evcrynnc lia.s goni down ml o ihe valle y wood hirdssine.
ni Ihe ci nph wnul i i war i l i cs.
weihliiiK par u i.s Haul i ng do I here
. i toi i j i the Ithnie, m sunshine.
Musk laus are pl.t ingg. nlv.
ami i hcheaul i l ul bride sliei.swei-pinj .
War r i or k ni gb l s arc, a mong ol hei t hi ngs, supposed to rescue damsels i n dis-
I r e , Mm the ol d k ni ghl i n Ei i hendwI Ts poem is obl i vi ous l o (he dm.scl in distress
who passes by l i l cr al l y under his n o . The t i me i.s out of j o i n t - a s the rnu.sii i.s
perhaps r emar ki ng via the syncopat i ons In its C maj or episodes.
I. Karen . Ilimkiilang . i rpi r,. , fiillv jlleenrical and . (or Ihr not hei arlrelr
" r.k!iei>Juru\ Aal eaie, Kare j d Schumanns /vfertvvi-. Opus >) ,' Ihe luamul>, Monolog)
IIWII,s7iusS7She. ,,
u,. Mhjuh. -,. liU,,,
hlisFriisJr,ihli. ,,taro<s
l,,miell. n,,
l ;
u. ,rd,i,|

c r n , V I
" ' "" Kvllhauser ta mountain in the l l l i i nnsi an I larrJ," aMjtliMjj |
r i i mi i y u,
return and Ic.ut ihr German ftafk , ,| ,
t l r
, ,
m c
| n r o T Wi t . " bride represents t*naiwi ",
170 ' i n 'theSthiunauu*
h die bri de distressed? I think it is saleeven necessarylit suppose that slu-
ts, in one way 01 another. The endi ng of the poem makes no sense il her tears .tie
tears ol joy. VVcare i leal ly meant to be shoikeilancl broughl up short by .1 sense ol
puzzlement about die endingliterally, about ihe last wotd.- I he sense ol uncer-
tainly ibal we feel in this connecti on is. I shall soon argue, projected sironglv by the
niusii ol Si humano' s setting
the poem is laden with sharp antitheses. 1 he statue is"oben' ' 111 a high fortress,
sttirounded by woods", ihe wedding parlv is \\j unten" in the river valley. Ihe
stalue is old anil mule, the bride young and female. he statue "lives" only in the
past, the bri de is very much in Ihe presentand as ,1 bride, she also invokes our
sense of the future. The statue is ,1 warrior, the bride ,1 civilian. The statue, white
twill petrifaction, remains rigid and lru/en; ihe liride, in hei while gown, is pli.inl
and warm. "I lie stalue is cotittned jnd motionless; ihe bride moves swiftly along
the river, "the Maille is in adark chamber; ihe bride is in bright sunshine. I he slalue
is alone; the bri de is surrounded bv .1 IIIHSV throng ol people. lew buds pipe
mournlully to the slalue, and lliev are "solitary' ; the musicians ol ihe wedding
parly play luslilv [or ihe bride, and lliev aie immersed in ,1 highly soual nois\
throng. Itamsi orms pass bv the slalue"nvei yonder" Idtubeni ; the weeping ol die
bride, which also passes him by, is by way ill contrast very much m the loreground
id die poetk scene '
In dus connecti on, one ni.iv reasonable look lot aspects ol die song that pro-
lecl contrasts ol .1 sort. I he present chaplei proposes stich a um
trail, specifically an antithesis between "ji i i i eni ' e-l' hi ygi an modality and "mod-
ern'' a-minoi lonahly.
Ihe musical uileiplav ol these organizations
woman jionyeuii, sllllliol lor.111.111011 whu li.alsii.1 huile, an ilk lew sti nki l toi Ihe I" hnsiian
eliiikh. viilshi on the one rivoi represents ihe murscut ijeiiiiaiihisiur>.Ahim-hei {I linden
tang i.ilinii.ih/cs al sunn lenglli llu- giugi aphu jl inipussihihlies involved in sikh au jlli-,, jl lus
lapuMiton ul'lhe Ithlnc wnlt llu nmiirilains| is llu saviolu nl die Ccriuan penpk, die single tig-
uie who could restore sljhlhli. lehgliHls harmony, and the peace tit vanished golden agi
A newera is .11 hand Vcl, while llu 1 ivei Hnyvsihroligh unie, 1 he .11)1 km kingieinaiiislin/.eu mMini
the hiule and llu Magill . . ji e kepi ,I|UII And IliC hndi , ifUllc uildelsl.uidjhlv, yvicps"(SKIl-Sm)
2. Karlheinz Sililjger, 111 "11 skulk- Idylle, Silliliiuiius Liilicrulorli Verstndnis nil Lied op W/Vll tsttil
emei Hurgl."/!/1/1-/JI1 MKsiini..eji<i/i/i,2i 2ilsJ?6i, I19-12,2. Jeunes some aiuiiiioitioilusiopii
"I he hiul verse remains open lor iiilerpiItalian is il , sillied upki lmgs. 01 llu perteption thai
Ilk rnelion.i ] , is Riving wji he Ileal li tier [eel li- it lui mu t.,km il ImJe ami L.HINC- hci til
weep' lit jjiv ease II gives risi lu j tilseojuholniljtiiig inipelcis. like llu- unexpectedly ironie echo | J I
1 lie end ul I inanva Heine pneiii"! 122). [|)u-Sihluls/.eilt slehi del Interpretation nlleii 1st es Fieuile.
Ituhruiigoilei die Frkcmilliks lies sihwankcnilen luundcs, du Itraill heklllen h.ll und /um Weinen
liriuglr Lslsl 111 Jedecn l-allem Moment der lini.ition.,ihnluh dein unerw.irlet manischen Awskljllg
eielei Heine ( j e dn hl c. ,) While Silllagci does mil rule mil Icjrsol Jiiv,ls I JoIk append .isitg
gesliv kutlliole In lite lirsl scntuue ahuvc The |epiiiiyinous| Weeping | i uu nl] I ulien
dmIT-, Ro/)mm es, bew.uh hei desiiiu.lii have iihiaiiied J hushand ,1 man she dues-mil kive'Viil'id1
(/-meinii tlieul aus den KIMIIIIII-II ITUII NOKII S htklagi das Sihkksal, einen ungeliebten
Mann /um Hallen / hekntnmen )
.1.1 am indchied 10 Uchorah Stein, who pointed out manv ul these aoiiihcses m J lecture on Scliti-
mann's FietieildoiH I iivteillri'isgnen 111 N m-emhei lyft.allhc meeting ut llu Sijeielyhlr Hi c
ury m New Haven I have added some liirlliei antitheses of my own.
. llehulahSlein (see nolc .1} ptu[>osed aeonlrasi luiween Iwo rtineuoiial keys.c illinol and a nimm.the
tlinsu mnjulalllie, tioill line in Ihe olhei during eat h ol the two slrophes Her ule.i provided aeonsld-
It 9 Alll einer /iure "- 171
eu.i ds the idea that "the statue 'lives'in the past," while "the bride is very much in
the present." 'lb the poim in this connection is die shadowy presence ol the narrat-
ing persona m the poem. This person is situated .11 an ambivalent level, for hi m
like those in lie wedding parlydi e statue is"oben,",uid he ihus views llieaniieul
world of chivalry from I he standpoint ol present-day reality. Util also lot himlike
the statuethe wedding-parly is going past "da unten," and he remainslike the
sl.iiuea dlai lied observer ol the present-day crisis viewing that risis sub specie ,tc-
(eniilalis r.uliei than as an active participant in its peripaleia ' In my reading,
the ambiguity between ,1 minor and e-l'hrygi.ui modalities enacts and is enacted
by this dual nature of the ambivalent narrating persona. The uncertainly dial we
leel ,il the end ol the poem as 10whv the bri de is weeping, an uncertainly lo whiih
I alluded earlier, is also well projected by the musical ambivalence just proposed.
Ihe reader will recall in this cotilicclion mv analysis ol Aiiltliip wollt' :<h/ml
iiTzuee. In last, I undertook that analysis parilv as a preliminary e.seiiisc lor the
prcscni one: I wauled lo show thai Schumann was sensitive m intrinsic ambigui-
ties between modern mi nor hall-tadcnics and lull c.kleines in a siHIeentb-ii'rilurv
sort ol I'hrygian mode, and willing- lo cvploil themwhen (he musical dev i n suilcd
his dramatic purposes.
Thai said, some dillerences bel ween Aul einer and Anhing* wollt' ich should
be examined at once. Filsl ol all, the music ol Auhing* is ihrough-coniposed. while
Ani n u n Pure comprises iwo parallel slrophes thai proieit essenlialb ihe same
nuisic. Then loo,/ln/uiiys progresses harmomcalb Irom ils beginning to Ms end, .is
* V in minor, 01 ,ts it i : m Phrygian. In unmask ,1/ emei mire prolongs one
Slide through each ol its Iwo strophes (and hence through its entirely), protecting
a harmonically sialic ; in minor, or i : m I'luygiaii.'" 1 inallv, die song
inllows Anlmig* ni ils vile, Myrihen mnl RUMW, ulule m the (m.iior) kev im
riidilt- impellis tor mi own I lllmllls hei tdt.i tueause I tjnjiol a modulation Iront
L iniiuii ,u ihclu-guiiiiiigol die song, loan iiii.iinhiuliuus luneliolial .1 muiiH al ilserul I he Imali.i-
deiiieol llu vinii; in tin hearing, uutsl hi ilmtllgltoll. as lo I. or \ ein runs and am I eelilikih there
liliisl pcrloicehe Phrygian, nul limituuutlv
Hnitlenljiig [/ erne' tttifft, 5K21 Willi's llut "Ihe lonjlily is uiidei lite miklal inlllieiiic ol
,..' I eamtm hiai what she means, hcvond ihr proniiiienieof l> natural as.i degree in
die musiicipiallv tiuisisteni with e Phrygian, .nul more so when nilcniilitig harninnkiillv with
Viinous I nalui.iL .ippnuuhing ihe llll.ll cadence. She lu-heves llu endol Ihe sung has been
"misitlenlihcd" In JII.IIVSH whohave lomulercd II Phrvgiatl. while "ihe eai easily rciogni/cs ihe
luintisl.lkuhle sound ol .. he 1 rue |.t iiiiiiui | doi ni i i jnfohi d.l Ml cans not soejsih lOllvuktd
.is hers is. N tu doI think thai I'uleittriiij's ear would easily have mugni/ed ihe unniisiakaltlc sound
ul atrue ,-iiiuinr ilomtiijni.The relereuee to Paleslriiiiisoai will he jiifked un laier on.
i.Schljgei ("ErslarrW Idvile." ] 21 M'hscrvcs. "It is this vit-ii uoni an elevated vantage poim dial is
also relied upon in inaiiv paintings hvt. .isjvu Jtjvid riiedikh.wlii'reatiguri
in the loi'egrntintl issei nil
mshadiHvv retiel .t^.iuisi an mlinilely exleiiilin(ibiidse.ipe."IEs isi di es... Illuk von ritieiii erhnhieii
latidputikl JUS.der .uieli von vielen tieinaldeii Casp.u tiavul l-ru-di-iehs [177 }-l !(i| veruaui ist, in
denen eine tiesinli un Vordergrund steh silhniielleiiluill vin emei endlos weilen Lanil.scli.iri .
alihetil-1 Schlager, however, does nol ilhiilss the view upward Intni the vantagc-poml ul laihen-
durlTs nanalor, upward Inward the slalue. ! lake this duality-ol view, hoili upand down, tohe a sig-
nilk.inl aspcel ol die ,- (and Ihe nliiMt J.
r, I rule nut hearingdie strophe as a" ion" thai heginsm luneliolial e-minni jnd ends on a noil
lonal e-Phrygian. (I I .nu lu hear the song as ktnjllv luiuluinal, I ivanl lohear II ut J minor, nul
"e minor."
172 s PARI m The Schumann!.
which the final bord ol Anhing* is a iliimiii.ini, is not related in any obvious mo-
livic or Ihenialk way lo Anfang*. In eonlrasi, die song lhat lollows Aiij einer Hurg
in Us cycle, In dei I runie 12), is very strongly related moliviutlly and ihcilldlically
to Aiij emei llnrg. I .veil more: iusl dial molivu-lhenial' k ivork, at the beginning of
In det Pretmtc (2), keeps alive and anive die ambiguity between a luniciiy and
e-toniiily lhal I have asserted of Aul enter Hing. Specifically, die -A-H-C figure
ol In tier Ireniile, measures 2-1, ileaily presents die basic melodic niolif ol Anl
einer Hurg, here "i n a mi nor" radier than "e mi nor" or "e Phrygian." And then nicu
sures t-. ol In der I rennte transpose the same motil "back" lo ihe original e-level
ol /tu/ einer llnrg, measures 1-2. The immediale jtixiapusiii.iii and progression ol"
u-lcvcl aiul e-level monf-lorms, over measures 2-S ol In der hvintk; recalls very
si rough' die middle of \ul einer Hing, where the piano interlude (niiii. IK-211 Iv-
gins bv presenting ihe molil and Us sei]uel"in .i,".nnl this is iminedialely followed
by Ihe beginning ol the second strophe (mm. 22-25), which li.ilispuses measures
18-21 so as lo present the molil and Us sequel "back in ."
bus, allhollgli ihe hnal ladeni e ol In der ireniile (2) is very loniliislvelv in a-miniu (widi tieneile l'uuahc).tme should be war), I iliuik, of hyi ng lo
make the o|x-ning measures yd thai song carry loo much weight, in delenitiiiing the
resolution ol auv ambi gui ty beiween a-minor and e-Phrygian just heard mAuj emei
llnrg. Wbalever modal aiiibigutties ol litis son one hears in Auf einer Hurg slroilgiv
lomtti ue nun die begi nni ng ol in ili- liemilell), lo be resolved musically in knur
ol lunclional u-minoi only al die end of In dri I lennle. The Iwo songs are Ihus m
some sense J pair ol musical pieces. And die pan, as such, is lu be hc'.tid in ,i luiii
tional a mui oi , when analyzeel in telrospeit from the ending ol In rlei fremde.
Why ihen analyze In, eine) Itnrg as il il were an itidependenl pteici 11re I
niusi plead thai Aul einet Burg projects such a strong pllcuoincnotogica] presence
in Us null lull I, as lo reiiilei unconiloflable any nul ion lhat it is merelyor even
pri mari lym the nature ol a musical prelude (domi nant preparation) for die
Ionic downbeat al the end ol the ne.xl song. Co support my plea, i would point oui
dial Anl emei llnrg is surely ihe more weighty of die Iwo songs from virtually any
aeslhelu point of view oilier than thai ol an abstract lunclional doni i nanl-and-
loni i .' In this connecti on, though there are certain points ol conlact between die
Iwo poems ( rutin hen, Widd, singing birds, Lmsamkcit, ,\m\ Ihe like), these ate fairly
commun materials of the poelic genre at hand, whereas die lexl ol in der ',
as a putative "rsolu ion" for the preceding poem, is nol well able lo surmount Ihe
overwhelming lacl dial die slalue jnd Ihe wedding parly are gone, leaving us wilh
our rjiieslioiis, once / enter Hing has concluded.
Then, mo, the musical Stimmung ol Aul einer Hnrg is solemn, majestic, la-
bored, learned, ami heavily (hoiigbllul, while the music of In ilci Fremde is more
si herzosodespi te the delicate tempo indication and the serious subject mailer ot
the lexl. This relation bei ween the iwo songs makes it diflicull lo pnl loo much^es-
I hei ii weigh I on the second song of die pair, as if they were say, prelude and lugue.
better model, to my way of thinking, would be two Stullen (for die two slrophes
7 Fven here, one tuighl argue ahstrjelly lhat the (hi perimetric weight ol a fiiiieiioiial V - I progres-
sion nil lie taken hv iht dominant harmony, rather than die tonic, in suiiahlc contests.
(! Aid einer Hurg
ol Anl aim Hurg), followed by ,m Abgoung Un der l rende). Using that model, I
cm argue ihe two Stallen might projet I Phrygian tonics o. functional
d ( , m m
hivaiendy, and the Abgcsoug (al ils end) releases the lension ol
Ihe ambivalence, providing a filmI ion ,,,,., cadence by way ol conclusion
A P hrygi an Voi ce - l e adi ng Ursatz for ( he St r ophe of Auf einer Burg
So l. I have ireaied die ideaol "Phrygian slrucltne' somewhal iiiipressmnisiicilly
I have pointed out (in note 4) the emphasis on harmonics containing natural and
I nalural.approatlnngi he final cdenceol d.esirophe.'l his sort ol'observatioi, could
be worked out m more detail lo show h,u die Intal cademe, as a musical gesltire
uinlormslova,iousol' lhccailcnielo,nita.sialegi,"| ' hrvgian"bv(",ei-ii,,,,i'
i heonsi s o| Iheseveuieenlh and eighteenth centuries (e.g., I Icibsi, I'rmiz, U'altbei
Kirnbetgei, lurk. Knecht, and Voglei I." Oilier aspeels of the sirophe. be-
sides ,ts hnal cadence, are also slyhslicallv h pte.ll ol large-scale I'hrvg,,.,, igainz.i.
lion In particulai, strong opening and hnal cadences on e, logcilier will, secondare
medial e de u e s on C and a, are very Irctjl.cnlly lound in composilions ol ihe six-
tecnlh Century commonly classified as kli omalk. loo. is the use ol a
mi nor hannonv as a means lo prolong udenli .i l e hariiiony. as u sloes to some cv
lenl approaching ihe final l ade mi ol the strophe,and tldoes
m llie piano interlude between the two slrophes. Then, loo, the pairing of principal
motif enlri es' "one" with i mi i ai i veenlnes "on ,,""-as,n measure l.or in the piano
tiilerlude - is a char.uicrisik aspeel ol sixlcciilh-ieniurv"l
liivgi,,i," rhelorn."
Although the gestural leaiures discussed in the preceding pai.tgraph are more
lh.ui iti.pressiomslie, ihey seem only incidental, poetic obeisances
tl von will, in ibeioiilexl ol a .Schenkerian analysis lhal would heat both strophes of
Aul enter Burg .is prolongations oi lunui onal a-minor V hannonv i n j 5"chenkethn
sense, preliminary features within a functional a-mi,.oi Ur*iu oc-
curs (only) wi lh, / der Ircimlc ,tnd whose final closure occurs (only) ,tl the end
ol /// i/o Prmie." I intend to show now lhat i( yvc restrict on. musical aitentiou
lo Ihe strophe ol Auf einer Burg itscll. as a smallet eonlexl lor musical perecplion
Ihen we can und a .|u.isi-.Sihenkenan voiic-leading Urmtz for lh.,1 slrophe-in-
ilscll. wliah can legitiniaiely Ix. asseried as a "Phrygian Urinn" lor lhal coniext
Such, voice-leading Urvifr can be only"c|"Sihc,ikerian, because ilssiruc-
lural upper voice, corresponding lo evenis in the vocal part of Ihe song, can nol
it uselul summary discussion I these theortsls" eadent, lomtui.n can he k.und ,n 1 Ml Hums
mil.,Un//( />riiiis(Stlivves.iiil.N.V.:IViidiagi)ii Press, IVtI, I7-31H
'J lipii,d"l>luvgi.u,'ihar.uie, I lespedsdiseiissid during the prneylingparagraph c-nihch-
seived in the S,,M,|,< !,, IMIey|rm.,\ mass S,e ,,,, ea Ihe //, | |, ,;, ,.,,,,.
imm hunk. There arc. ol enurse. ,,,,, iher iumpos.nul,s ol ,h,s son Manywere highly re
gaidedhvSchumann,. nested byhisleite. U.C. title,,, April 1. IHs* ,. pieces must he lell
fur ihe .,..,,,,,,. |r ,|
. k,y... in.lya.ltslicminds.andiheylutve Palestrma. !lael,.Meell,o,e,.'sla>.
runnels, el.. Iron. Ihe teller appears 111 ,.- S,l
,nam,,Oa.!/, ,;,

KuiliadWi.lII, Irans Paul Itosenlrld (N rw'n.rk: Pantheon Huoks, 19,1,1.s"
I a. I .hall discuss Inter on why ,l ,s pnthlemamloassert a,,, lor anysihenkeuji, a minor [ W
yvillun Auf finer /Jure jlselt'
174 s- PARI ill The Schumanns
close on lire lone \i. The voial part, lh.H is, does not carry a large-scale structural
.1-2-1 descent (ot other conjunct descent to i from or 51 lhal would be wcli-
lormed as a Schenkerian Vrlniie loi a Phrygian structure. Neverlheless, I intend lo
assert such a 3- 2- i in a structural innei voice. While not in conformity wuh
Sehenker's rest rid ions, oil ihe behavioi of a luiltlitmaUy tonal Vrlmie, my inner-
voice Urlinie is idiomatic, where il lies, as a .structural tenor or canlus firmtis for a
compnsili.m in Renaissance modal style, li also comports nicely with Schumann's
interest in musically "innig" phenomena.
Fxutiijile 9.1
j I ' D ' - I

l l l l l l l ffl <* i Ml i yf j l j i , .
ih . *-*
.'if . . , I *
m 12 H
? >";
Lxample 9.1 is a colleclion of voice-leading sketches thai address my poi m.
Fxample 9.1(a) is a high-level middleground sketch. Measure numbers' for the
Inst strophe appeal above Ihe music. (Those lor (be second slrophe are respec-
hvely 21 measures Idler: 22. 2ft, 15, 3d, 37.) Aller the F. harmony arrives
al measure Id on the example, allernale possible conti mi ali ons are sketched in
brackets: one "resolves" ihe F. harmony as a domi nant in functional., minor; the
oilier protongsi hef. harmony as a Phrygian Ionic, in die manner ol the music fol-
lowing measure 37.
Example 9.1(b) works oui , at a more delailed mi ddleground level, Ihe struc-
tural voice-leading Irom measure 9 lo measure 14. The a mi nor harmony shown at
measure 14 on ihe example does nol assert itself si rongly as a local Ionic; rather, it
sounds as vi of the V. major Stufe from measure 9. The Zug in ihe upper voice of
Example 9.1(b) goes 5-6-7-K within the C Stufe-, die parallel lenihs below go
3-4-5-6 within Ihe C Stufe, In neither the Zug nor the lower parallel line i.s die C
CIIAPT| "9 Aiij einer Hurg - 1 75
raised lo CS as approaches . ( N o, is 1- raised lo hi , ,),e loyyer line.) he struc-
tura j- mmor harmony as vi-of-C is portrayed very summarily on Example 9 If,,. "
lie rhylhmic
a s
0 C
| of Lxample 9.1(a) is word, noting. Rhythmic dilations
like the one lhal begins a. measure 14 on the sketch are a .s.rong resource las well
as a problematical aspeel ) of Schenkerian analysis, a resource (and a problem)
shared by my ouasi-Schenkcrian skelch. The sketch asserts iwo s.ruui ual har-
mou.CN compressed m, the climactic chord of measure 14, which occupies a rhylb-
tmc psychological time Commensurate will, thai lake,, ,, bv the firs, eight measures
<>l Ihe piece. Here the lemporal loreshorletiing enacts ihc'lexl ihe exigen-
cies the temporal present surge in on .he arralnr. who has her.,, iden.ihed
humelfwrtluhesjajue, undergoing theendle*. stately and balanced processions of
tune past. '
Fxample 9 1(e) reduces Fxample 9.1(a) to a level Josely approaching, an (/,.
mtz. Measure umbers are again given for (he ftrst strophe; the second strophe u n
be analyzed , ihe same way, will, measures 22, 15, and 37. Phrygian Urlinie ,s
beamed i the all,, voice of the treble clef. The t/r/We is supported conlrapuntallv
bv Ihe beamed noies ol die bass beneath i. Ol course, one canno, speak of a
Hrechiing (arpeggi.i.ton) here; thai is., familiar aspeel ol "Phrygian "cadence lr-
nm as, si mc the fil.b degree of .In Phrygian mode does ol carry ,, perlec. l.l.h
wnhin Ihe scale.
Sampl e s and (el reduce ihe formula even farther As regards ihe treble
clef of Lxample 9 1(d), Curl Schachter has pom.ed oui lhal ihe notes C-t - i t- i i :
compose out ihe secondary melodic mold ol die ptece- as beard in the voiceove,
measures 1 and 4 ("Oben is, der alle Rilte, ").' -' xampk y.lle) reduces the slrnc
lure to my Phrygian Urlmie and its bass support, plus adescant iuvoh jug the vocal
p.,, I ol the song. The descant descends from 5 ol e harmony lo * of F hannonv
Illicit in by a passing4.'s brilliant observa.ion is completely convincing , mv ear, where il
seems untie compatible will, my Phrygian reading even though he hears Anfeiner
Hurg complcely .ally, prolonging ., functional of a minor ih.,, re-
solves wnhi n hl der Fremde. Unconvinced by n,v Phrygian analysis ofthe slroplie-
m-,lsell, Schachler pom.ed out lhat the Fna.ural on my Examples 9,l(e)(d)(e) is
no, sung by Ihe voice, and he was uncomfortable with a reading dial allows soil, a
thing to happen. Some fourteen years late., I still do no, have a response to
Schachte, s crtlicism lhal satislies me, reading the relation of singer ,,.,.,,.
men, in some way that gives ihe piano something i o>n ai l " i producing the F
naturals on Examples 9.1(d) and (e).
And yet, as I have already indicated, 1 ,
uncomfortable yvilh a reading thai
does no, a lowany possibililyof musical closure a. ihe end of Auf enter Htug. While
I feel that / der irernrfead,iMlety resolves the psychological uncertainties we feel
11. Ikcnusc nl these lmures, the st n^rs hiuh in measure can,,,,, su,,,, rttt hegm,,,, ot kuu-
Itunat a no, Vrhaie l
, ,,, tUir, ,r lor ,he pan Ael.-plns-tdr,. There is J, .deou, e
a, ,.,or root su p, . ,
i m
J n
. , . On Fxample V a,. ,he hami ci i . ^
I , . I h( I. and sixlh i,ner-no,cs p,o,cl,s a eitnirapunld 5-1, ove, a C commun hass, followed
r>i' . runt nass
12. Private correspondence, lollnwuij. Ihe N ew Haven meeting r,r 111 l.clcd in Hole I
17ft - Ml Ihe Siliiiiittiiuiy
41 di e end ol Aul einer llnrg, I do licit wanl l o hear the earhei song's voi ce-l eadi ng
and l i a i i i i o ni i st r uc t ur e onl y as a pr el i t i nnat y t oi In der I rennte. Such uncer t ai n-
ties are Well t . t pl ur ed. l o my eat, when ween<| ui re ol Fxampl e 9. 1( c) , i n i vhai ways
is thi s a compl et e Phr ygi an piece? And i n wh. u ways is i l a domi nant l or some
a-ni i not l o n n In come? Her e, tl seems essential l o me that we do nol ask; " Is thi s a
compl et e Phr ygi an piece? Or is il a domi na nt f or some a-i ui nor toni c l o come?" 1
l ouched on the mel b odol ogi i . i l pouU ear l i ei , i n c onnec t i on wi t h /l/./uny's wollt'tell.
II we demand l hal Exampl e 9. 1(e) pr oj ect ei t her a compl et e Phr ygi an piece, or an
I ncompl et e t onal pi ec e, b ul not some l er i i uu, qui d, i hen I (eel we arc not domo,
j ust i ce l o the sensati ons wi l h whi c h we are left al I he end nf zl / emei Ring.
Whi l e on the subj ect ol mo l i v i i expansi on, we shoul d note the mi ni s ie aspect
ot t he f i nal cadence i n di e bass l i ne, wi nc h is par t i cul ar l y si l ong al the end ol
di e second sl r opbe. slat t i ng al the i n measure 35, di e bass t hen proceeds to I ),
i hen l o h Ihen l o I I lie mel odi c hgi i r A- l ) - F- 1 , begi nni ng wi t h di e hl l b- l eap
down I r om l o I) , sounds l o my cat as a per t i nent l y t r ansposed r hyt hmi cal l y
a ugment eda nd ot her wi se r hyt hmi c al l y na ns l o r medp er mut a t i o n ol the fyt'/i/-
/ it- l i -l -. -l ; - ( , . 1 he " t l mi no r " l r ansposi l i on. i l l evel , A- D- E- F, l sgesl ur al l y pci -
11 no m l o the pr epar at i on I u r a Phi vgi an cai l cut e.
F.arliei ( m not e 10) I pr ot ni sed l o discuss wi n u is pr obl emat i c In assi r i a
l o, . mv Vl i ei i k er i a n a-ni i not Urvitz wi i l i n, . \u/ einer Hing i l sel l . N'oie 11,
al ong wu h pei l i nenl di scussi on ol l x a mpl e 9 I ( a l a nd ( b) , poi nt ed out why il yyonkl
di l l , c ul l t o assert di e .singer's hi gh Col " measure I I as such a . Wu hu . the
sl i ophe Usell, no o t l l u coudi dal c u i mt s l i no eonsk l c i ai i oi i . I hen- l ei i i ai us di e
,1 i i ni i oi mal et ml yy b i n the pi ano i nt er l ude. One mi ght , l oi exampl e, Irv to assei I
die pi anos t ol measure 21 as such a Kiiplnui.m even he piano's hi nh I ol m east, s
I K-19, yy-likh yi i uk l i hen concei vabl y be pi i k ed LI by the singe. 's hi gh 1- at t he
openi ng ol In .lei I i ei l / . diese candi dates have sol i d a- mi noi local suppor t .
I l el oi e all else, I shoul d say l hal any a l l empl l o l ocal e a l unel i ol i al a m, n o r
Kt<l'lton wi t hi n the pi ano i nt er l ude ol ,-tt// emei Hurg slips by my Phr ygi an I'mit-
as unnot i c ed as di e b r i de slips past i he sl al ue. I asserted mv ( ' r si i i -as an I' r si i f ; for
t l i e st r ophe, not l or di e song as a whol e ( i nc l udi ng di e pi ano i nt er l ude) .
That sai d, t shoul d voi ce some cl i scoml or t at the dr amat i c idea of an Ursiilz that
begi ns dur i ng di e uni que 4 measures, bal l way i hr ough Ihe sony, where ihe singer
is nol s i n g l y a l l di e mor e so because (hose 4 measures l o nn \\ i n l ed i nk
i ween i wo musi cal l y par al l el sl r ophes. My di sc oml o, I is l i ke Schachtel's at the I-
na ui i a l i n my Phr ygi an I'rhllh; onl y muc h mor e so. "
An d l hal sai d, I shoul d add l hal there dot s seen, a def i ni t e poeti c value i n the
I hot i gb l l hat i he pi ano, when l el l l o its o wn devices wi t hi n Auf emei Hmg, is eagei
11 I he s-l uu t 'rttiU pi opnsed lis I ' j st i l l . l oi Si l ui l ter l ' s Ihr iliiti is open to soui el hi ny l i ke di e same
i | l i fsi i oi i ni ) ', I' . IM,Il l ' s I - 1-2-1,ueu rs dur ui n I lie pl an epi l ogue l l i ci e, l i ul di al epilogue i s" l l u last
i vor d" ut .i mt i nhei ul di Mi i ui nal l y i i -ntral yvjvi. asyve sjyy h is nut al all l i te same as die earlier i n
l ei l ude wnhi n l hal syulg, i n wh u h the epi l ogue nukes sharp enrilrasls i n mode, t exl ui e, and dy
Mints* Fin t het nt or e. Pasi die's , is vei y i n i k h Ihe pr oper l y ut the y one, j n d liiere is exi el l eni
di a ut a l i i suppor t tor the-idea l hal the vt i i ee' sui i wi l hl i ynessl oduse-1-1-2-1 i n di e mimir mode en-
acts a dr amal i . refusal l oa i c epl I he
i eahl y' ' ol d he persona's si t uat i on, a r eahl yi vhk h i hc pi ai l n em
phast/es i n i t sepi l n^ne
( ' It 9 Anleinei Burg - 177
l o i ni ei pr el Ihe musi i i n , a mi nor . So cage,, i n Lui , l hal i l c u mu l wai l
l or the voice t o cadeni e ni el odnal l y on t i ( , i n measure 17, befor e mak i ng i l s own
woul d-be aul hcul i c cadeni e i n a mmo l . " I he enact ment here. 1 bel i eve, is some-
t hi ng l i ke t hi s: so far, the nar r at i ng persona (say " Ei c hi ndor f f " ) has i dc nl i l i c l
hi msel f wi l l , the st at ueaust er e, r emot e, di si nvol ved, r egar di ng Ihe scene sub
specie ael er ni l . i l i s. Hut as the persona sl ops nar r at i ng, Ihe pi ano enacts his sudden
awareness ol hi msel f as csi sl ui e, i n the present, a present i n yvhieh musi c is func-
t i onal l y l ouai , m whi c has Hi ndei i l ang pui s il " the eat easily recognizes the
unmi stakabl e . . . sound ol . . . i he I rue ja mi nor l domi nant . "
' ' l i mai hear i ng wan I s
t o summon the statue's t r i ad t o a c t o n , mak i ng i l relevant t o t he present, where
i l shoul d " resolve. " I l i t l so far as the statue hi msel f is concer ned, Ihe cadenti al F
Ir i ad is a per l en ly sunk t ome, r equi r i ng no f ur t her ,ic l i on what soever As i he stallte
b ens di e pi ano i ni ei hul ei f i ndeed he hears it al al l t he a-mi nnr har mony is
merel y an i di omat i c means ol pr ol ongi ng a Phr ygi an I- l o n n . And the nar r at i ng
persona, t o the estent he c ommues i dent i l yui g wi l l ) Ihe " obser vi ng" stal ue, can
heat the a ni i i i ni i nt er l ude i n ihe same way. We onl y k now l hal t he persona has
t r oubl e i n doi ng so, because di e a mi , , o r har mony comes i n l oo soon, l oo ans
mush-, m measure 17. And o u , i mpr essi on is later i vi nk nx . nl bv ihe wav m whi ch
di e openi ng ol In ifc- It entile resumes ,ii\e\ devel ops ihe anxi ous ni ggl i ng bei ween
j -t oi uc and c - l onn l hal we heard over measures l j t -J5 o l Anl emei Hun;.
I he rol e o f Ihe pi ano i nt er l ude sheds consi derabl e Ugh! on i he el lei I of Schu-
mann's sl r ophi i sel l i ng. I he musi cal el i c i t is espei i al l v st r i k i ng because the poem
itsell is so urgentl y progu-ssive i n tt.s second hal l , par t ki i l . i r l y u l x i i it swi ngs i nt o
Us l i nat quat r ai n. II you were a l ompnsei sel l i ng the poem, and kneyy no e. uliei
sel l i ngs, vnu woul d be unl i kel y l o c onni v e vour music i n t wo si mi l ar strophes l or
ihe i wo hdhesol the l est. Scl i i i ni . ui n. di al is, must | ,j\e had a st r ong " i dea" i n mak-
i ng his sel l i ng s l r ophn.
I t l t mk Ins idea was this- al'lei Ihe pi ano, dur i ng Us i ni er i i i de. has enaned the
nar r ator ' s sudden awareness ol hi msel f as exi st i ng i n Ihe present, a present m
yvhieh musi c is l unc t i onal l y t onal , the reprise o f i he possi bl y-Phr ygi an musi c lot
the second st r ophe makes us mor e and mor e uni oml or t . i hl c . Il spei i f nal l v evaeles
the issue l hal the pi ano i nt er l ude has just br ought so l ur ccf ul l v l o uni al i emi on.
Whi l e the nar r at or is del i ver i ng the second hal f ol the text, the nui si s seems con-
tent i n r ool i tsel f " back i n (he past" agai n, r et r eat i ng i nl o the nar r at oi ' s pose sub
specie acl er mi at i s. r ef usi ng l o deal expl i ci t l y wi l h di e " preseni ness" ol j - mu i o i
hear i ng, I he Phr ygi an r eadi ng f or l l l f sei ond st r ophe I hereby bui l ds up enor mous
tensi on,. seemi ngl y al odds wi l h t he i o n t o mi t a n i " preseni ness" ol us l ex l , above all
t het ex i l hal concerns the weddi ng par l y, lust I his tensi on wi l l be released by Inder
I remde.
I-I. f l i c luss ofnu-asi i res 17-1 It is the Lowes! nol e nl i he piece sol a r ( - poem is soon . "
i nt o the valley-} No ni ne sounds lowet i h. i n l hat unt i l the very lasl hass nul c ol the pi ece
eonspi i uousl v uol A hnl a i Ht sst hl v-Phi vpj i i oi i ni a - l
IS Ihe Hi ndi -nl ai i f i i pi ok- appears i n unit- 1.
Piute 9.1 . Schumann, Anfeiltet ufg-
at i ki ! - . RU i-iHi
+ > ' " "
-J-= teSk- l f ^ = =
di u iVti TU h ' Ks. >-- ich,in - und JL-I Weld rnuxcrn diircli das ( ni
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| j n .- - . " sst'ii ii uni Hua mill vw sie hcrl flnial ltd KtaU i\. Ml-'l er vie le
r r
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>ui: Jen Iah ben , del ml l e Sim, *
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ni ibe vhO ne nrauM Mu t i * - - ten W* t i

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