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How to cure pneumonia

Bronchopneumonia
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Bronchopneumonia is acute inflammation of the walls of the bronchioles.
It is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia the other being lobar pneumonia
Bronchopneumonia is less likely associated with streptococcus than lobar pneumonia.
Pneumonia is characterized by inflammation of the alveoli and terminal airspaces in
response to invasion by an infectious agent introduced into the lungs through
haematogenous spread or inhalation.
OBJECTIVES
To broaden my knowledge on the cause and predisposing factors of pneumonia
To give holistic nursing care to the client through the use of nursing process.
To help educate parents and client on the cause and prevention of diseases.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction of the disease
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by various micro-
organisms including bacteria fungi and viruses.
Pneumonia can be classified as follow!
1. Community-acquired neumonia
!. "osita#-acquired neumonia
$. %neumonia in the immunocomromised
&. 'siration neumonia
'('TO)* '(+ %"*SIO,O-* O. T"E /ES%I/'TO/* S*STE)
The respiratory system consists of the e"ternal nose the nasal cavity the pharyn" the
laryn" the trachea the bronchi and the lungs.
This system is divided into!
#pper respiratory tract
$ower respiratory tract
The upper respiratory tract is made up of the following!

%"ternal nose
&asal cavity
Pharyn"
$aryn"
The lower respiratory tract is made up of!
Trachea
Bronchi and bronchioles
$ungs
THE DIAGRAM O THE RE!"IRATOR# !#!TEM
Source0 'eeley 'tephens and Tate %ighth edition Anatomy and Physiology.
%'T"O%"*SIO,O-* O. B/O(C"O%(E1)O(I'
Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that is distributed in a patchy fashion having
originated in one or more localized area within the bronchi and e"tending to the ad(acent
surrounding lung parenchyma. It is associated with organisms such as staphylococcus
aureus klebsialla and %scherichia coli. In bronchopneumonia an inflammatory reaction
occur in the alveoli producing an e"udates that interferes with the diffusion of o"ygen
and carbon-dio"ide. )hite blood cells mainly neutrophils also migrate into the alveoli
and fill the normal air-filled spaces. *reas of the lungs become inade+uately ventilated
because of secretions and mucosal oedema which causes partial occlusion of the bronchi
with a decrease in alveolar o"ygen tension.
ETIO,O-*
Prolonged immobility and shallow breathing.
,epressed cough refle" due to medications or weak respiratory muscles.
Immunosuppression.
'moking.
*lcohol into"ication
-espiratory therapy with improperly cleaned e+uipment.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
This depends on the type and presence of underlying disease. .ommon clinical
manifestations include!
'udden onset of chills.
-apidly rising fever /01.2
o
. to 34.2
o
.5
Pleuritic chest pain.
,eep breathing and coughing.
Tachypnea
'hortness of breathe.
-apid and bounding pulse.
6eadache.
Pharyngitis.
7ucopurulent sputum is e"pectorated.
Poor appetite.
Tiredness.
DIAGNO!TIC INVE!TIGATION!
Physical e"amination.
.hest "-ray.
Blood culture.
'putum e"amination.
Bronchoscopy.
8amily history of bronchopneumonia.
,ietary and medication history.
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
The treatment of pneumonia includes administration of the appropriate antibiotics as
determined by the result of a gram stain.
S1/-IC', )'('-E)E(T
9. ,rainage of parapneumonic effusion with or without intrapleura instillation of a
fibrinolytic agent may be indicated.
:. .hest tube placement for drainage of an effusion or empyema may be performed.
NURSING MANAGEMENT
A$$e$$ment
*ssessment is critical in detecting pneumonia. The nurse monitors the patient for the
following! change in temperature and pulse amount odour and colour of secretion
fre+uency and severity of cough degree of tachypneab or shortness of breath.
(ursing diagnosis
Based on the assessment data the ma(or nursing diagnoses may include the following!
Ineffective airway clearance related to copious tracheobronchial secretions.
*ctivity intolerance related to impaired respiratory function.
-isk for deficient fluid volume related to fever and rapid respiratory rate.
Imbalanced nutrition less than body re+uirement related to reduced ability to
tolerate feed.
"%annin& an' &oa%$
The ma(or goals and plans include!
Improve airway patency.
-est to conserve energy.
7aintenance of ade+uate nutrition.
*bsence of complication.
Imp%ementation
1. Imro2ing air3ay atency.
!. %romoting rest and conser2ing energy.
$. %romoting f#uid intake.
&. )aintaining nutrition.
E(a%uation
9. Patient demonstrates improved airway patency.
:. Patient and conserve energy by limiting activities.
0. Patient maintains ade+uate hydration.

%/O-(OSIS.
7ost types of bacterial pneumonia can be cleared within : ; 0 weeks of treatments. <iral
and mycoplasma pneumonia may take 3 ; = weeks to resolve completely />ori :44?5
CLINICAL EATURE! "RE!ENTED ON ADMI!!ION
9. 8ast respiratory movement.
:. )eakness
0. 6yperthermia /temperature 01.:5
I(VESTI-'TIO(
Packed cell volume.
)hite blood cell
count.
7icroscopic culture
and sensitivity.
%lectrocardiogram
@astric washing for
acid-fast-bacilli
)E+IC', )'('-E)E(T
The medical management of 7aster I.% consisted of pharmacological treatment. 6e was
placed on the following drugs!
intravenous ceftria"one :14mg 9:hourly
intravenous amikacin 2:mg 1hourly
(1/SI(- )'('-E)E(T.
(ursing +iagnosis.
9. Ineffective breathing pattern related to bronchopneumonia.
:. Ineffective airway clearance related to accumulation of secretions.
0. Imbalanced nutrition less than body re+uirement related to weakness as manifested
by inability to tolerate feeding.
3. -isk for ineffective health maintenance related to lack of knowledge regarding
treatment regimen after discharge.
NUR!ING MODEL U!ED IN THE MANAGEMENT O THE "ATIENT
+orothy Orem4s Se#f-care Theory.
This theory is in three parts!
9. 'elf-care deficit
:. 'elf-care.
$. &ursing system.
Tyes of (ursing Care /equisites
#niversal self-care re+uisites.
,evelopmental self-care re+uisites.
6ealth deviation self-care re+uisites.
C#assification of (ursing System.
9. )holly compensatory system.
:. Partial compensatory system.
0. 'upportive educative system.
'#ication of this )ode# to the Care of the atient
In the care of the patient with bronchopneumonia the applicable part of oremAs self-care
theory is )holly .ompensatory 'ystem which involve total dependant of the patient on
the nurse to carryout self-care.
OB)ECTIVE A!!E!!MENT
The following should be done on the patient
%hysica# measurement.
Temperature!
-espiration!
Pulse!
)eight!
6eight!
1rina#ysis.
.olour!
Bdour!
'pecific gravity!
,eposit!
*mount!
-eaction!
*bnormalities!
%"*SIC', E5')I('TIO(
The atient must 6e e7amined using the fo##o3ing methods0
Insection
%a#ation
%ercussion
'uscu#tation
DRUGS THAT CAN BE USED BY A PATIENT WITH BRONCHOPNEUMONIA
1. CE.T/I'5O(E
!. C'%TO%/I,
$. S%I/O(O,'CTO(E
&. '8IT"/O)*CI(
9. ./1SE)I+E :,'SI5;
<. "*+/OC",O/OT"I'8I+E
=. ')I>'CI(