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The Bourdon pressure gauge, patented by the French engineer Eugene Bourdon in 1849, remains one of the most

widely
used gauges for measuring pressure in liquids and gases of many different types. This is because such gauges are simple
to use, safe, and inexpensive, as well as highly accurate. Bourdon tubes are usable when measuring both high pressure
and vacuum, and they are important components of devices used to measure various types of pressure, including gauge,
absolute, and differential pressure.

Bourdon Tube is generally a C-shaped and has an oval cross-section, with one end of the tube is connected to the
process pressure.

Materials used in the construction of the gauge are solid drawn phosphor bronze or stainless steel for pressure
relay tube. Bronze or stainless steel is used for the quadrant, gear and linkage, case, brass or plastic. The bourdon
movement is frequently used in tranducers and controllers to vary output signals in pneumatic or electrical form.

WORKING PRINCIPLE :

Pressure Relay Tube is theprincipal working component (detecting element). This tube which is semi-elliptical in
cross section is connected to the pressure source. When the tube is subjected to a pressure increase it tends to unwind
or straighten out and the motion is transmitted to the gauge pointer through the linkage, quadrant and gear (measuring
element). If the tube is subjected to a pressure decrease it winds or coils up, and the motion is again transmitted to the
pointer. This gauge is therefore suitable for measuring pressure above or below atmospheric pressure.

As the fluid pressure enters the bourdon tube, it tries to be reformed and because of a free tip available, this
action causes the tip to travel in free space and the tube unwinds. The simultaneous actions of bending and tension due
to the internal pressure make a non-linear movement of the free tip. This travel is suitable guided and amplified for the
measurement of the internal pressure. But the main requirement of the device is that whenever the same pressure is
applied, the movement of the tip should be the same and on withdrawal of the pressure the tip should return to the
initial point.

A lot of compound stresses originate in the tube as soon as the pressure is applied. This makes the travel of the
tip to be non-linear in nature. If the tip travel is considerably small, the stresses can be considered to produce a linear
motion that is parallel to the axis of the link. The small linear tip movement is matched with a rotational pointer
movement. This is known as multiplication, which can be adjusted by adjusting the length of the lever. For the same
amount of tip travel, a shorter lever gives larger rotation. The approximately linear motion of the tip when converted to
a circular motion with the link-lever and pinion attachment, a one-to-one correspondence between them may not occur
and distortion results. This is known as angularity which can be minimized by adjusting the length of the link.





















Applications of Bourdon Tube pressure gauge:

They are used to measure medium to very high pressures.

Advantages of Bourdon tube pressure gauge:
These Bourdon tube pressure gauges give accurate results.
Bourdon tube cost low.
Bourdon tube are simple in construction.
They can be modified to give electrical outputs.
They are safe even for high pressure measurement.
Accuracy is high especially at high pressures.
Limitations of bourdon tube pressure gauge:
they respond slowly to changs in pressure
they are subjected to hysterisis.
They are sensitive to shocks and vibrations.
Ampilification is a must as the displacement of the free end of the bourdon tube is low.
It cannot be used for precision measurement.





WORKING PRINCIPLE : This type utilizes a strong flexible metal diaphragm (detecting element) which moves up
as pressure increases. Again this device can also be used as a tranducer (pneumatic or electric) in telemetringor control
with an output signal proportional to diaphragm movement. Similar remarks apply to most detecting (sensing) devices.
The family of flexible sensor elements also includes bellows diaphragm. Diaphragms are popular because they required
less space and because the motion (force) they produce, are sufficeint for operating electronic transducers. They are also
available in a wide range of materials nfor corrosive services applications.
APPLICATIONS :Most commonly used as a tank contents gauge due to it being able to operate at low pressures
and on liquids. Also used on mediums that contain solids that may block a standard gauge.