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MAT-262 Summer 2014 Module 4 & 5 Homework

1. Show the Wronskian matrix of the functions

, () , and () , then compute the value


(or determinant) of the Wronskian and state what this result tells us about these three functions.

=

cos () sin ()

sin () cos ()

cos () sin ()
= 2





2. Consider the 4
th
order equation

4
5

3
+ 9

2
7

+2 = 0

(a) What is the auxiliary equation for this example? (See p. 133 of the text for a definition.)

4
5
3
+9
2
7+2 = 0

(b) What are the roots and multiplicities of the auxiliary equation? (Hint: try graphing the auxiliary
equation and looking for its x-intercepts !)

The roots are : = 1 , = 1 , = 1 , = 2

(c) Use this information to obtain the general solution to this differential equation.

This is a linear equation with constant coefficients. As described in section 4.3, the root = 2 will
correspond to the term
2
in the solution. Also, root = 1 will correspond to the term
1
in
the solution. However, in order for the terms in the solution to form a linearly independent set,
we cannot just repeat the term
1
for the other occurrences of the root = 1. Rather, as
described in Section 4.3, we must use

,
2

as the three solution terms


corresponding to the three occurrences of the root = 1. Thus the general solution is:
=
1

+
2

+
3

+
4

2




3. Consider the 3
rd
order equation

3
2

+2 = 3
2
5 +2

(a) Determine the complementary function for this equation. (See p. 125 for a definition. Note that a
complementary function is a solution to the homogeneous equation associated with the problem.)
Also recall that to find the complementary function, you will need to determine the auxiliary
equation for this problem, and then find the roots of that auxiliary equation.

The complementary function is :

=
1

+
2

+
3

2



Since 0, the functions
are linearly independent.
MAT-262 Summer 2014 Module 4 & 5 Homework
(b) Use the method of undetermined coefficients to determine a particular solution to this equation.
(See example 1 on pages 140-141 of the textbook for an example.)

Since the right-hand side is a quadratic polynomial, we will utilize a particular solution of the form

=
2
+ +. Therefore we have

= 2 + ,

= 2 , and

= 0 .

Substituting these values into the original equation yields: 4 2 +2
2
+2 +2 .
Now equate the coefficients of each power of in this expression with the corresponding
coefficients in the original right-hand side of the differential equation:


2
: 2 = 3
: 2 2 = 5
. : 2 4 = 2

From these equations, we can find that: =
3
2
, = 1 , =
7
2

Hence the particular solution is:

=
3
2

2
+
7
2


(c) Combine the complementary function and the particular solution to obtain a complete solution to
the original equation.
=
1

+
2

+
3

2
+
3
2

2
+
7
2


4. Solve the equation (
3
5
2
+9 5) = 0 where stands for the differential operator (see p.
120 for details). Clearly describe the auxiliary equation associated with
(a) What is the auxiliary equation for this example? (See p. 133 of the text for a definition.)
Auxiliary equation :
3
5
2
+9 5
(b) What are the roots of the auxiliary equation?
There are many ways to determine the roots. If one of the roots happens to be a whole number or
a simple fraction, then you can find that factor through graphing. In this example, graphing the
polynomial shows an x-intercept at = 1, meaning that 1 (or in this case, 1 ) is a factor
of the polynomial.
Long division of the auxiliary equation gives the factorization ( 1)(
2
4+5).
Then use of the quadratic formula shows the roots to be:
1
= 1 ,
2
= 2 + ,
3
= 2 .
(c) Use the roots of the auxiliary equation to help you find the general solution to the original
differential equation.
As per Section 4.3, the solution will be : =
1

+
2

2
() +
3

2
()
MAT-262 Summer 2014 Module 4 & 5 Homework
5. Consider the differential equation

2 = 20
4
. Utilize the method of annihilators to
solve this equation (see section 4.5). Rewrite the equation in differential operator form (i.e., using
as the differential operator).
(a) Factor the differential operator expression on the left side of the equation.
( +1) ( 2) = 20
4


(b) Determine the annihilator of the right-hand side of the equation. Remember that when you apply
the annihilator to the right-hand side, the result has to be zero.
Since ( 4) annihilates
4
, it also annihilates 20
4
. You can check this by applying ( 4)
to 20
4
to get : ( 4)(20
4
) = (20
4
)

4(20
4
) = (80
4
) (80
4
) = 0 .

(c) Apply the annihilator to both sides of the differential operator form of the equation to obtain a
homogeneous equation (i.e., an expression with zero on the right-hand side) :
( 4)( +1) ( 2) = ( 4)20
4
gives us : ( 4)( +1) ( 2) = 0

(d) Use the factors of this homogeneous equation to determine its three roots, and use these three
roots to write a solution to this homogeneous version of the equation.
The roots are 4, 1, and 2, so the homogeneous solution is: =
4
+

+
2


(e) Plug this general three-term solution (with unknown coefficients) in place of in the factored form
of the original equation.
( +1) ( 2)(
4
+

+
2
) = 20
4


(f) Since the ( +1) ( 2) operator causes the

+
2
portion to become zero, the
equation now reduces to :
( +1) ( 2) (
4
) = 20
4


(g) Now we simply apply the differential operator ( +) ( ) to the function

and then match up that result with the right-hand side (which is 20
4
). This will
allow you to solve for the value of .
(
2
2) (
4
) = 20
4
, which gives us : 10
4
= 20
4
, hence we have = 2.
Hence a particular solution to the equation (i.e., which gives the right-side) is:

= 2
4


Thus the general solution to the original equation is: = 2
4
+
1

+
2

2


MAT-262 Summer 2014 Module 4 & 5 Homework
6. We will utilize the method of variation of parameters to solve the second-order equation

+ =

1+
2
. Please include the following steps in your write-up.
(a) What is a solution to the homogeneous equation derived from this problem ?
The roots of the auxiliary equation are both = 1 , so the two linearly independent terms in the
homogeneous solution are
1
=

and
2
=

(hence

using
1
=
2
= 1 ).

(b) Utilizing the two terms in your solution to the homogeneous equation, compute the value of the
Wronskian for the problem.
=

( +1)
=
2
( +1)
2
() =
2
( +1 ) =
2


(c) Compute the expressions
1

2
()

and
2

1
()

2
()

1 +
2
=

1 +
2

1
()

1 +
2
=
1
1 +
2



(d) Integrate the expressions
1

and
2

to obtain the functions


1
and
2
.

1
=

1 +
2
=
1
2
ln1+
2


2
=
1
1 +
2
= ()


(e) Utilize your results from (d) to determine the general solution to the equation. (Dont forget to
also add in the solution to the homogeneous equation, with arbitrary coefficients, when forming
your general solution.)

=
1

+
2

=
1
()

+
2
()


=
1

+
2


1
2

1+
2
+

()

MAT-262 Summer 2014 Module 4 & 5 Homework
7. Consider the second-order equation
2

+5

+4 = 0
(a) Is this a Cauchy-Euler equation? Why or why not ?
Yes, since the power on the in each term matches the order of differentiation in that term.
(b) Use the substitution =

in this equation, and state what the transformed equation is after


this substitution. (Please simplify the resulting equation as much as possible!)

(
2
+4+4) = 0
(c) State what the auxiliary equation is for this problem, and use the auxiliary equation to determine
the values for from your transformed equation.
The factorization of
2
+4+4 is (+2)(+2) , so we get = 2 and = 2 .
(d) Utilizing the solutions for , determine the general solution to the original differential equation.
(You may assume that we are restricting to be greater than zero.)
As per Case II (repeated real roots) from Section 4.7: =
1

2
+
2

2
() =

1
+
2
()

2


8. Consider the second-order initial value problem:

2

+4 = 0 , (1) = 5 , (1) = 3
(a) Is this a Cauchy-Euler equation? Why or why not ?
Yes, since the power on the in each term matches the order of differentiation in that term.
(b) Use the substitution =

in this equation, and state what the transformed equation is after


this substitution. (Please simplify the resulting equation as much as possible!)

(
2
4+4) = 0
(c) State what the auxiliary equation is for this problem, and use the auxiliary equation to determine
the values for from your transformed equation.
The factorization is ( 2)( 2), so we have that = 2 and = 2.
(d) Utilizing the solutions for , determine the specific solution to the initial value problem.
(You may also assume that we are restricting to be greater than zero.)
As per Case II (repeated real roots) from Section 4.7: =
1

2
+
2

2
()
To utilize the initial conditions, we also need to compute that = 2
1
+
2
( +2 )
Utilizing both initial conditions, we find that
1
= 5 and
2
= 7.
Hence we get the overall solution : = 5
2
7
2
()