American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 1

S
Ffre






THE STATE OF THE AMERICAN
WORKER 2014:
ATTITUDES ABOUT WORK
IN AMERICA


Compiled by Karlyn Bowman, Senior Fellow, AEI,
Jennifer Marsico, Senior Research Associate, AEI,
and Heather Sims, Research Assistant, AEI

(Updated August 2014)










AEI Public Opinion
Studies

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 2
Table of Contents
OVERALL SATISFACTION ................................................................................ 3
JOB ANXIETY TODAY ...................................................................................... 15
SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF WORK ...................................................................... 34
Job Security........................................................................................................35
Chance of Promotion..........................................................................................36
Income/Benefits……………………………………………………………….38
Co-Workers........................................................................................................41
Hours/Vacation/Amount of Work/Stress...........................................................41
Other...................................................................................................................44
WORK-LIFE ISSUES .......................................................................................... 46
WORK CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................................ 50
WORK TIME AND COMMUTES ..................................................................... 56
Commuting..........................................................................................................56
LOYALTY ............................................................................................................. 59
THE BOSS ............................................................................................................. 62
OTHER WORK AND JOB ISSUES ................................................................... 64
ATTITUDES ABOUT LEISURE ........................................................................ 67





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 3


 How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your job? Would you say you are–completely satisfied, somewhat satisfied,
somewhat dissatisfied, or completely dissatisfied with your job/the work you do.

Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Jul. 1989 Gallup 28% 61% 8% 3%
Jul. 1991 Gallup 31 30 6 6
May 1993 Gallup 46 41 9 4
Jun. 1994 Gallup 39 47 11 3
Aug. 1997 Gallup 35 51 10 3
Aug. 1999 Gallup 39 47 12 2
Aug. 2001 Gallup 41 44 11 4
Aug. 2002 Gallup 43 46 9 2
OVERALL SATISFACTION: For the past six years, AEI has released a yearly
poll compilation on workers’ attitudes about their jobs to coincide with Labor Day. This
year’s study, The State of the American Worker, 2014, comes at a time when there is
tentative evidence that people think the economy is improving. Still, in Gallup’s April 2014
question, 66 percent said it was a bad time to find a good job today. In a related AEI Public
Opinion Study, Economic Insecurity: Americans’ Concerns about their Jobs, Personal
Finances, Retirement, Health Costs, Housing, and More, we look beyond concerns about
work.
We should note that many major pollsters have not updated trends on work attitudes
in recent years. The surveys we have show that the vast majority of workers are satisfied
with their jobs. There has been little change in the responses since survey organizations
started measuring them regularly in the 1970s. Eighty-five percent of employed people said
they were completely or somewhat satisfied with their jobs, according to Gallup’s August
2013 poll (87 percent gave that response in 2010 and 90 percent in 2008). Only 15 percent
in 2013 said they were somewhat or completely dissatisfied with their jobs.
Dissatisfaction is slightly higher among some groups than others. Young people, for
example, are just starting out and their salaries are often low. Their dissatisfaction is not
surprising. It is a product of their place in the life cycle.
After looking at overall satisfaction, we look at people’s views about specific aspects
of their job. How satisfied are people with their coworkers, with what they earn, with their
benefits and vacation time?
Most pollsters in the public domain don’t ask questions about work attitudes very
often. We include here some older questions. In 1955, 32 percent told Gallup they would be
happier in a different job. In an October 2006 survey, 27 percent told Pew Research Center
interviewers that they would be happier in a different job. Seventy percent said they would
not. In a January 2011 Gallup poll, 70 percent said their job was ideal for them.
In 1977, in an Opinion Research Corporation survey, 47 percent of teens said
“having a secure, steady job” was important to them in choosing a career. In 1999, 21
percent of them gave that response. Young people are more likely than older ones to say
they have seriously considered changing jobs, an attitude that is also a function of their
stage in life. But their expectations about their jobs today are different from the past, too.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 4
Aug. 2003 Gallup 44 41 11 4
Aug. 2004 Gallup 50 39 11 3
Aug. 2005 Gallup 42 44 11 3
Aug. 2006 Gallup 43 47 8 2
Aug. 2007 Gallup 46 48 4 2
Aug. 2008 Gallup 48 42 7 2
Aug. 2009 Gallup 50 37 10 3
Aug. 2010 Gallup 48 39 8 4
Aug. 2011 Gallup 47 36 13 5
Aug. 2012 Gallup 47 42 7 4
Aug. 2013 Gallup 46 39 12 3
Note: Sample is employed people.

 Would you say you are satisfied or dissatisfied with the following things about your life: Your job/the work you do?

Satisfied Dissatisfied
Jan. 1949 Gallup 67% 20%
Jul. 1963 Gallup 85 11
Aug. 1965 Gallup 82 13
Sep. 1966 Gallup 87 6
Oct. 1966 Gallup 85 10
Nov. 1966 Gallup 86 8
Apr. 1969 Gallup 87 7
Apr. 1969 Gallup 90 6
Aug. 1971 Gallup 84 11
Dec. 1971 Gallup 84 9
Jan. 1973 Gallup 77 11
Dec. 1984 Gallup 70 20
Sep. 1988 Gallup 76 8
Dec. 1991 Gallup 71 16
Apr. 1995 Gallup 73 11
Feb. 1997 Gallup 69 12
May 1998 Gallup 75 16
Oct. 1998 Gallup 70 9
Nov.1998
b
Gallup 86 13
Nov. 1999 Gallup 71 10
May 2001 Gallup 70 10
Jun. 2001
a
Gallup 89 11
Jun. 2002
a
Gallup 89 11
Jun. 2003
a
Gallup 91 9
Note: a) Sample is employed people. B) Sample is employed people or those going to school. In 1984, Gallup changed the
wording of this question from “the work you do” to “your job or the work you do.” In 1998, 1999, and 2001 a volunteered
“not applicable” category was added to the questionnaire. This change may explain the smaller number of total respondents
in the substantive categories “satisfied” and “dissatisfied” in those years. * In Nov. 1998, Jun. 2001, Jun. 2002, and Jun.
2003 the question read: “Next we would like to know how satisfied you are with each of the following aspects of your life–
very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied. How satisfied are you with...your job, or the
work you do?” The satisfied and dissatisfied totals were obtained by adding up very and somewhat satisfied and very and
somewhat dissatisfied.

 Do you enjoy your work so much that you have a hard time putting it aside?

Yes No
1955 Gallup 51% 45%
1988
a
Gallup 33 67
2001
a
Ipsos-Reid 23 77
Note:
a
Sample is employed people.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 5
 Do you think you would be happier in a different job?

Yes No
Jun. 1955 Gallup 32% 63%
Jan. 1965 Gallup 21 66
Aug. 2001 Gallup 33 61
Aug. 2006 Pew 35 59
Sep. 2006 Pew 34 63
Oct. 2006 Pew 27 70
Note: The 1955 and 1965 samples are in-person.

 Nearly all of us, of course, want many things in life that we don’t have. Sometimes our wants concern the material goods of
life, sometimes they concern opportunities, sometimes they concern psychological or what are sometimes called spiritual
satisfactions…Will you tell me from the list on this card those items which seem to your particularly deficient I your own
life now—that is, those which you really feel would make a big difference in your own happiness…?

Better health 31%
More interesting work/More congenial job 21
Greater faith in god or religion 35
Being of more service to other people 36
More exiting life 16
More leisure time and chance to enjoy leisure 35
Better education than I now have 50
Ability to get more enjoyment out of life, greater capacity
to be satisfied with things as they are for me now 29
More opportunities for my own personal development 32
Greater economic or financial security 52
More pay, larger income 44
Happier home and family life 20
Better home to live in 36
Note: Adds to more than 100% due to multiple responses.
Source: The Gallup Organization/Institute for International Social Research, Aug. 1959.

 On the whole, how satisfied are you with the work you do–would you say you are very satisfied, moderately satisfied, a little
dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied?

Very Moderately A little Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1972 NORC 49% 37% 11% 3%
1973 NORC 50 37 8 4
1974 NORC 50 38 8 4
1975 NORC 56 33 8 3
1976 NORC 53 33 9 5
1977 NORC 49 39 10 2
1978 NORC 52 37 8 4
1980 NORC 47 37 12 4
1982 NORC 48 39 9 5
1983 NORC 53 36 8 4
1984 NORC 47 35 12 6
1985 NORC 49 38 10 3
1986 NORC 49 40 9 2
1987 NORC 46 38 11 4
1988 NORC 48 40 10 3
1989 NORC 48 38 10 4
1990 NORC 48 39 10 4
1991 NORC 46 42 8 4
1993 NORC 44 43 10 4
1994 NORC 47 40 11 3

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 6
1996 NORC 46 40 11 4
1998 NORC 48 39 10 3
2000 NORC 45 44 9 3
2002 NORC 50 36 9 4
2004 NORC 50 36 9 4
2006 NORC 49 38 8 4
2008ˆ NORC 51 36 9 3
2010 NORC 49 36 10 4
2012
^
NORC 50 37 9 3
Note: Sample is employed people. ˆAsked of those who are currently working, temporarily not at work or keeping house.

 All in all, how satisfied would you say you are with your job–very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at
all satisfied?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied
1973
a
Harris Interactive 57% 33% 7% 3%
1974 Harris Interactive 59 33 5 3
1978 Harris Interactive 45 31 7 5
1984 Harris Interactive 59 32 6 3
1991 Harris Interactive 43 41 12 3
1992 Harris Interactive 52 34 9 5
1993 Harris Interactive 43 44 10 2
1994 Harris Interactive 46 38 12 5
1996 Harris Interactive 45 43 9 3
1997
a
Harris Interactive 54 36 4 5
1999 Harris Interactive 54 37 6 3
2000
b
Harris Interactive 54 37 6 2
2000
a
Harris Interactive 50 42 6 1
2001
a
Harris Interactive 58 36 5 1
2002 Harris Interactive 49 40 8 3
Note: a. Sample is employed people. b. Sample is employed/unemployed/retired/formerly employed.

 Everything considered, the satisfaction you get from the work you do, what it pays, etc.–how satisfied are you with the field
of work you chose to go into–extremely satisfied, fairly well satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied?

---------------------------Field of work you chose-----------------------------
Extremely satisfied Fairly satisfied Not too satisfied Not at all satisfied
Nov. 1973 38% 47% 9% 5%
Nov. 1976 41 43 11 4
Nov. 1979 33 49 12 6
Nov. 1980 37 47 11 4
Nov. 1983 36 47 11 5
Oct. 1988 33 52 10 4
Nov. 1991 34 49 12 3
Apr. 1994 27 54 15 4
Apr. 1996 31 52 12 4
Apr. 1999 27 58 11 3
Apr. 2001 32 56 8 3
Note: Sample is employed people.
Source: Roper GfK-NOP.








American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 7
 Knowing what you know now, if you had to decide all over again whether to take the job you now have, what would you
decide...Would you decide without hesitation to take the same job, would you have second thoughts, or would you decide
definitely not to take the same job?

Would take the same job Would have second thoughts Would not take the same job
1977 64% 28% 9%
1997 69 26 6
Source: Surveys by the Survey Research Center, University of Michigan for the Department of Labor, 1977 and Harris
Interactive for the Families and Work Institute, 1997.

 In the past year, have you seriously considered changing your job?

Yes No
July 1981 Roper GfK-NOP 34% 65%
Mar. 1994 Roper GfK-NOP 32 66
Apr. 1994 Roper GfK-NOP 35 64
Apr. 2000 Roper GfK-NOP 30 68
May 2001 Roper GfK-NOP 34 66
Note: Sample is employed people.

 Do you think of the work you do as a “job”, or do you think of it as “a career”?

Job Career
Jan. 1985 Roper GfK-NOP 47% 52%
Mar. 1985 Roper GfK-NOP/VA Slims 51 49
Dec. 1986 Black/USA Today 30 70
Feb. 1987 Black/USA Today 35 63
Apr. 1987 Black/USA Today 39 61
Jun. 1987 Roper GfK-NOP 43 54
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 42 57
Jun. 1989 NYT 51 47
Oct. 1989 Yankelovich 47 52
Nov. 1993 Roper GfK-NOP/Worth 50 48
Mar. 1994 Roper GfK-NOP 45 53
Apr. 1994 Roper GfK-NOP 45 53
Aug. 1994 Roper GfK-NOP 45 53
Jul. 1995 US News 35 62
Aug. 1996 Am. Viewpoint 48 51
Aug. 1996 Roper GfK-NOP 44 53
Jul. 1997 PSRA*/Wisconsin 41 58
Sep. 1997 CBS News 38 62
Sep. 1997 Roper GfK-NOP 45 53
May 1998 Yankelovich 44 54
Jun. 1998 Roper GfK-NOP 45 54
Jul. 1998 Hart/Shell 41 55
Dec. 1999 Roper GfK-NOP 50 48
Apr. 2000 Roper GfK-NOP 43 56
Aug. 2000 Roper GfK-NOP 46 53
May 2001 Roper GfK-NOP 42 56
Jan. 2006 ABC/Good Housekeeping 39 60
Jul. 2010 Rutgers 43 55
Note: Question wording varied slightly. Samples are employed people. *Princeton Survey Research Assosciates.
Source: Surveys by Roper GfK-NOP, Roper GfK-NOP/Virginia Slims, Gordon Black/USA Today, the New York Times,
Yankelovich Partners, Roper GfK-NOP/Worth, US News and World Report, American Viewpoint/Lake Research/Buffalo
Qualitative Research, Princeton Survey Research Associates/Wisconsin Public Television, CBS News, Peter Hart Research
for the Shell Oil Company, and Rutgers for the Work Trends Survey.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 8
 Do you think of your current job as a career, a stepping stone to a career, or do you think of it as just a job to get you by?

A stepping stone Just a job
A career to a career to get you by
Jan. 2010 Pew 51% 18% 29%
Dec. 2011 Pew 44 19 35
Oct. 2013 Pew 50 17 32

(Demographic breakdowns, Oct. 2013, sex)
Men 53% 16% 30%
Women 46 17 36

 How satisfied are you with the kind of work you do?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely
satisfied satisfied unsatisfied unsatisfied

Jul. 1989 Gallup 41% 52% 6% 1%
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 43 49 6 1
Note: Sample for 2006 poll is employed adults.

 Here are two different ways of looking at your job. Some people get a sense of identity from their job. For other people,
their job is just what they do for a living. Which of these best describes the way you usually feel about your job?

Sense of identity Just what you do
1989 Gallup 57% 40%
1992 PSRA/US News 51 41
1993 Gallup 58 41
1998 Gallup 57 40
1999 Gallup 51 47
2001 Gallup 54 44
2003 Gallup 56 43
2006 Pew 51 45
2010 Pew 49 49
2014 Gallup 55 42
Note: Asked of adults employed full or part-time. In a Harris poll conducted in 1996, 51 percent of employed Americans
said their “job gives [them] a sense of purpose in life,” 26 percent said their job was “nothing more than a source of
income,” and 22 percent said it was “an obligation I must fulfill.” In Japan, the responses were 29, 57, and 8 percent,
respectively.

 Here are two different ways of looking at your job. Some people get a sense of identity from their job. For other people,
their job is just what they do for a living. Which of these best describes the way you usually feel about your job?

Sense of identity What they do for a living
2010 35% 63%
Note: Asked of employed adults (61%).
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 How satisfied are you with your job – very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied?

Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied
Dec. 1995# 43% 42% 11% 4%
Dec. 1996# 45 40 9 6
Jul. 1999# 47 41 8 4
Mar. 2005 47 41 9 4
Note: Sample is employed adults.
Source: # Survey by The New York Times. March 2005 survey by CBS News/New York Times.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 9
 Overall, how satisfied are you with your job? Are you . . .?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely
satisfied satisfied unsatisfied unsatisfied
Jun.-Jul. 1997 PSRA/Wisconsin 24% 62% 10% 3%
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 28 61 8 2
Jan. 2008 Pew 31 56 10 3
Jul. 2009 Pew 30 60 7 2
May 2010 Pew 32 54 7 4
Jul. 2012 Pew 30 56 10 3
Nov.–Dec. 2012 Pew 31 58 7 3
Note: Samples are employed adults.

 If you won $10 million in the lottery, would you continue to work, or would you stop working?

Yes, continue No, stop working
Aug. 1997 Gallup 59% 40%
Aug. 2004 Gallup 55 44
Aug. 2005 Gallup 61 39
Aug. 2013 Gallup 68 31
Note: In August 2005, 59 percent of those who said they would continue working said they would stay in their current job.

 Next, we’d like to know whether or not you feel good about various things in this country and in your life. Do you feel
good about your job if you have one, or not?

Feel good Do not feel good/Not applicable
1997 Harris Interactive 60% 40%
1998 Harris Interactive 67 33
1999 Harris Interactive 65 35
2000 Harris Interactive 63 37
2001 Harris Interactive 64 36
2002 Harris Interactive 62 38
2003 Harris Interactive 64 36
2004 Harris Interactive 60 40
Note: Question wording varied.

 Now I’d like to find out how satisfied you are with different aspects of your job. Please tell me whether you are very
satisfied, somewhat satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with it. How
satisfied are you with your job overall?

Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Neither Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied
Aug. 1998 55% 34% 2% 5% 3%
Feb. 1999 54 34 3 6 2
Aug. 1999 59 32 2 5 2
Jan. 2000 51 33 5 8 4
May 2000 49 36 3 7 5
Aug. 2000 58 30 3 6 3
Apr. 2001 49 38 5 6 2
Oct. 2001 57 30 5 6 2
May 2008 53 38 3 3 2
Nov. 2009 49 39 4 4 3
Jan. 2013 33 35 18 10 4
Note: Asked of employed people.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 10
 Which of the following best tells how well you like your job...I hate it, I dislike it, I don’t like it, I am indifferent to it, I like
it, I am enthusiastic about it, or I love it?

Aug. 1999 Apr. 2001
Love my job 28% 25%
Enthusiastic about it 26 27
Like it 33 33
Indifferent 6 9
Don’t like it 3 2
Dislike it 2 3
Hate it 2 1
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 All in all, which of the following best describes how you feel about your job...?

Aug. 2001 Aug. 2005
Love it 32% 32%
Like it 59 59
Dislike it 6 7
Hate it 2 2
Source: The Gallup Organization.

 How would you characterize your current job? Would you say...

---------------Responses of 40-59 year-olds---------------
I love it I like it I tolerate it I dislike it I hate it
May 2014 AARP/USA Today 34% 43% 19% 1% 2%
Note: Asked of 40-59 year-olds employed full-time or part-time.

 How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your job? Would you say you are ...

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004 48% 43% 6% 3%
Mar. 2011 28 42 14 13
Note: Asked of those employed full or part time.
Source: AP/Ipsos.

 How about when it comes to your job, if you work, how satisfied do you feel at the present time—very satisfied, somewhat
satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004 ABC News 36% 26% 7% 4%
Note: Survey conducted by female interviewers only.

 What best describes how you feel about your job?

Something you only An important part of who you re
do to earn money as a person
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 39% 61%

 How important is your job to your overall satisfaction with life? Would you say . . . ?

Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 47% 44% 6% 3%


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 11
 I’m going to read you some statements related to your job. For each of these statements, please tell me if you strongly
agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement...my job allows me to achieve my full
potential.
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
agree agree disagree disagree
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 36% 39% 17% 8%

 I’d like to ask you about some aspects of your life. Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the following aspects of your life?
Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your job or the work you do?

Satisfied Dissatisfied
Jan. 2005 69% 10%
Source: National Conference for Community and Justice, PSRI.

 I am going to read you a series of statements about your job. For each series, please tell me which statement comes closer to
your own view, A or B. Statement A: I am not happy with my present job and I’d like to have a different one. Statement B:
I like my present job and I’m not interested in changing it.

I like my present job/ Not happy with job/
Not interested in changing Like a different one
Feb. 2005 72% 27%
Source: Zogby International/Public Service Research Foundation.

 Now I’m going to read you a list of items, and I’d like you to rate your feelings for each one. Would you say you are fed up
with and tired of ... or don’t you feel that way?

Sep. 2005
Fed up with Don’t feel that way Don’t know
High gas prices 85% 12% 2%
Partisan bickering in D.C. 77 12 11
The Iraq War 58 34 7
Hurricanes 37 47 16
Your job 11 61 28

Feb. 2010
Fed up with Don’t feel that way Don’t know
Partisan bickering in D.C. 82% 15% 3%
Growing federal deficit 81 16 3
Health Care Reform Debate 67 30 3
Snowstorms 36 56 8
Your job 9 72 19
Note: Asked of registered voters.
Source: Fox News/Opinion Dynamics.

 Please tell me whether you are satisfied or dissatisfied, on the whole, with the following aspects of your life. Your job—the
kind of work you do. Would you say you are very satisfied/dissatisfied or somewhat satisfied/dissatisfied?

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Nov.-Dec. 1996 Pew 41% 28% 8% 6%
Jan. 1999 Pew 45 25 5 4
Oct. 2005* Pew 54 30 7 5
Jun.-Jul. 2008 Pew 39 23 6 4
Note: *Asked of those employed.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 12
 Do you think you would be happier if you made more money?

Yes No
Jul. 2006 Gallup 73% 26%

 How much more money per year would it take to make you happy?

Jul. 2006

None/ $ 5,000 - $5,001- $10,001- $20,000- $50,001- More than
Not happier or less 10,000 20,000 50,000 100,000 $100,000
26% 11% 17% 17% 14% 5% 3%

Mean (including none/not happier): $32,629
Mean (excluding none/not happier): $45,934
Median (including none/not happier): $10,000
Median (excluding none/not happier): $17,000
Source: The Gallup Organization.

 Compared to one year ago, would you say you are more satisfied in your job situation, about as satisfied, or less satisfied
now than you were a year ago?

More satisfied now About as satisfied Less satisfied now
May 2008 30% 44% 25%
Note: Survey asked of employed adults. The national employed adult sample includes those employed full and part-time,
and those unemployed looking for work.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 Do you believe the place where you work cares about you as a person, or are you just someone who works there?

Cares about me Just work there
May 2008 61% 31%
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 Compared to one year ago, would you say you are more satisfied with your job situation, about as satisfied, or less satisfied
now than you were a year ago?

More satisfied About as satisfied Less satisfied
May 2008 30% 44% 25%
Mar. 2009 23 41 33
May 2009 23 41 34
Jul. –Aug. 2010 19 53 26
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 In all honesty, do you think you, personally, are underpaid for the work you do, paid about the right amount, or are you
overpaid for the work you do?

Underpaid Paid about right Overpaid
Aug. 2008 Gallup 51% 46% 3%
Aug. 2010 Gallup 43 53 4
Note: Asked of adults who are employed full or part time.

 In the last few years have you or has anyone living in your household been laid off or lost their job?

Yes No
Dec. 2008 ABC/Wash Post 18% 82%
Feb. 2009 ABC/Wash Post 18 82

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 13
Apr. 2009* ABC/Wash Post 23 77
Sep. 2009* ABC/Wash Post 27 73
Nov. 2009 ABC/Wash Post 30 70
Dec. 2010 ABC/Wash Post 34 65
Jul. 2011** ABC/Wash Post 29 71
May 2012 ABC/Wash Post 35 65
Note: *April 2009 and earlier question wording read “in the last few months”. **July 2011 wording and earlier read “in the
last year.”

 Which one of the following jobs would you most like to have?

Aug. 2010

Professional Athlete 29%
Actor/Actress 32
President of the United States 13
Rock Star 13
Source: Marist Poll.

 Would you say that your job is ideal for you, or not?

Yes, ideal No
Mar. 2010 Gallup 71% 28%
Apr. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 66 31
May 2010 Gallup/USA Today 70 30
Aug. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 66 33
Jan. 2011 Gallup 70 30
Note: Asked of those employed.

 Would you say you are currently working in your dream job?

-------Responses of 40-59 year-olds-------
Yes No
May 2014 AARP/USA Today 41% 57%
Note: Asked of 40-59 year-olds employed full-time or part-time.

 Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your job or the work you do?

Satisfied Dissatisfied
Jan. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 84% 16%
Mar. 2010 Gallup 89 11
Apr. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 89 11
May 2010 Gallup/USA Today 87 13
Aug. 2010 Gallup/USA Today 84 15
Jan. 2011 Gallup 88 12
Sep. 2013
^
Gallup 75 19
Note: Survey asked of those employed.
^
Survey asked of national adults.

 How satisfied are you with your current job: very satisfied, satisfied, not very satisfied, not satisfied at all?

Not very Not satisfied
Very satisfied Satisfied satisfied at all
Feb. 2010 Marist 45% 43% 8% 4%
Note: Sample is of employed adults.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 14
 How satisfied are you with your current job or career – very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very
dissatisfied?

Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied
Oct. 2010 Pew 53% 32% 9% 5%
Mar. 2011 Pew 45 37 10 7
Dec. 2011 Pew 36 49 10 5
Note: Asked of those employed full or part time.

 Next, please tell me whether you are satisfied or dissatisfied, on the whole, with the following aspects of your life.

Oct. 2013
Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Your family life 75% 19% 4% 2%
Your social life 59 28 6 3
Your personal financial situation 29 40 14 14
The quality of life in your community 51 35 7 6
Your current job or career* 52 31 8 6
Bosses^ 69 --- --- ---
Workers 48 --- --- ---
Note: *Asked of those employed. ^The survey determined which respondents constituted bosses or top managers and
workers by asking the respondents directly which position-level they held in their jobs.
Source: Pew Research Center.

 Using a scale of one to ten, where one is not at all satisfied and ten is extremely satisfied, how satisfied are you with each of
the following areas of your life?

May 2014 AARP/USA Today/Woelfel Research

--------------------Responses of 40-59 year-olds--------------------
10 – Extremely satisfied 1 – Not at all satisfied
Leans toward Leans toward “not
“extremely satisfied” at all satisfied”
(10-8) (7-4) (3-1)
Independence 82% 16% 3%
Relationship with family
and friends 80 18 2
Happiness 75 22 3
Spiritual well-being 71 23 3
Marriage or relationship with
significant other 71 11 9
Hobbies and interests 57 36 6
Job or career 54 28 9
Health and fitness 53 41 6
Financial situation 48 43 10
Giving back to your community 47 45 6
Note: Asked of 40-59 year-olds.









American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 15

 Next, please indicate whether you are worried about each of the following happening to you, personally, in the near future.
How about . . . ?

That you will be laid off
Worried Not worried
Aug. 1997 20% 80%
Aug. 2003 19 81
Aug. 2004 20 79
Aug. 2005 15 84
Aug. 2006 17 82
Aug. 2007 14 85
Aug. 2008 15 85
Aug. 2009 31 68
Aug. 2010 26 73
Aug. 2011 30 70
Aug. 2012 28 71
Aug. 2013 29 71
Aug. 2014 19 80

That your hours at work will be cut back

Worried Not worried
Aug. 1997 15% 85%
Aug. 2003 15 84
Aug. 2004 14 86
Aug. 2005 13 87
Aug. 2006 16 83
Aug. 2007 12 87
Aug. 2008 14 85
JOB ANXIETY TODAY: While job satisfaction numbers have remained mostly
stable, job anxiety concerns jumped in some areas in 2009 following the onset of the
financial crash and recession. In Gallup’s August 2009 poll, for example, 31 percent of
employed respondents said they were worried that they would be laid off in the near future,
double what it was in 2008. The 2009 response represented the highest level of anxiety since
the trend began in 1997. Things have clearly improved. In 2014, 19 percent worried that
they would be laid off in the near future.
Twenty-three percent worried in 2014 that their hours at work would be cut back; 27
percent worried about that prospect in 2009. Twenty-four percent in 2013, compared to 32
percent in 2009, worried that their wages would be reduced.
In 2014, 34 percent worried about benefits being reduced. Forty-six percent
expressed that concern in 2009. Outsourcing doesn’t appear to be a big worry in Gallup’s
trend question. Only 8 percent in Gallup’s August 2014 poll worried that their company
would move jobs overseas. Nine percent in early 2009 told Gallup it was a good time to find
a quality job. Thirty percent gave that response in April 2014. When the economy was doing
well in August 2000, 78 percent gave that response in another pollsters’ identical question.
The ability to find a “quality” job also makes many Americans anxious these days,
though less so than at the height of the recession. According to Gallup, 3 in 10 Americans
believe that now is a good time to find a quality job, but that number dropped as low as 8
percent in November 2009 and November 2011.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 16
Aug. 2009 27 72
Aug. 2010 25 73
Aug. 2011 30 69
Aug. 2012 26 73
Aug. 2013 25 75
Aug. 2014 23 76

That your wages will be reduced

Worried Not worried
Aug. 1997 17% 83%
Aug. 2003 17 82
Aug. 2004 17 83
Aug. 2005 14 86
Aug. 2006 19 80
Aug. 2007 14 86
Aug. 2008 16 83
Aug. 2009 32 67
Aug. 2010 26 74
Aug. 2011 33 66
Aug. 2012 28 71
Aug. 2013 31 69
Aug. 2014 24 76

That your benefits will be reduced

Worried Not worried
Aug. 1997 34% 66%
Aug. 2003 31 67
Aug. 2004 28 69
Aug. 2005 28 69
Aug. 2006 30 67
Aug. 2007 29 68
Aug. 2008 27 70
Aug. 2009 46 52
Aug. 2010 39 58
Aug. 2011 44 54
Aug. 2012 40 58
Aug. 2013 43 54
Aug. 2014 34 63

That your company will move jobs to countries overseas

Worried Not worried
Aug. 2003 9% 89%
Aug. 2004 11 89
Aug. 2005 12 88
Aug. 2006 11 86
Aug. 2007 10 88
Aug. 2008 8 91
Aug. 2009 10 88
Aug. 2010 9 91
Aug. 2011 13 86
Aug. 2012 11 87
Aug. 2013 11 87
Aug. 2014 8 91
Note: Sample is employed adults, full or part-time.
Source: The Gallup Organization.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 17
 Thinking about the next 12 months, how likely is it that you will lose your job or be laid off – very likely, fairly likely, not
too likely or not at all likely?
Very Fairly Not too Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Jan. 1975 Gallup 3% 10% 28% 55%
Apr. 1975 Gallup 5 8 22 63
Nov. 1979 Gallup 3 8 18 66
May 1980 Gallup 6 8 24 60
Sep. 1980 Gallup 6 9 24 60
Jun. 1982 Gallup 7 7 28 54
Nov. 1982 Gallup 9 9 28 49
Apr. 1983 Gallup 8 8 26 55
Feb. 1989 Gallup 4 8 35 53
Jul. 1990 Gallup 6 6 24 62
Mar. 1991 Gallup 5 7 22 65
Jul. 1991 Gallup 6 10 25 59
Oct. 1991 Gallup 6 10 25 59
Dec. 1993 Gallup 5 7 27 60
Apr. 1996 Gallup 5 9 34 52
Jun. 1997 Gallup 4 6 26 63
Dec. 1998 Gallup 6 7 27 60
Apr.2001 Gallup 5 7 36 52
Sep. 2001 Gallup 7 6 25 62
Apr. 2006 Gallup 3 7 32 57
Jun.-Jul. 2006 Pew 6 7 26 59
Apr. 2007 Gallup 4 8 31 57
Jan.-Feb. 2008* Pew 5 10 28 56
Dec. 2008 ABC/Wash Post 10 11 30 48
Feb. 2009* Pew 5 16 31 46
Mar. 2010* Pew 9 15 25 49
Mar.–Aug. 2010 NORC 8 9 31 52
Apr. 2010 Gallup 8 13 40 38
Jun. 2011* Pew 5 16 29 48
Apr. 2012 Gallup 5 10 42 42
Apr. 2013 Gallup 6 12 35 45
Apr. 2014 Gallup 5 11 34 50
Note: Samples are employed adults. *For this survey, the question wording did not include the phrase “lose your job,” and
the category ‘Somewhat likely’ replaced ‘Fairly likely.’

 Do you know someone, personally, who has been laid off or fired recently, or not?

Yes No
Oct. 1990 Gallup 50% 49%
Oct. 1991 Gallup 50 46
Dec. 1993 Gallup 52 47
Mar. 1994 Gallup 60 40
Apr. 1996 Gallup 58 42
Aug. 2001 Gallup 43 57
Oct. 2001 Gallup 50 50
Nov. 2001 Gallup 54 46
Feb. 2002 Gallup 51 49
Apr. 2003 Gallup 60 40

 Please tell me whether you are worried or not worried about each of the following happening in the next 12 months… that
you or your spouse will lose a job?
Worried Not worried
Oct. 1990^ Gallup/Newsweek 20% 79%
Oct.–Nov. 1991 Gallup 31 65

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 18
Dec. 1991 Gallup 25 68
Jan. 1992 (early) Gallup 36 62
Jan. 1992 (late) Gallup/CNN/USA Today 33 64
Oct. 1992* Gallup/CNN/USA Today 29 67
Jan. 2001 Gallup 19 65
Jul. 2001 Gallup 22 77
Oct. 2001 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 29 70
Jul. 2002 (mid) Gallup/CNN/USA Today 27 70
Jul.2002 (late) Gallup/CNN/USA Today 22 73
Oct. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 27 70
Dec. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 24 73
Jan. 2004 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 21 78
Jan. /Feb. 2008 Gallup/USA Today 23 74
Jan. 2011 Gallup 30 68
Jan. 2012 Gallup 34 63
Note: *Asked of registered voters. ^ Very and somewhat categories combined.

 Which of the following statements apply to you...A member of your family has been laid off or fired recently?

Applies Doesn’t apply
Oct. 1990 * Gallup/Newsweek 17% 83%
Oct. 1991 Gallup 23 77
Dec. 1993 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 21 80
Mar. 1994 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 25 74
Apr. 1996 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 22 77
Note: *Asked of those who know someone who has been laid off or fired.

 Which of the following statements apply to you...You know people outside of your family who have been laid off or fired
recently?

Applies Doesn’t apply
Oct. 1990 * Gallup/Newsweek 50% 49%
Oct. 1991 Gallup 50 46
Dec. 1993 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 52 47
Mar. 1994 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 60 40
Apr. 1996 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 58 42
Note: *Asked of those who know someone who has been laid off or fired.

 Thinking now about job opportunities where you live, would you say there are plenty of jobs available in your community
or are jobs difficult to find?
Plenty of jobs Jobs are difficult
available to find
Jan. 1992 US News 12% 79%
May 1992 US News 16 77
Aug. 1992 US News 15 76
Jun. 2001 Pew 42 44
Jun. 2002 Pew 31 59
Oct. 2003 Pew 24 66
Jan. 2004 Pew 27 60
Feb. 2004 Pew 31 59
Apr. 2004 Pew 30 57
Aug. 2004 Pew 34 55
Sep. 2004 Pew 31 52
Jan. 2005 Pew 32 58
May 2005 Pew 30 60
Oct. 2005 Pew 36 56
Jan. 2006 Pew 33 56
Mar. 2006 Pew 37 56

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 19
Dec. 2006 Pew 40 49
Feb. 2007 Pew 39 48
Jun. 2007 Pew 39 49
Sep. 2007 Pew 36 50
Nov. 2007 Pew 41 48
Jan. 2008 Pew 34 53
Apr. 2008 Pew 30 61
Jul. 2008 Pew 31 58
Oct. 2008 Pew 25 64
Dec. 2008 Pew 19 73
Feb. 2009 Pew 11 80
Sep.–Oct. 2009 Pew 14 79
Dec. 2009 ABC/Wash Post 12 84
Mar. 2010 Pew 10 85
Dec. 2010 Pew 14 79
Jun. 2011 Pew 14 79
Jul. 2011 ABC/Wash Post 14 82
Jan. 2012 Pew 16 78
Apr. 2012 ABC/Wash Post 24 70
Oct. 2012 * ABC/Wash Post 25 68
Apr. 2013 ABC/Wash Post 24 67
Jun. 2013 Pew 29 64
Apr. 2014 Pew 27 65
Jul. 2014 Pew 29 62
Note: *Asked of registered voters.

 How would you rate the financial condition of the company or organization that employs you? Would you say it is in
excellent financial shape, good shape, only fair shape or in poor shape?

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Jan. 1992 U.S. News 22% 39% 24% 12%
May 1992 U.S. News 25 40 22 11
Aug. 1992 U.S. News 23 40 26 9
Oct. 1992 U.S. News 27 38 23 10
Jun. 2001 Pew 31 39 20 7
Feb. 2008 Pew 30 39 21 6
Oct. 2008 Pew 22 44 25 5
Dec. 2008 Pew 20 43 27 8
Feb. 2009 Pew 15 43 29 10
Oct. 2009 Pew 18 42 27 10
Dec. 2010 Pew 23 41 27 7
Jun. 2011 Pew 23 40 25 11

 When you think about your current financial situation, what, if anything, worries you the most?

Mar. 1995 Mar. 2005 Apr. 2009 Dec. 2009
Don’t have enough money* 19% 21% 17% 9%
Losing job/Job stability* 17 11 22 20
Health care costs 7 11 14 10
Retirement/Social Security 6 8 9 6
Economy getting worse** 6 6 - 3
Affordable housing** - - 7 7
Note: Only top responses shown. *April 2009 survey wording was “Afford bills” and “Job concerns.” **December 2009
survey wording was “Can’t pay bills” and “Worsening economy and housing costs.”
Source: CBS/New York Times.




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 20
 Let me read you several elements relating to the current economy. For each one, please tell me whether it is an area in
which you feel very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied . . . your current job security?

-------------------------------------------------Current job security---------------------------------------------------
Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied
Jan. 1996 30% 31% 10% 10%
Mar. 1996 36 37 14 12
Jun. 1996 38 37 12 12
Sep. 1996 37 39 10 13
Dec. 1996 36 38 13 12
Mar. 1997 37 40 12 11
Jun. 1997 38 36 12 13
Sep. 1997 41 37 10 11
Dec. 1997 40 38 11 10
Dec. 1998 45 33 10 11
Apr. 2000* 46 35 9 9
Jan. 2009 35 35 14 15
Apr. 2009 32 36 13 17
Sep. 2009 36 30 16 17
Dec. 2009 33 34 14 18
Aug. 2010 33 32 15 19
Jan. 2011* 35 32 13 18
Note: Asked of employed people. Question wording in 2010 and 2011 was “When it comes to your current job security, are
you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied or very dissatisfied.” *Asked of registered voters.
Source: NBC/Wall Street Journal.

 Thinking about the job situation in America today, would you say that it is now a good time or a bad time to find a quality
job?

Good time Bad time
Aug. 1998 UConn/Rutgers 69% 25%
Feb. 1999 UConn/Rutgers 70 24
Jan. 2000 UConn/Rutgers 76 19
Aug. 2000 UConn/Rutgers 78 16
Aug. 2001 Gallup 39 56
Oct. 2001 Gallup 25 71
Nov. 2001 Gallup 22 75
Dec. 2001 Gallup 25 73
Jan. 2002 Gallup 24 73
Feb. 2002 Gallup 25 72
Mar. 2002 Gallup 26 72
Apr. 2002 Gallup 29 68
May 2002 Gallup 29 67
Jun. 2002 Gallup 32 64
Jul. 2002 Gallup 26 69
Aug. 2002 Gallup 27 68
Sep. 2002 Gallup 22 74
Oct. 2002 Gallup 23 70
Nov. 2002 Gallup 27 69
Dec. 2002 Gallup 19 78
Jan. 2003 Gallup 20 78
Feb. 2003 Gallup 19 79
Mar. 2003 Gallup 16 81
Apr. 2003 Gallup 23 75
May2003 Gallup 22 75
Jun. 2003 Gallup 22 76
Jul. 2003 Gallup 20 78
Aug. 2003 Gallup 17 81

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 21
Sep. 2003 Gallup 19 79
Oct. 2003 Gallup 24 74
Nov. 2003 Gallup 24 73
Dec. 2003 Gallup 29 68
Jan. 2004 Gallup 31 68
Feb. 2004 Gallup 28 70
Mar. 2004 Gallup 28 69
Apr. 2004 Gallup 30 66
May 2004 Gallup 30 67
Jun. 2004 Gallup 32 65
Jul. 2004 Gallup 36 61
Aug. 2004 Gallup 33 63
Sep. 2004 Gallup 34 61
Oct.2004 Gallup 29 67
Nov. 2004 Gallup 37 60
Dec. 2004 Gallup 36 59
Jan. 2005 Gallup 33 62
Feb. 2005 Gallup 38 59
Feb. 2005 Gallup 38 57
Mar. 2005 Gallup 39 57
Mar. 2005 Gallup 34 61
Apr. 2005 Gallup 37 59
Apr.2005 Gallup 38 58
May 2005 Gallup 38 59
May 2005 Gallup 39 58
Jun. 2005 Gallup 35 62
Jun. 2005 Gallup 40 56
Jul. 2005 Gallup 39 58
Jul. 2005 Gallup 35 61
Aug. 2005 Gallup 39 58
Aug. 2005 Gallup 36 58
Sep. 2005 Gallup 38 59
Sep. 2005 Gallup 38 56
Oct. 2005 Gallup 35 62
Oct. 2005 Gallup 37 58
Nov. 2005 Gallup 37 59
Nov. 2005 Gallup 42 56
Dec. 2005 Gallup 36 60
Dec. 2005 Gallup 40 56
Jan. 2006 Gallup 41 55
Feb. 2006 Gallup 40 56
Mar. 2006 Gallup 41 55
Apr. 2006 Gallup 41 53
May 2006 Gallup 42 52
Jun. 2006 Gallup 41 53
Jul. 2006 Gallup 42 51
Aug. 2006 Gallup 42 53
Sep. 2006 Gallup 41 54
Oct. 2006 Gallup 40 54
Nov. 2006 Gallup 41 53
Dec. 2006 Gallup 44 50
Jan. 2007 Gallup 48 47
Feb. 2007 Gallup 45 50
Mar. 2007 Gallup 45 49
Apr. 2007 Gallup 46 49
May 2007 Gallup 47 50
Jun. 2007 Gallup 43 53
Jul. 2007 Gallup 43 50

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 22
Aug. 2007 Gallup 42 51
Sep. 2007 Gallup 39 55
Oct. 2007 Gallup 39 56
Nov. 2007 Gallup 38 55
Dec. 2007 Gallup 35 57
Jan. 2008 Gallup 33 60
Feb. 2008 Gallup 26 71
Mar. 2008 Gallup 26 69
Apr. 2008 Gallup 20 75
May 2008 Gallup 23 73
Jun. 2008 Gallup 21 74
Jul. 2008 Gallup 19 76
Aug. 2008 Gallup 20 75
Sep. 2008 Gallup 20 76
Oct. 2008 Gallup 14 82
Nov. 2008 Gallup 12 86
Dec. 2008 Gallup 10 88
Jan. 2009 Gallup 13 86
Feb. 2009 Gallup 9 90
Mar. 2009 Gallup 9 90
Apr. 2009 Gallup 10 89
May 2009 Gallup 9 89
Jun. 2009 Gallup 11 86
Jul. 2009 Gallup 11 87
Aug. 2009 Gallup 9 90
Aug.–Sep. 2009 Gallup 10 87
Oct. 2009 Gallup 10 88
Nov. 2009 Gallup 8 89
Dec. 2009 Gallup 9 89
Jan. 2010 Gallup 9 90
Feb. 2010 Gallup 11 88
Mar. 2010 Gallup 10 88
Apr. 2010 Gallup 11 88
May 2010 Gallup 12 86
Jun. 2010 Gallup 13 85
Jul. 2010 Gallup 12 85
Aug. 2010 Gallup 10 88
Sep. 2010 Gallup 10 88
Oct. 2010 Gallup 9 88
Nov. 2010 Gallup 11 86
Dec. 2010 Gallup 13 84
Jan. 2011 Gallup 13 84
Feb. 2011 Gallup 12 86
Mar. 2011 Gallup 13 83
Apr. 2011 Gallup 17 81
May. 2011 Gallup 15 82
Jun. 2011 Gallup 11 86
Jul. 2011 Gallup 10 88
Aug. 2011 Gallup 13 86
Sep. 2011 Gallup 9 89
Oct. 2011 Gallup 10 88
Nov. 2011 Gallup 8 90
Dec. 2011 Gallup 12 87
Jan. 2012 Gallup 15 81
Feb. 2012 Gallup 13 85
Mar. 2012 Gallup 19 78
Apr. 2012 Gallup 21 77
May 2012 Gallup 19 80

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 23
Jun. 2012 Gallup 20 78
Jul. 2012 Gallup 17 81
Aug. 2012 Gallup 17 81
Sep. 2012 Gallup 20 76
Oct. 2012 Gallup 22 73
Nov. 2012 Gallup 24 73
Dec. 2012 Gallup 19 76
Jan. 2013 Gallup 25 70
Feb. 2013 Gallup 23 73
Mar. 2013 Gallup 22 74
Apr. 2013 Gallup 26 71
May 2013 Gallup 24 73
Jun. 2013 Gallup 26 70
Jul. 2013 Gallup 25 70
Aug. 2013 Gallup 21 76
Sep. 2013 Gallup 27 70
Oct. 2013 Gallup 22 75
Dec. 2013 Gallup 24 73
Jan. 2014 Gallup 25 71
Feb. 2014 Gallup 27 70
Mar. 2014 Gallup 28 68
Apr. 2014 Gallup 30 66
Note: Asked of national adults.

 Thinking about the job situation in America today, would you say that it is now a good time or a bad time to find a quality
job?

Good time Bad time
May 2008 23% 65%
Mar. 2009 15 79
May 2009 15 79
Nov. 2009 12 84
Aug. 2010 7 78
Jan. 2013 27 73
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 To the extent that it has become harder to find good paying jobs in the United States than in the past, how much blame does
each of the following deserve for that?

Sep. 2013
A lot/some Little/Not at all
Elected leaders in Washington who don’t
work together 88% 10%
Competition from cheaper labor overseas 79 20
Rising cost of health care 78 21
The gap in pay between business executives
and ordinary workers 77 22
High taxes and regulations on business 74 24
Lack of government support for
small businesses 71 26
New technology replacing workers 69 30
Companies refusing to invest profits
in new jobs 69 29
Wall Street financial institutions 66 29
American workers not working hard
enough to get ahead 58 40
Fewer federal and state government jobs 51 47
Weaker labor unions 48 48
Source: Wash Post/Miller Center American Dream and Economic Struggles survey.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 24
 If you were to lose your job, how likely is it that you would find a job just as good as the one you have now—very likely,
somewhat likely, not very likely, or not at all likely?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Feb. 2001 Gallup 35% 29% 24% 11%
Apr. 2001 Gallup 37 33 23 7
Apr. 2006 Gallup 29 31 23 16
Apr. 2007 Gallup 34 30 21 15
Apr. 2010 Gallup 16 26 30 27

Dec. 2008 ABC/Wash Post 22% 31% 23% 23%
Note: Asked of those who work full time or part time. ABC/Wash Post wording was “If you were to lose your job, how
likely is it that you would find another job just as good as the one you have now—very likely, somewhat likely, not very
likely, or not at all likely?”

 All things considered, which of the following aspects of your job will you be most concerned about in the coming months?

Keeping your job Your salary Your work hours None of the above
Aug. 2001* AP/Ipsos 17% 35% 36% 12%
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 21 37 31 11
Note: *Question asked if you were concerned about “maintaining your employment” instead of “your job.” No new results
since 2004.

 Now looking ahead at the next six months. How likely is it that you, someone in your family or someone else you know
personally will lose their job in the next six months as a result of economic conditions?… Extremely likely, very likely,
somewhat likely, not very likely, not at all likely?

Extremely Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
likely likely likely likely likely
Jan. 2002 Ipsos-Reid 7% 12% 30% 32% 1%
Feb. 2002 Ipsos -Reid 7 13 31 32 1
Mar. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 12 29 33 18
Apr. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 11 28 34 18
May 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 6 11 28 35 19
Jun. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 13 30 31 18
Jul. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 11 32 31 17
Aug. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 11 31 31 18
Sep. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 12 29 29 20
Oct. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 9 13 31 30 16
Nov. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 9 13 30 30 15
Dec. 2002 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 14 30 31 14
Jan. 2003 Ipsos -Reid 8 14 30 30 16
Feb. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 9 13 30 28 17
Mar. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 9 13 28 29 17
Apr. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 13 29 31 17
May 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 13 30 32 15
Jun. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 12 32 31 17
Jul. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 15 32 29 15
Aug. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 13 32 30 16
Sep. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 8 13 32 28 17
Oct. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 12 31 30 18
Nov. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 12 30 30 19
Dec. 2003 Ipsos -Reid/Cook 7 11 32 32 17
Jan. 2004 AP/Ipsos 7 12 29 33 17
Feb. 2004 AP/Ipsos 8 12 28 31 20
Mar. 2004 AP/Ipsos 6 13 30 31 19
May 2004 AP/Ipsos 8 13 31 29 18

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 25
Jun. 2004 AP/Ipsos 8 10 29 31 21
Jul. 2004 AP/Ipsos 6 11 28 34 20
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 6 12 30 33 18
Sep. 2004 AP/Ipsos 7 9 28 33 23
Oct. 2004 AP/Ipsos 6 10 30 37 16
Nov. 2004 AP/Ipsos 8 11 27 31 22
Jan. 2005 AP/Ipsos 6 12 31 32 18
Feb. 2005 AP/Ipsos 6 13 29 32 19
Mar. 2005 AP/Ipsos 9 10 26 34 20
Apr. 2005 AP/Ipsos 7 12 26 31 22
May 2005 AP/Ipsos 6 13 26 33 21
Jun. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 7 12 29 30 21
Jul. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 6 12 31 31 18
Aug. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 8 11 29 34 17
Sep. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 7 12 29 32 18
Oct. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 7 10 29 31 21
Nov. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 7 11 24 35 22
Dec. 2005 RBC/Ipsos 8 13 26 31 21
Jan. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 8 11 32 32 15
Feb. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 8 11 27 33 20
Mar. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 7 12 26 33 21
Apr. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 6 11 29 33 20
May 2006 RBC/Ipsos 9 13 27 30 20
Jun. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 26 34 23
Jul. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 7 8 29 33 22
Aug. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 4 10 31 33 20
Sep. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 6 12 27 31 23
Nov. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 7 10 27 33 21
Dec. 2006 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 27 36 20
Jan. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 5 11 25 34 24
Feb. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 5 8 28 34 23
Mar. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 8 11 25 31 23
May 2007 RBC/Ipsos 8 10 24 35 21
Jun. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 4 10 29 32 23
Jul. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 6 12 30 30 20
Aug. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 5 12 25 33 23
Sep. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 6 11 32 29 20
Oct. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 5 12 26 33 21
Nov. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 8 11 29 29 21
Dec. 2007 RBC/Ipsos 5 10 32 33 18
Jan. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 6 12 32 29 18
Feb. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 8 16 30 26 19
Mar. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 7 14 33 28 15
Apr. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 6 14 32 28 17
May 2008 RBC/Ipsos 7 17 33 23 17
Jun. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 8 18 29 28 14
Jul. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 9 15 31 28 14
Sep.2008 RBC/Ipsos 8 15 30 27 19
Oct. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 11 18 35 21 14
Nov. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 9 18 34 24 12
Dec. 2008 RBC/Ipsos 11 21 35 19 10
Jan. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 11 22 33 21 10
Feb. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 15 27 33 18 5
Mar. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 14 25 37 15 7
Apr. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 13 24 36 16 9
May 2009 RBC/Ipsos 11 21 36 19 10
Jun. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 15 21 35 18 9
Jul. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 11 20 40 17 9

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 26
Jul.-Aug. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 12 22 36 18 9
Sep. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 12 24 35 19 7
Oct. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 11 18 36 25 9
Nov. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 9 20 41 21 8
Dec. 2009 RBC/Ipsos 13 16 38 22 9
Jan. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 9 16 37 26 11
Feb. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 9 16 44 21 8
Mar. 2010* RBC/Ipsos 8 18 37 26 10
Apr. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 4 9 27 22 15
May 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 9 24 25 17
June 2010 RBC/Ipsos 5 11 22 26 16
Jul. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 28 22 13
Jul.-Aug. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 8 25 27 16
Aug. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 11 24 26 13
Sep.-Oct. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 5 12 25 22 16
Oct.-Nov. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 9 22 28 15
Nov. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 25 24 17
Dec. 2010 RBC/Ipsos 5 9 26 24 16
Jan. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 7 27 27 16
Feb. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 7 11 25 25 13
Mar. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 7 7 24 28 16
Apr.-May 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 8 26 25 15
May 2011 RBC/Ipsos 4 9 20 29 15
Jun.-Jul. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 4 11 24 28 13
Jul. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 10 24 25 15
Aug. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 25 24 13
Sep.-Oct. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 13 26 27 13
Oct. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 9 28 27 12
Nov. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 6 9 27 27 13
Dec. 2011 RBC/Ipsos 5 8 27 28 14
Jan. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 7 8 27 29 14
Mar. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 5 10 23 26 19
Mar.-Apr. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 5 9 22 26 16
Apr. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 27 26 15
May 2012 RBC/Ipsos 6 9 27 24 17
Jun.-Jul. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 22 25 18
Jul. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 7 9 26 24 18
Sep. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 5 9 25 26 19
Sep.-Oct. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 5 9 21 28 16
Oct. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 6 9 24 28 17
Nov.-Dec. 2012 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 23 28 16
Jan. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 6 8 23 28 17
Jan. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 8 10 20 27 17
Feb.-Mar. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 7 10 26 21 19
Mar.-Apr. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 5 7 25 26 21
Apr. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 6 10 20 28 20
May-Jun. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 5 8 22 32 16
Jun. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 9 8 19 28 19
Jul. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 7 10 22 25 18
Aug. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 5 7 24 29 19
Sep. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 4 7 20 26 23
Oct. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 6 7 24 25 20
Dec. 2013 RBC/Ipsos 4 6 22 33 19
Jan. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 5 5 20 29 21
Jan.-Feb. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 5 10 21 27 19
Feb. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 4 6 19 28 23
Mar. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 6 8 22 27 20
Apr. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 6 7 19 30 22

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 27
May-Jun. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 5 7 20 31 20
Jun. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 4 6 21 31 21
Jul. 2014 RBC/Ipsos 4 10 21 29 20
Note: *Consistent with RBC’s Cash Index survey reports, the January 2002 – March 2010 responses are recalculated to
include the “Not sure” responses. Beginning with April 2010, all subsequent survey responses do not include this
recalculation, though the “Not sure” responses are not reported in this document.

 How concerned are you that in the next 12 months you or someone else in your household might be out of work and looking
for a job—very concerned, somewhat concerned, or not concerned at all?

Not concerned
Very concerned Somewhat concerned at all
Oct. 2002 CBS News/NYT 31% 20% 48%
Apr. 2004 CBS News/NYT 33 25 41
Jun. 2004 CBS News/NYT 28 27 45
Sep. 2004 CBS News/NYT 30 26 44
Oct. 2004 CBS News/NYT 22 24 53
Jun. 2005 CBS News/NYT 20 18 61
Dec. 2005 CBS News/NYT 21 25 53
Jan. 2006 CBS News/NYT 22 27 51
Feb. 2008 CBS News/NYT 29 27 43
Mar.–Apr. 2008 CBS News/NYT 28 26 45
Aug. 2008 CBS News/NYT 24 25 50
Sep. 2008 CBS News/NYT 21 23 56
Oct. 2008 CBS News/NYT 23 28 49
Late Oct. 2008 CBS News/NYT 35 26 38
Dec. 2008 CBS News 33 26 39
Jan. 2009 CBS News/NYT 30 32 38
Feb. 2009 CBS News 44 28 27
Late Feb. 2009 CBS News/NYT 38 26 35
Mar. 2009 CBS News 30 30 39
Apr. 2009 CBS News/NYT 44 26 30
Apr. 22–26, 2009 CBS News/NYT 32 26 42
June 12–16, 2009 CBS News/NYT 36 28 35
Jul. 2009 CBS News/NYT 40 29 30
Jul. 2009 CBS News/NYT 36 26 38
Sep. 2009 CBS News/NYT 30 28 42
Dec. 2009 CBS News 29 34 33
Feb. 2010 CBS News/NYT 31 26 41
Mar. 2010 CBS 35 24 41
Apr. 2010 (early) CBS News/NYT 36 26 37
Apr. 2010 (late) CBS/NYT 34 30 35
May 2010 CBS 28 26 45
Jun. 2010 CBS/NYT 32 25 41
Jul. 2010 CBS 31 29 39
Aug. 2010 CBS 40 30 29
Oct. 2010 (early) CBS 35 29 36
Oct. 2010 (late) CBS/NYT 36 26 38
Jan. 2011 (early) CBS/NYT 37 25 37
Jan. 2011 (mid) CBS/NYT 41 25 34
Feb. 2011 CBS/NYT 33 26 40
Mar. 2011 CBS/NYT 31 27 41
Jun. 2011 (early) CBS 30 25 44
Jun. 2011 (late) CBS/NYT 31 29 39
Sep. 2011 (early) CBS/NYT 38 25 37
Sep. 2011(late) CBS/NYT 36 30 34
Oct. 2011 CBS/NYT 75 18 6
Dec. 2011 CBS 32 27 40

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 28
Jan. 2012 (early) CBS 34 28 38
Jan. 2012 (mid) CBS/NYT 36 28 35
Feb. 2012 CBS/NYT 38 27 35
Jul. 2012 CBS/NYT 39 27 33
Aug. 2012 CBS 33 29 37
Sep. 2012 CBS/NYT 36 25 37
Dec. 2012 CBS 30 26 43
Feb. 2013 CBS 34 24 41
Mar. 2013 CBS 32 31 36
Jun. 2013 CBS/NYT 32 29 38
Jan. 2014 CBS 37 27 34

 Do you, personally, know anyone who has been laid off or lost their job within the last six months, or not?

Yes No
Apr. 2003 Gallup 63% 37%
Apr. 2004 Gallup 60 40
Apr. 2005 Gallup 55 45
Apr. 2006 Gallup 53 46
Apr. 2007 Gallup 50 50
Apr. 2008 Gallup 54 46
Apr. 2012 Gallup 68 31

 Does losing your job because of the economy worry you a lot, a little, or not at all at the present time?

A lot A little Not at all
Jan. 1976 30% 20% 50%
Aug. 1976* 25 17 58
Sep. 1976* 26 19 56
Oct. 1976* 26 18 56
Mar. 1982* 30 19 51
Jun. 1985* 32 20 48
Jul. 1985* 32 19 46
May 1994 32 21 45
Jan. 1995 30 23 45
Oct. 1998 18 25 57
Jul. 2001 19 27 53
Mar. 2002 19 30 51
Sep. 2013 32 30 38
Note: Asked of employed. *Asked of employed registered voters.
Source: Time/Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Jan. 1976, Aug. 1976, and Sep. 1976. Time/CNN/Yankelovich, May 1994,
Jan. 1995, and Oct. 1998. Time/CNN/Harris Interactive phone surveys, Jul. 2001 and Mar. 2002. Wash Post/Miller Center
American Dream and Economic Struggles survey, Sep. 2013.

 As far as you know, in the past six months, has your employer laid off any employees, or not?

Yes, has No, has not
Aug. 2003 Gallup 34% 64%
Aug. 2004 Gallup 26 72
Aug. 2005 Gallup 27 71
Aug. 2007 Gallup 22 73
Aug. 2008 Gallup 30 67
Note: Samples are employed adults.





American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 29
 How likely is it that you or someone in your household will lose a job or be laid off in the next 12 months? Would you
say…very likely, fairly likely, fairly unlikely, or very unlikely?

Very likely Fairly likely Fairly unlikely Very unlikely
Feb. 2003 9% 11% 25% 53%
Jun. 2003 10 12 21 53
Jul. 2003 9 12 22 55
Oct. 2003 9 11 22 55
Dec. 2003 7 10 24 57
Jan. 2004 8 8 24 58
Feb. 2004 9 11 20 56
May 2004 7 12 21 56
Jun. 2004 12 10 20 57
Jul. 2004 10 10 20 58
Aug. 2004 9 10 21 56
Sep. 2004 8 9 20 60
Source: TIPP/Investor’s Business Daily/Christian Science Monitor Poll.

 I am going to read to you a series of statements about your job. For each series, please tell me which statement comes closer
to your own views – A or B. Statement A: I want to keep my present job, even though I believe I could earn better pay and
benefits in another job. Statement B: I would like to have a different job, but I don’t think I would be able to earn the pay
and benefits I get in my present job.

Like different job more Keep present job more
Feb. 2004 53% 31%
Source: Zogby International/Public Service Research Foundation.

 Thinking back over the last five years, which, if any, of the following have happened to you personally?

Aug. 2005
Yes No
You were given a promotion 42% 58%
You left a job to work for a different company 41 59
You changed careers or made a significant change
in the type of work you do for a living 32 68
Your benefits were reduced 30 69
Your wages were reduced 19 81
You were laid off from a job 15 85
You were fired from a job 7 93
Source: The Gallup Organization.

 How secure do you feel in your current job?

Very secure Fairly secure Not very secure Not at all secure
Jul. 2007 Zogby International 48% 21% 4% 6%
Aug. 2007 Zogby International 47 18 3 4
Sep. 2007 Zogby International 44 20 3 3
Oct. 2007 Zogby International 45 20 5 2
Nov. 2007 Zogby International 45 20 4 5
Dec. 2007 Zogby International 48 17 3 1
Jan. 2008 Zogby International 43 21 7 6
Feb. 2008 Zogby International 50 23 5 6
Mar. 2008 Zogby International 41 20 7 8
Apr. 2008 Zogby International 48 17 4 5
May 2008 Zogby International 42 24 3 6
Jun. 2008 Zogby International 43 21 5 4
Jul. 2008 Zogby International 43 22 5 4
Aug. 2008 Zogby International 42 19 6 6

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 30
Sep. 2008 Zogby International 44 20 5 3
Oct. 2008 Zogby International 42 24 6 7
Nov. 2008 Zogby International 37 26 3 4
Dec. 2008 Zogby International 37 23 6 8
Note: Asked of the employed.

 If you were to lose your job, how likely is it that you would find another job just as good as the one you have now-very
likely, somewhat likely, not very likely, or not at all likely?

Very Fairly Not very Not at all
secure secure secure secure No job
Aug. 2007 Zogby International 44% 20% 3% 3% 30%
Note: Asked of the employed.

 In the past couple of years would you say you have felt more secure and confident that you can continue in your job as long
as you want, or less secure and confident, or has there been no change?

More Less No change
Mar. 2008 CBS/NYT 21% 35% 43%
Jan. 2009 CBS/NYT 15 36 48
Feb. 2009 CBS/NYT 24 33 42
Dec. 2009 CBS/NYT 20 39 40
Jul. 2010* CBS 14 37 47
Note: Asked of those currently employed full or part time. *Question wording was “In the last 12 months would you say you
have felt more secure and confident that you can continue in your job as long as you want, or less secure and confident, or
has there been no change?

 Please tell me whether you are very confident, somewhat confident, not too confident, or not confident at all about each of
the following? The chances that your current employer will not have to lay you off in the next six months.

Very Somewhat Not too Not confident
confident confident confident at all
Mar. 2008 CNN/ORC 69% 16% 10% 5%
Mar. 2009 CNN/ORC 57 29 9 3
May 2009 CNN/ORC 60 23 8 7

 Over the next year, do you think the job market in your area will get better, get worse, or stay about the same?

Better Worse The same
Dec. 2008 CBS 17% 41% 41%
Dec. 2009 CBS/NYT 39 18 41
Jul. 2010 CBS 28 14 56
Feb. 2011 CBS 28 12 56
Dec. 2012 CBS 35 15 46
Mar. 2013 CBS 31 16 48
Jun. 2013 CBS/NYT 33 13 51

 Thinking of the last 6 months, that is since _____ of this year, have you or someone in your family lost a job as a result of
economic conditions, or not?

Yes (self lost job) Yes (someone in family) No
Feb. 2009 AP-GfK 10% 25% 65%
Apr. 2009 AP-GfK 8 25 62
May–Jun. 2009 AP-GfK 7 21 70
July 2009 AP-GfK 8 21 65
Sep. 2009 AP-GfK 5 26 65
Oct. 2009 AP-GfK 8 20 70
Nov. 2009 AP-GfK 9 21 66

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 31
Dec. 2009 AP-GfK 9 22 66
Jan. 2010 AP-GfK 7 28 63
Mar. 2010 AP-GfK 8 23 67
Apr. 2010 AP-GfK 6 23 69
May 2010 AP-GfK/Univision 8 21 69
June 2010 AP-GfK 7 29 61
Aug. 2010 AP-GfK 6 25 67
Sep. 2010 AP-GfK 6 25 68
Oct. 2010 AP-GfK 7 16 76
Nov. 2010 AP-GfK 6 18 72
Jan. 2011 AP-GfK 8 27 62
Mar. 2011 AP-GfK 6 22 70
May 2011 AP-GfK 7 23 67
Jun. 2011 AP-GfK 6 18 74
Jul. 2011 AP-GfK 6 18 74
Aug. 2011 AP-GfK 5 25 69
Oct. 2011 AP-GfK 8 18 72
Dec. 2011 AP-GfK 5 19 75
Feb. 2012 AP-GfK 4 20 75

 Thinking of the last 6 months, that is since _______ of this year, has someone you know personally, other than a family
member, lost a job as a result of economic conditions or not?

Yes No
Feb. 2009 AP-GfK 65% 35%
Apr. 2009 AP-GfK 67 33
May–Jun. 2009 AP-GfK 60 39
July 2009 AP-GfK 64 34
Sep. 2009 AP-GfK 66 32
Oct. 2009 AP-GfK 65 34
Nov. 2009 AP-GfK 66 34
Dec. 2009 AP-GfK 69 30
Jan. 2010 AP-GfK 71 29
Mar. 2010 AP-GfK 64 35
Apr. 2010 AP-GfK 64 36
May 2010 AP-GfK 63 36
Jun. 2010 AP-GfK 70 29
Aug. 2010 AP-GfK 65 35
Sep. 2010 Ap-GfK 65 35
Oct. 2010 Ap-GfK 54 46
Nov. 2010 Ap-GfK 55 44
Jan. 2011 Ap-GfK 65 35
Mar. 2011 Ap-GfK 60 40
May 2011 Ap-GfK 62 38
Jun. 2011 Ap-GfK 57 43
Jul. 2011 Ap-GfK 57 43
Aug. 2011 Ap-Gfk 60 40
Oct. 2011 Ap-Gfk 59 41
Dec. 2011 Ap-Gfk 58 42
Feb. 2012 Ap-Gfk 54 46

 If you or someone living in your household were to lose a job, how likely is it that you would find another job that is just as
good—very likely, somewhat likely, not very likely, or not at all likely?

Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Feb. 2009 Kaiser 13% 30% 31% 23%
Note: Asked of those with someone in the household employed.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 32
 How likely do you think it is that the following thing will happen to you in the next 12 months?...Very likely, somewhat
likely, not too likely, not at all likely…A family member will lose a job?

Very likely Somewhat likely Not too unlikely Not at all likely
Oct. 2009 13% 27% 27% 31%
Source: AP/Stanford University/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation/GfK.

 How likely do you think it is that you or someone in your household will _______ in the next twelve months—extremely
likely, very likely, just somewhat likely, or not that likely?

Just
Extremely Very somewhat Not that
likely likely likely likely
Have their overtime hours or
bonus reduced
Dec. 2009 NBC/WSJ 14% 15% 17% 35%
Have to take a lower-paying job
Dec. 2009 NBC/WSJ 12 10 19 47
Have their wages cut
Dec. 2009 NBC/WSJ 10 10 20 46
Lose their job
Sep. 1991* NBC/WSJ 8 10 21 58
Dec. 2001 NBC/WSJ 8 7 20 64
Jan. 2002 NBC/WSJ 6 7 18 67
Oct. 2002** NBC/WSJ 6 6 17 69
May 2003 NBC/WSJ 8 8 17 65
Dec. 2009 NBC/WSJ 8 7 18 54
Note: * Asked of those who said the United States is currently in a recession. ** Asked of registered voters.

 How would you rate the job market in your area these days? Is it very good, fairly good, fairly bad, or very bad?

Very good Fairly good Fairly bad Very bad
Jul. 2010 CBS 2% 25% 39% 32 %
Feb. 2011 CBS 3 30 35 28
Dec. 2012 CBS 5 39 32 20
Mar. 2013 CBS 5 37 34 20
Jun. 2013 CBS/NYT 5 41 29 22
Note: *Asked of a half sample.

 Do you feel your job is secure, that if you do good work you will be able to keep it as long as you want, or don’t you feel
this way? Do you feel that way strongly or somewhat?

Strongly have Somewhat have Somewhat don’t Strongly don’t have
job security job security have job security job security
Jan. 2011 62% 14% 8% 14%
Note: Asked of those employed full time or part time.
Source: Wash Post/Kaiser/Harvard Race and Recession Survey.

 Are you generally optimistic or pessimistic about the job market in your area these days?

Optimistic Pessimistic
Jun. 2011 CBS 50% 45%







American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 33
 How secure do you feel that you can continue in your job as long as you want – very secure, somewhat secure, not very
secure, or not at all secure?

Not Not
Very Somewhat very at all
Oct. 2011 CBS/NYT 49% 39% 8% 4%
Apr. 2012 CBS/NYT 53 33 8 6
May 2012 CBS/NYT 53 33 7 8
Note: Asked of employed Americans. National adult re-interviewed. The respondents were first interviewed for a CBS
News/NYT poll conducted in April 2012.

 In the past couple of years, as a result of economic conditions, have your salary or wages been reduced, or not?

Yes No
Oct. 2011^ CBS/NYT 27% 73%
Apr. 2012^ CBS/NYT 34 66

May 2012* CBS/NYT 29% 71%
Note: Sample of national adults working. ^Including an oversample of those unemployed who are looking for work.
*National adult re-interviewed. The respondents were first interviewed for a CBS News/New York Times poll conducted in
April 2012.

 In the last year, have you or has anyone living in your household _______ or not?

Had work hours or pay cut
Yes No
Dec. 2008^ 27% 73%
Feb. 2009^ 26 73
Apr. 2009^ 35 65
Sep. 2009 41 59
Sep. 2013* 33 64
Note: ^Question wording began, “In the last few months...”
Source: Wash Post/ABC News. *Wash Post/Miller Center American Dream and Economic Struggles survey.

 Please tell me whether each of the following situations applies to you personally.

August 2014

Applies Does not apply
In the past five years someone
in your household has lost a job 40% 60%
In the past five years someone in your
household has had to switch jobs with
a significant decline in income 33 67
Someone in your household has had to
take on a second or third job to make
ends meet 25 74
Source: NBC/Wall Street Journal.









American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 34


 Would you please look at this card and tell me which one thing on this list you would most prefer in a job? (b) Which comes
next? (c) Which is third most important? (d) Which is fourth most important ... high income, no danger of being fired,
working hours are short/lots of free time, chances for advancement, work important and gives a feeling of accomplishment?

Feeling of Chances for No danger for Short hours/
accomplishment High income advancement of being fired Lots of free time
1973 NORC 52% 19% 18% 7% 5%
1974 NORC 51 19 18 8 5
1976 NORC 50 20 18 8 4
1977 NORC 47 21 20 8 4
1980 NORC 52 20 19 6 3
SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF WORK: What people want in their jobs hasn’t
changed much over time. Work that is important and gives a feeling of accomplishment tops
the list. In 1973, the Roper Organization began asking people about specific aspects of their
jobs. Gallup and the Wall Street Journal followed in 1989 and 1996, respectively. The
responses are shown below.
People are most satisfied with their coworkers, but they are generally satisfied with
many other aspects of their jobs. In 2013, for example, 51 percent told Gallup interviewers
they were completely satisfied with their job security, and another 31 percent pronounced
themselves somewhat satisfied. Gallup reported in 2013 that 38 percent are completely
satisfied (and 27 percent somewhat satisfied) with their chances for promotion.
Satisfaction with earnings is generally lower. Perhaps because they were happy to
have a job, more workers in Gallup’s 2010 question were completely satisfied with the
amount of money they earned than in 2009. Thirty-one percent were satisfied in 2010
compared to 26 percent in 2009. In 2014, 31 percent were completely satisfied with the
amount of money they earned.
Like the “rat race” many years ago, the “time crunch” and “stress” have captured
the popular imagination. Surveys show that for most workers, media portrayals of job stress
may be overstated. In Gallup’s 2013 data, 28 percent are completely satisfied with the
amount of stress in their jobs, and another 39 percent are somewhat satisfied. In 1991, the
first year this question was asked, 17 percent said they were completely satisfied and 44
percent somewhat satisfied with the amount of on the job stress. Not surprisingly, parents of
young children have concerns in this area. The Pew Research Center’s latest report Modern
Parenthood from March 2013 includes some of these questions.
In 1988, in a Roper GfK-NOP question not included here, 21 percent said they had
taken work home in the past month. In 1998, that proportion was 22 percent. In 2001, 24
percent told Roper interviewers they had done “work-related activity during leisure time” in
the past month.
In a 2001 ABC News question, 26 percent indicated that “having to work too hard”
was a problem that they personally had, while 72 percent said it was not. In Gallup’s 2013
asking, 67 percent were satisfied with “the amount of on-the-job-stress in your job.”
Stress, like other variables in this analysis, often tends to reflect one’s place in the
life cycle. Two-earner couples or single parents with young children are more likely to
experience stress than are two-earner couples with adult children for example.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 35
1982 NORC 43 26 17 10 3
1984 NORC 51 19 19 8 3
1985 NORC 48 19 22 7 3
1987 NORC 50 22 18 6 4
1988 NORC 49 21 20 7 3
1989 NORC 53 21 17 5 3
1990 NORC 52 21 18 6 3
1991 NORC 50 24 16 6 4
1993 NORC 51 20 17 9 4
1994 NORC 49 23 18 8 2
2006 NORC 40 24 20 11 5

 There are many things people value in a job. How important is each of these things to you personally? Is this extremely
important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important?

Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew
Extremely Somewhat Not too Not at all
important important important important
Having job security 76% 19% 2% 2%
Having a job you enjoy doing 74 22 2 1
Having a flexible work schedule 46 39 9 5
Having a high paying job 33 51 12 3


Job Security

 Now I’ll read a list of job characteristics. For each, please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your current job
in this regard. First, are you completely satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or completely dissatisfied
with...? (Gallup)
 Regardless of how satisfied you are overall with the kind of work you do, you may feel differently about various aspects of
it. Here is a list of some of the things. Would you read down that list, and for each one, would you tell me whether you are
completely satisfied with it, fairly well satisfied, not too satisfied, or not at all satisfied with it? (Roper GfK-NOP)
 Let me read you several elements relating to the current economy. For each one, please tell me whether it is an area in which
you feel very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied. (NBC/WSJ)
 I’m going to read you a list of characteristics of your job. For each one, please tell me if you are very satisfied, somewhat
satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with that aspect of your job. (AP/Ipsos-Reid)

------------------------------------------Job security--------------------------------------
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 45% 42% 8% 3%
1991 Gallup 35 44 12 7
1993 Gallup 46 33 9 11
1998 Gallup 52 35 6 6
1999 Gallup 48 33 11 7
2001 Gallup 54 30 8 7
2002 Gallup 55 30 7 7
2003 Gallup 48 35 7 8
2004 Gallup 54 28 11 6
2005 Gallup 52 31 9 7
2006 Gallup 55 29 10 5
2007 Gallup 56 31 6 6
2008 Gallup 55 31 8 5
2009 Gallup 50 30 10 8
2010 Gallup 51 33 7 7
2011 Gallup 49 33 10 8
2012 Gallup 49 34 10 5

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 36
2013 Gallup 51 31 11 6
2014 Gallup 58 -- -- --

Your job security–knowing you have a job as long as you want it
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 32% 43% 13% 8%
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 33 43 15 7
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 34 40 14 10
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 37 39 14 8
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 38 44 12 5

Your current job security
Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Mar. 1996 NBC/WSJ 36% 37% 14% 12%
June 1996 NBC/WSJ 38 37 12 12
Sep. 1996 NBC/WSJ 37 39 10 13
Dec. 1996 NBC/WSJ 36 38 13 12
Mar. 1997 NBC/WSJ 37 40 12 11
June 1997 NBC/WSJ 38 36 12 13
Sep. 1997 NBC/WSJ 41 37 10 11
Dec. 1997 NBC/WSJ 40 38 11 10
Dec. 1998 NBC/WSJ 45 33 10 11
May 2000 NBC/WSJ 46 35 9 9
Jan. 2001 NBC/WSJ 49 33 8 9
Jan. 2009 NBC/WSJ 35 35 14 15
Apr. 2009 NBC/WSJ 32 36 13 17
Jul. 2009 NBC/WSJ 30 30 15 24
Sep. 2009 NBC/WSJ 36 30 16 17
Dec. 2009 NBC/WSJ 33 34 14 18
Aug. 2010 NBC/WSJ 33 32 15 19
Sep. 2010 NBC/WSJ 35 29 15 20
Jan. 2011 NBC/WSJ 35 32 13 18


Chance of Promotion

Your chances for promotion
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 29% 38% 19% 6%
1991 Gallup 20 40 18 11
1998 Gallup 30 37 16 13
1999 Gallup 32 32 15 12
2001 Gallup 32 30 12 13
2002 Gallup 35 30 14 11
2003 Gallup 35 27 15 13
2004 Gallup 40 30 11 9
2005 Gallup 28 32 18 8
2006 Gallup 37 25 15 11
2007 Gallup 39 29 11 10
2008 Gallup 35 33 12 7
2009 Gallup 40 26 13 9
2010 Gallup 40 28 10 11
2011 Gallup 39 26 12 14
2012 Gallup 33 31 12 11

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 37
2013 Gallup 38 27 13 13
2014 Gallup 38 -- -- --

The chances it offers to move up
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 29% 35% 16% 16%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 28 28 19 18
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 25 29 21 20
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 27 32 21 17
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 26 32 21 18
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 24 36 20 13
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 22 40 21 12
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 20 38 25 12
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 21 37 24 14
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 23 34 26 13
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 23 40 23 9

Your opportunities for career advancement
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Mar. 1996 NBC/WSJ 22% 39% 20% 16%
June 1996 NBC/WSJ 23 37 20 18
Sep. 1996 NBC/WSJ 21 39 21 17
Dec. 1996 NBC/WSJ 19 46 18 16
Mar. 1997 NBC/WSJ 22 37 23 16
June 1997 NBC/WSJ 23 41 17 17
Sep. 1997 NBC/WSJ 23 38 18 18
Dec. 1997 NBC/WSJ 23 40 20 15
Dec. 1998 NBC/WSJ 32 40 14 12
May 2000 NBC/WSJ 32 37 15 14

Your opportunities for advancement
Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004^ 36% 39% -- 13% 11%
Mar. 2011* 16 22 22 16 14
Note: ^Source is AP/Ipsos. *Source is AP/LifeGoesStrong.com. Asked of those employed full or part-time. Survey is an
online survey conducted by Knowledge Networks “using its national panel which is randomly selected from the entire
national population and subsequently provided Internet access, if needed.”

 I am going to read to you a series of statements about your job. For each series, please tell me which statement comes closer
to your own views – A or B. Statement A: I believe that there is opportunity for advancement in my present job. Statement
B: I am in a dead-end job. There is no opportunity to move up.

Opportunity for Dead-end job
advancement no opportunity to move-up
Feb. 2004 64% 31%
Source: Zogby International/Public Service Research Foundation.

 Please indicate how satisfied you are with each of the following aspects of your (current) job – very satisfied, somewhat
satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, very dissatisfied, not applicable. Opportunities for
advancement at your job

Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Mar.-Apr. 2012 20% 28% 18% 13% 11%
Jan. 2013 * 11 24 32 20 13

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 38
Note: Both surveys were asked of those working full- or part-time or self-employed, 77 percent in 2012 and 58 percent in
2013. *Question wording began, “Now, I’d like to find out how satisfied you are with different aspects of your job. Please
tell me whether you are very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very
dissatisfied with it.”
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 (Thinking about your principal job, please rate your satisfaction with each of the following as very satisfied, satisfied,
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied.)...Opportunities for advancement

Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
June 2013 20% 37% 17% 17% 8%
Note: Asked of those employed (62%).
Source: Hartford Courant/University of Connecticut.

 Are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with the following aspects of your
job? If an item does not apply to you, please say so....Your opportunities for promotion and advancement

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
June 2013 26% 30% 13% 12%
Note: Asked of those employed (53%). “Does not apply” responses not noted in this document.
Source: CNBC, Hart and McInturff Research Companies.


Income/Benefits

The amount of money you earn
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 16% 56% 19% 8%
1991 Gallup 13 53 23 10
1998 Gallup 21 48 19 11
1999 Gallup 23 47 16 14
2001 Gallup 24 46 18 12
2002 Gallup 27 43 18 12
2003 Gallup 28 46 17 8
2004 Gallup 28 46 16 10
2005 Gallup 25 46 19 10
2006 Gallup 31 44 15 9
2007 Gallup 29 46 15 10
2008 Gallup 28 45 17 10
2009 Gallup 26 45 14 14
2010 Gallup 31 43 15 11
2011 Gallup 29 41 16 14
2012 Gallup 30 41 19 9
2013 Gallup 29 40 16 14
2014 Gallup 31 -- -- --

The income it provides
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 21% 53% 17% 9%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 26 48 18 7
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 20 48 21 10
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 23 48 21 8
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 22 47 22 8

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 39
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 17 56 21 4
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 22 54 18 5
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 18 53 23 6
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 19 51 21 8
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 19 54 19 7
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 23 56 17 4

The benefits it provides (health and medical insurance, life insurance, pension plan, etc.)
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 32% 34% 11% 18%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 33 31 14 18
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 33 32 12 20
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 32 35 14 15
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 32 30 17 19
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 28 37 15 16
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 28 38 17 14
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 27 35 18 17
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 25 35 19 18
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 26 38 17 16
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 29 37 19 13

The health insurance benefits your employer offers
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 32% 39% 14% 9%
1999 Gallup 33 30 14 14
2001 Gallup 36 27 11 15
2002 Gallup 36 28 12 14
2003 Gallup 34 34 11 11
2004 Gallup 39 26 9 14
2005 Gallup 27 33 11 16
2006 Gallup 31 27 13 13
2007 Gallup 36 28 10 13
2008 Gallup 40 28 8 11
2009 Gallup 43 24 8 15
2010 Gallup 39 26 9 15
2011 Gallup 35 23 12 18
2012 Gallup 35 22 13 18
2013 Gallup 35 25 11 19
2014 Gallup 39 -- -- --

The health insurance benefits offered by your employer
Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 34% 30% 11% 17%

The retirement plan your employer offers
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1999 Gallup 31% 30% 10% 19%
2001 Gallup 31 34 8 16
2002 Gallup 29 33 10 16
2003 Gallup 35 31 9 14
2004 Gallup 36 28 10 13
2005 Gallup 27 31 9 18
2006 Gallup 31 31 12 11
2007 Gallup 32 30 9 14

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 40
2008 Gallup 34 26 11 14
2009 Gallup 35 26 9 19
2010 Gallup 33 30 11 14
2011 Gallup 34 26 8 20
2012 Gallup 33 26 11 16
2013 Gallup 33 28 11 17
2014 Gallup 36 -- -- --

The retirement benefits offered by your employer
Very Somewhat Neither Satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004^ 34% 29% -- 12% 18%
Aug. 2011* 17 22 21 12 11
Note: *Survey is an online survey conducted by Knowledge Networks “using its national panel which is randomly selected
from the entire national population and subsequently provided Internet access, if needed.”
Source: ^AP/Ipsos. *AP/LifeGoesStrong.com.

 Does your employer offer any health insurance benefits with your job, or not?

Yes No
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 68% 16%
Note: Sample is employed adults. Sixteen percent said they were self-employed.

 Do you feel you are paid fairly for the work you do, or not?

Yes No
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 71% 29%

 Do you think you are paid more than you are worth, less than you are worth, or about what you are worth?

More than worth A lot less than worth A little less than worth
May 2008 4% 23% 34%
Note: Survey asked of working adults.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 Would you say that you earn...Much less than you deserve, less than you deserve, what you deserve, more than what you
deserve or much more than you deserve?

Earn less than Earn what Earn more than
you deserve you deserve you deserve
Jun. 2000* 57% 36% 3%
Sep. 2013 58 36 6
Note: Asked of employed.
Source: Wash Post-Miller Center American Dream and Economic Struggles survey. *General Social Survey.

 In general, would you say that your company or place of work is understaffed, with too few employees for the amount of
work that needs to be done, has about the right number of employees, or is overstaffed, with too many employees for the
amount of work that needs to be done?

Understaffed Right number of employees Overstaffed
Aug. 2010 Gallup 38% 52% 8%
Note: Asked of adults who are employed full or part time.






American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 41
Co-Workers

Your relations with co-workers
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1999 Gallup 67% 27% 2% 1%
2001 Gallup 64 28 3 2
2002 Gallup 66 28 2 2
2003 Gallup 68 29 1 1
2004 Gallup 74 22 -- 1
2005 Gallup 69 25 3 *
2006 Gallup 67 26 2 1
2007 Gallup 74 20 1 1
2008 Gallup 69 27 1 *
2009 Gallup 69 24 2 1
2010 Gallup 70 24 2 1
2011 Gallup 68 24 2 2
2012 Gallup 69 25 2 3
2013 Gallup 70 24 2 1
2014 Gallup 71 -- -- --

The kind of people you work with
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 50% 40% 6% 3%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 52 38 6 2
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 50 42 5 2
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 45 46 7 1
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 48 43 6 2
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 41 49 6 2
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 41 49 5 2
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 37 49 10 2
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 37 50 9 3
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 40 46 9 4
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 39 50 8 2

Your relationships with your co-workers
Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004^ 69% 25% -- 3% 1%
Mar. 2011* 37 34 15 7 2
Note: Survey is an online survey conducted by Knowledge Networks “using its national panel which is randomly selected from
the entire national population and subsequently provided Internet access, if needed.”
Source: ^AP/Ipsos. *AP/LifeGoesStrong.com.


Hours/Vacation/Amount of Work/Stress

The amount of work that is required of you
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1993 Gallup 47% 35% 13% 5%
1998 Gallup 45 40 11 4
1999 Gallup 46 35 12 6
2001 Gallup 47 35 13 5
2002 Gallup 51 36 9 4
2003 Gallup 50 31 13 6

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 42
2004 Gallup 53 33 10 4
2005 Gallup 49 36 11 4
2006 Gallup 52 36 8 4
2007 Gallup 54 34 7 4
2008 Gallup 50 37 10 3
2009 Gallup 54 30 8 7
2010 Gallup 55 30 9 6
2011 Gallup 53 30 10 7
2012 Gallup 49 32 13 6
2013 Gallup 51 34 9 4
2014 Gallup 56 -- -- --

 Please tell me whether you are very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or
very dissatisfied with…the total number of hours that you work each week.

Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
May 2008 46% 37% 4% 8% 5%
Nov. 2009 37 35 4 16 7
Note: Survey asked of those employed.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

The amount of vacation time you receive
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1991 Gallup 35% 43% 12% 7%
1993 Gallup 50 22 13 13
1998 Gallup 47 34 9 9
1999 Gallup 50 30 9 9
2001 Gallup 52 25 9 9
2002 Gallup 50 25 11 11
2003 Gallup 53 26 9 8
2004 Gallup 52 27 9 8
2005 Gallup 47 28 11 11
2006 Gallup 54 27 7 8
2007 Gallup 55 24 7 9
2008 Gallup 51 27 10 8
2009 Gallup 56 20 9 10
2010 Gallup 60 19 9 8
2011 Gallup 54 21 10 10
2012 Gallup 54 20 10 10
2013 Gallup 54 22 9 10
2014 Gallup 59 -- -- --

The vacation time you receive
Very Somewhat Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 58% 24% 9% 8%

The number of hours you work
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 46% 39% 10% 4%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 45 38 11 5
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 39 41 13 7
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 41 43 12 4
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 41 42 12 4
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 33 49 13 4

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 43
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 31 49 14 5
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 30 48 17 4
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 32 46 17 6
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 28 48 18 6
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 32 47 17 3

The flexibility of your hours
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 46% 40% 10% 3%
1991 Gallup 39 44 10 6
1999 Gallup 56 31 8 5
2001 Gallup 57 28 9 5
2002 Gallup 63 27 8 2
2003 Gallup 61 25 9 4
2004 Gallup 62 24 7 5
2006 Gallup 60 28 8 3
2007 Gallup 68 22 5 4
2008 Gallup 61 26 7 5
2009 Gallup 65 21 7 5
2010 Gallup 64 22 8 5
2011 Gallup 63 24 7 5
2012 Gallup 60 26 10 5
2013 Gallup 64 23 7 5
2014 Gallup 63 -- -- --
Note: In the August 2003 Gallup survey, 65 percent of women said they were completely satisfied with the flexibility of
their hours. The figure for men was 58 percent.

The amount of on-the-job stress in your job
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1991 Gallup 17% 44% 24% 11%
1993 Gallup 24 36 25 14
1998 Gallup 22 42 23 11
1999 Gallup 21 44 22 12
2001 Gallup 22 40 23 13
2002 Gallup 20 46 18 13
2003 Gallup 26 36 23 11
2004 Gallup 27 37 24 10
2005 Gallup 27 36 25 10
2006 Gallup 22 43 22 9
2007 Gallup 32 43 14 9
2008 Gallup 27 42 21 7
2009 Gallup 28 41 21 9
2010 Gallup 26 42 19 13
2011 Gallup 28 38 21 13
2012 Gallup 29 37 20 13
2013 Gallup 28 39 20 11
2014 Gallup 27 -- -- --

The amount of on-the-job stress
Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 22% 43% -- 24% 10%
Mar. 2011* AP/LifeGoesStrong.com 15 27 24 17 13
Note: Survey is an online survey conducted by Knowledge Networks “using its national panel which is randomly selected
from the entire national population and subsequently provided Internet access, if needed.”


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 44
 Thinking about criticisms that are sometimes made about life in America, is having to work too hard a problem you
personally feel you have, or not?

Yes No
Oct. 1965 Harris Interactive 13% 87%
Mar. 2001 ABC 26 72
Note: The question wording for the Harris question was, “Now I want to hand you another card with some criticisms which
have been made about life in America. For each, please tell me of it is a problem you personally feel you have or not...Have
to work too hard?” When the ABC survey was broken down by gender, 24 percent of men and 27 percent of women said
they were working too hard.

 Some people say working long hours is worth it because it produces prosperity and a higher standard of living. Others say
it's not worth it because it creates stress and lack of time. On balance would you say working long hours is or is not worth
it?

Worth it Not worth it
Mar. 2001 ABC 46% 50%
Oct. 2002 ABC 33 58
Note: When broken down by gender in 2001, 54 percent of men and 39 percent of women said it was worth it. In 2002, 41
percent of men and 26 percent of women said it was worth it.

 If you were granted one wish that would change your job, which one of the following would you choose?

Jul. 2004

All Men Women Parents
I would have a job where I
would make more money 46% 42% 49% 46%
I would have a more impressive
or high-profile job 6 8 4 5
I would have a job that gave me
more time to spend with family
and friends 36 37 35 38
Source: Center for a New American Dream.


Other

The personal satisfaction you get from the kind of work you do
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 43% 44% 8% 5%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 46 37 9 5
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 42 43 10 5
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 41 44 11 3
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 41 45 10 3
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 37 48 12 2
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 36 46 12 4
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 35 47 14 3
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 36 47 13 4
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 36 49 12 2

The recognition you receive at work for your work accomplishments
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1991 Gallup 24% 52% 17% 5%
1999 Gallup 38 35 14 11

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 45
2001 Gallup 39 36 13 10
2002 Gallup 46 33 13 7
2003 Gallup 41 38 12 8
2004 Gallup 48 35 9 7
2005 Gallup 41 34 14 10
2006 Gallup 47 33 10 8
2007 Gallup 47 34 10 7
2008 Gallup 45 35 12 5
2009 Gallup 50 30 12 6
2010 Gallup 49 30 10 9
2011 Gallup 47 31 13 6
2012 Gallup 46 34 10 7
2013 Gallup 48 30 13 8
2014 Gallup 53 -- -- --

The importance to society of the work you do
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1973 Roper GfK-NOP 42% 41% 8% 5%
1976 Roper GfK-NOP 40 38 11 6
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 37 42 11 6
1980 Roper GfK-NOP 38 45 12 3
1983 Roper GfK-NOP 39 42 13 5
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 33 42 16 4
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 32 44 15 5
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 31 44 18 4
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 33 46 14 4
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 35 44 15 4
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 34 47 17 3

The opportunities you have to influence decisions made at work
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 27% 39% 20% 11%
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 26 41 21 9
1996 Roper GfK-NOP 27 39 20 11
1999 Roper GfK-NOP 29 38 20 12
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 26 43 20 7

The physical safety conditions of your workplace
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1999 Gallup 63% 28% 5% 3%
2001 Gallup 65 25 6 3
2002 Gallup 69 23 5 2
2003 Gallup 69 23 5 2
2004 Gallup 73 19 5 2
2005 Gallup 68 22 8 2
2006 Gallup 67 23 6 3
2007 Gallup 73 19 6 2
2008 Gallup 73 21 3 2
2009 Gallup 76 19 3 2
2010 Gallup 78 15 3 2
2011 Gallup 72 19 6 3
2012 Gallup 73 19 5 3
2013 Gallup 70 21 5 2
2014 Gallup 74 -- -- --
Note: Samples are employed people.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 46


 Which way do you tend to look at the relationship between work and leisure time: that work is the most important thing –
and the purpose of leisure time is to recharge people’s batteries so they can do a better job or that leisure time is the most
important thing – the purpose of work is to make it possible to have the leisure time to enjoy life and pursue one’s interests?

Work is most important Leisure time is most important
Sep.–Oct. 1975 Roper GfK-NOP 48% 36%
Sep.–Oct. 1980 Roper GfK-NOP 48 36
Sep. 1985 Roper GfK-NOP 46 33
Jan.–Feb. 1992 Roper GfK-NOP 38 40
Aug. 1997 KRC/US News & World Report 39 57
Jul. 2006 Wash Post 37 53
Note: The 1975–1992 askings had the choice of both or neither. The Aug. 1997 wording is slightly different. The question
worded as “Which way do you tend to look at the relationship between work and leisure time...work is the important thing
or that leisure is the important thing?”

 Do you feel you have enough time for yourself, or not?

Yes, enough No, not
time enough time
Jun. 1989 CBS/NYT 62% 38%
Mar. 2005 CBS/NYT 58 41

 Do you feel you spend too much time, not enough time, or about the right amount of time with your family?

Too much Not enough Right amount
Jun. 1989# 5% 47% 46%
Sep. 1991# 6 36 56
Mar. 2005* 3 40 56
Source: # Surveys by Mellman and Lazarus for Mass Mutual. * Survey by CBS News/New York Times.

 Generally speaking, do you have enough time to do what you want to do these days, or not?

Yes, enough No, not
time enough time
Sep. 1990 Gallup 49% 51%
Mar. 1995 Gallup 48 52
Dec. 2001 Gallup 50 49
Dec. 2002 Gallup 52 48
Dec. 2003 Gallup 52 48
Dec. 2004 Gallup 56 44
Dec. 2005 Gallup 50 49
Dec. 2006 Gallup 54 46
WORK-LIFE ISSUES: In a 1977 Department of Labor survey, 72 percent said it
was “not at all hard” or “not too hard” to take time off during their work day to take care
of personal or family matters. In a 2000 Penn, Schoen, & Berland survey, 80 percent (47
“very” and 33 percent “somewhat) said their employers were accommodating to their needs
to balance work and family life. Other surveys show that most working people feel confident
about balancing work and family life. In an April 2005 ABC News/ Washington Post survey,
88 percent of working fathers and 89 percent of working mothers were satisfied with their
ability in this regard. The Pew Research Center’s March 2013 Modern Parenthood study
has additional poll data on this subject.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 47
Dec. 2007 Gallup 53 47
Dec. 2008 Gallup 59 41

 Generally, do you feel like you have enough time to do the things you want to do, or not?

Yes No
Nov. 2012 Pew 63% 37%

 In general, how often do you experience stress in your daily life – never, rarely, sometimes, or frequently?

Never Rarely Sometimes Frequently
Jan. 1994 Health Magazine/Gallup 4% 17% 39% 40%
Dec. 2001 Gallup 2 18 38 42
Dec. 2002 Gallup 4 18 37 41
Dec. 2003 Gallup 2 20 45 33
Dec. 2004 Gallup 4 17 41 37
Dec. 2005 Gallup 4 16 43 37
Feb.-Mar. 2006 Pew 6 19 39 35
Dec. 2006 Gallup 3 20 39 38
Dec. 2007 Gallup 3 20 36 40
Jun.–Jul. 2008 Pew 5 21 36 36
Dec. 2008 Gallup 3 20 40 37
Sep. 2009 Time/The Rockefeller
Foundation 5 19 36 39
Oct. 2011 Kaiser/Wash Post 3 16 35 45
Jul. 2012 Pew 4 18 35 42
Jun. 2013 University of Connecticut 2 15 41 42

 How hard is it for you to take time off during your work day to take care of personal or family matters?

Not at all hard Not too hard Somewhat hard Very hard
1997 U. Mich. 38% 34% 12% 14%
2002 NORC 47 27 15 11
2006 NORC 42 31 15 12
2010 NORC 38 34 18 10
Source: Survey Research Center University of Michigan for the U.S. Department of Labor and the National Opinion
Research Center.

 Considering everything, what would be the ideal situation for you – working full-time, part-time, or not at all outside the
home?
Full-time work Part-time work Not working
1997 Pew 32% 48% 20%
2007 Pew 21 60 19
2012 Pew 37 50 11
Note: Sample is working mothers.

 Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with the following statement: My supervisor accommodates me when I have
family and personal business to take care of.

Agree Disagree
1997 94% 6%
Source: Harris Interactive for the Families and Work Institute.







American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 48
 Now, I’d like to find out how satisfied you are with different aspects of your job. Please tell me whether you are very
satisfied, somewhat satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with it…The
ability to balance work and family.

Very Somewhat Neither satisfied Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 1998 53% 34% 3% 6% 3%
Jul.–Aug. 1999 51 32 5 8 4
Nov. 2009 40 40 4 11 5
Jan. 2013 25 32 22 15 7
Note: Asked of those employed.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 How accommodating is your employer to the need to balance work and family?

Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
accommodating accommodating accommodating accommodating
2000 47% 33% 8% 8%
Source: Penn, Schoen, Berland & Associates for Blueprint.

 I’m going to read you some statements related to your job. For each of these statements, please tell me if you strongly
agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with each statement...I do a good job of balancing my job
and my family.

Strongly agree Somewhat agree Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 61% 33% 4% 1%

 How satisfied are you with your ability to balance work and family life - very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too satisfied,
or not at all satisfied?

Apr. 2005
Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied
Working adults 53% 37% 8% 2%
Working moms 53 36 9 2
Working dads 41 47 10 2
Source: ABC News/Wash Post.

 How satisfied are you with the amount of free time you have in an average week - very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not too
satisfied, or not at all satisfied?

Apr. 2005
Very Somewhat Not too Not at all
satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied
Working adults 43% 34% 16% 7%
Working moms 20 46 24 10
Working dads 28 35 26 10
Source: ABC News/Wash Post.

 What would you say is the biggest challenge in raising children today?

Feb. 2007

Societal influences 38%
Discipline/Morals 31
Time, Work balance 10
Note: Responses are combined.
Source: Pew Research Center.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 49
 If you work outside the home, in the last year, have you taken time off from work in order to help provide for a parent, or
not?
Yes No
May–Jun. 2007 26% 66%


(If yes) Was your employer helpful or not helpful in giving you time off to provide this care?

Yes No
81% 13%

(If no) Do you think your employer would be helpful or not helpful if you needed time off to help care for your
parent?
Yes No
73% 15%
Source: ABC News/USA Today.

 How difficult would you say it is for you personally to balance the responsibilities of your job with the responsibilities of
your family? Would you say it is...

Very/Somewhat Not too/Not at all
difficult difficult
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew 45% 55%

---------------Responses of adults with children younger than 18 years old---------------
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew 53% 47%

---------------Responses of adults without children younger than 18 years old------------
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew 31% 68%

 Which of the following statements best describes how you balance work and family?

Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew

National
Response
I would prefer to be at home raising my children,
but I need to work because we need the income 50%
Even though it takes me away from my family, I
Enjoy my work and want to keep working 46

---------Responses of employed women with kids under 18 years old--------
Pew NBC/WSJ NBC/WSJ
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Apr. 2012 Jun. 2000
I would prefer to be at home raising my children,
but I need to work because we need the income 52% 46% 48%
Even though it takes me away from my family, I
Enjoy my work and want to keep working 42 47 44











American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 50
 Thinking about your job or career, do you think that being a working father or mother makes it harder or easier for you to
___________, or hasn’t this made a difference?

Advance in your job or career
Hasn’t made
Makes it harder Makes it easier a difference
Oct. 2013 Pew 27% 7% 63%

(Demographic breakdowns, sex)
Men 15% 12% 70%
Women 40 2 56

Be a good parent
Hasn’t made
Makes it harder Makes it easier a difference
Oct. 2013 Pew 38% 11% 50%

(Demographic breakdowns, sex)
Men 31% 15% 52%
Women 45 6 48



 How many different jobs do you currently hold?

One Two or more
Jul. 1996* Newsweek 85% 15%
Jul. 1997* PSRA 87 12
Aug. 1999 Gallup 85 15
Aug. 2002 Gallup 86 14
Aug. 2003 Gallup 85 15
Aug. 2005 Gallup 83 17
Jun.–Jul. 2006* Pew 87 13
Note: Asked of those employed full time or part time. *Question worded as “How many jobs do you have now?”

 How many different jobs do you hold for pay or profit?

One job Two jobs Three or more jobs
Aug. 2004 AP/Ipsos 86% 10% 4%
Note: Asked of those employed full time or part time.




WORK CHARACTERISTICS: In survey questions asked since 1996, around
15 percent say they hold more than one job. Telecommuting has risen in popularity since US
News and Gallup first asked about it twelve years ago, when 9 percent of workers said they
have telecommuted. In August 2008, Gallup found that three in ten Americans had
telecommuted.
Most Americans feel that their job allows them to make use of their skills and
talents—the Washington Post and the Miller Center find that 87 percent say their job allows
them to do this “a lot” or “somewhat.” However, in the same poll, only 42 percent believe
it is very or somewhat likely that they will receive a significant pay raise at their job in the
next five years.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 51
 Have you ever switched careers–that is, switched from one type of work to another type of work?

Yes No
Dec. 1986 USA Today 54% 47%
Apr. 1987 USA Today 52 48
Jun.-Jul. 1997 PSRA/Wisconsin 63 37
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 61 38
Jan. 2010 Pew 61 39
Note: Samples are employed adults. Twenty-two percent said they switched 1 time; 39 percent said 2 times or more of those
who said yes in 2006. Previous to that the subquestion was not asked.

 How likely is it that you will stay with your present employer for the remainder of your working life? Is it...

Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Dec. 1986 USA Today 45% 19% 13% 23%
Apr. 1987 USA Today 44 20 20 15
Jun.-Jul. 1997 PSRA/Wisconsin 41 24 18 17
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 42 27 13 17
Jan. 2010 Pew 40 26 16 16
Note: Samples are employed adults. USA Today’s final category was “not likely at all.” The 1997, 2006, and 2010 askings
all added: (If self-employed, ask:) “How likely is it you will stay self-employed for the remainder of your working life? Is
it...”

 How likely is it that you will switch careers again/sometime during your working life?...Very likely, somewhat likely, not
very likely, not at all likely?

----Switching careers during your lifetime----
Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
likely likely likely likely
Apr. 1987 USA Today 23% 20% 24% 32%
Jun.-Jul. 1997 PSRA/Wisconsin 29 21 25 24
Jun. 2006 Pew 28 19 25 27
Jan. 2010 Pew 24 23 23 29
Note: Samples are full or part-time employed adults.

 How long have you worked for your current employer?
For how long have you worked for your current employer (Gallup/USA Today)

One year or less 2-4 years 5-9 years 10 or more years
Jul. 1989 Gallup 25% 21% 20% 34%
Jul. 1989 (late) Gallup 25 22 21 36
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 26 23 19 32
Aug. 2009 Gallup/USA Today 21 23 21 36
Note: Samples are employed adults (includes self employed). Mean: 8.3. Median: 5.

 How likely is it that you will switch careers—that is, the type of work you do—sometime during your working life? Very
likely, somewhat likely, or not very likely?

Very Somewhat Not very
likely likely likely
May 1993 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 24% 24% 51%
Note: Samples are employed adults. USA Today’s final category was “not likely at all.”






American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 52
 Have you ever telecommuted, that is, worked from your home using a computer to communicate for your job?

Yes, have No, have not
Oct. 1995 US News/CNN/Gallup 9% 91%
Aug. 2006 Gallup/USA Today 32 68
Aug. 2008 Gallup/USA Today 30 69

(Asked of those who have telecommuted) If there are 20 workdays in a typical month, about how many
days out of 20 would you telecommute from home instead of going into the office?

None One to five Six to ten Eleven-fifteen Sixteen-twenty
Aug. 2006 17% 48% 8% 7% 16%
Aug. 2008 23 49 9 3 11

(Asked of those who have telecommuted) Are you more likely to telecommute during regular business hours instead
of going into the office or after regular business hours or on the weekend in addition to going into the office?

During regular After regular
business hours business hours
Aug. 2006 40% 50%
Aug. 2008 33 54
Note: Sample is adults employed full or part-time.
Source: Gallup/USA Today.

 Including all its locations and work sites, not just your own, about how many people are employed by the company or
organization you work for?

Fewer than 25 25-100 100-1,000 1,000 or more
Jul. 1996* Newsweek 18% 16% 28% 37%
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 27 16 23 33
Note: Samples are employed adults. * Based on not self-employed.

 Which of the following best describes your job? Are you an employee of a private company or business, or an employee of a
non-profit organization, a government employee, or self-employed in your own business or professional practice?

Private company Non-profit Self
or business organization Government employed
Aug. 2001 Gallup 58% 11% 17% 12%
Aug. 2002 Gallup 55 13 16 12
Aug. 2003 Gallup 58 11 17 13
Aug. 2004 Gallup 57 8 17 15
Aug. 2005 Gallup 55 9 15 18
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 57 9 18 16
Aug. 2006 Gallup 55 9 16 17
Aug. 2007 Gallup 55 11 16 16
Feb. 2009 Pew 50 10 20 18
Note: Samples are employed adults.

 Next we’d like to know how often, if ever, that your job requires you to work in an office - do you always, usually, rarely, or
never work in an office?

Always Usually Rarely Never
2002 Gallup 36% 19% 19% 25%
Jan. 2004 Gallup 36 13 23 28
Mar. 2004 Gallup 40 10 33 26
Note: Asked of adults employed full-time.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 53
 Next we’d like to know how often, if ever, does the work you do get your clothes dirty - always, usually, rarely, or never?
Always Usually Rarely Never
2002 Gallup 24% 17% 33% 26%
Note: Asked of adults employed full-time.

 How long have you worked in your present job for your current employer?

Less than 1 year 1-4 years 5-9 years 10 or more years
Feb.–Jun. 2002 NORC 23% 31% 18% 26%
Mar.–Aug. 2006 NORC 25 26 21 27
Mar.–Aug. 2010 NORC 21 29 21 28
Note: Asked of those employed.

 In your primary job, how are you paid at work: do you have a salary, are you paid by the hour, or are you mostly paid by
commission?

Salary Hour Commission
Aug. 2002 Gallup 41% 47% 7%
Aug. 2005 Gallup 39 51 6
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 38 50 7
Jul.–Aug 2010 Pew 39 53 7
Mar. 2012 Pew 46 52 3
Nov. 2013 Gallup 36 52 8
Note: Asked of adults employed full or part-time.

 Does the type of work you do generally require a bachelor’s degree from a college or university or some other advanced
academic degree?
Yes No
Aug. 2002 Gallup 38% 61%
Aug. 2005 Gallup 43 57
Aug. 2013 Gallup 43 57
Note: Asked of adults employed full or part-time.

 Does the type of work you do generally require advanced training such as a bachelor’s degree from a college or university or
some other advanced academic degree?

Yes No
Oct. 2002 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 48% 52%
Note: Asked of adults employed full-time.

 Is your compensation (at work) based in part on some type of incentive pay, a commission, or a year-end bonus, or is your
hourly wage/your salary/the amount you are paid for the job fixed ahead of time with no bonus or incentive pay expected?

Based on some type of Not based on
incentive pay or bonus incentive pay
Nov. 2002 Gallup/UBS 43% 55%
Note: Asked of adults employed full-time.
Source: The Gallup Organization/UBS.

 Which of the following best describes how you get paid at work—you are paid an hourly rate, you are paid a salary, or you
are paid by the job?

Hourly rate Salary By the job
Nov. 2002 Gallup/UBS 51% 38% 9%
Note: National employed adults.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 54
 Which of the following comes closest to describing how you feel about your personal job?

Aug. 2004

My job is interesting nearly all the time 42 %

While my job is interesting most of the
time, there are dull stretches now and then 48

There are a few times when my job is
interesting, but mostly it is dull and
monotonous 8

My job is completely dull and
Monotonous there is nothing
interesting about it 2
Source: Survey by AP/Ipsos.

 Have you ever moved because of a job? If yes, how often have you moved because of a job?

No, never Once Twice Three times Four or more
Mar. 2005 CBS/NYT 65% 14% 9% 4% 8%

 Have you ever moved because of your husband’s/wife’s job? (If Yes): How often have you moved because of his/her job?

Yes, three Yes, four or
Yes, once Yes, twice times or more times No
Mar. 2005 NYT 12% 4% 2% 4% 77%
Note: Asked of those who are married.

 Which of the following best describes the place where you work?

Jun.–Jul. 2006

An office 33%
A factory or manufacturing facility 13
A construction site or other outside work site 12
A store, restaurant, or retail outlet 11
A school 11
A hospital, clinic, or medical facility 8
Your own home 6
Private home 2
Drive a car or bus or truck 1
Source: Pew Research Center.

 Do you generally get paid a salary, or are you paid by the hour?

Salary Hourly Mixed/Other/Contingent
May 2008 42% 50% 8%
Feb. 2009* 30 48 3
Jul.–Aug. 2010** 39 53 7
Mar.–Apr. 2012** 46 52 3
Jan. 2013*** 35 56 9
Note: Survey asked of working adults. *Question wording read “Do you work for annual salary or are you paid by the
hour?” **Question wording read “Are you paid a salary, by the hour, self-employed/commission/stipend?” ***Question
wording read “How are you paid?” Responses were “A salary,” “By the hour,” and “Self-employed/commission/stipend.”
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 55
 Which of the following best describes how you get paid at work—you are paid an hourly rate, you are paid a salary, or you
are paid by the job?

Hourly rate Salary By the job
Jun.–Jul. 2008 78% 15% 5%
Note: Survey of national adult low-wage workers.
Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, Wash Post, Harvard University.

 Compared to twenty years ago, do you think the types of jobs now available in the U.S. require different backgrounds and
skills than they used to 20 years ago, or do the jobs available now require about the same backgrounds and skills?

Different Same
Dec. 2009 CBS News 87% 10%

 When you think about your next job, please use 100 point [sic] to indicate the importance you put on the following factors:

Jan.-Feb. 2010

Compensation (salary and benefits)
18-29 year-olds 4-year college students
0-25 43% 46%
26-50 36 39
51-75 11 10
76-100 9 5
Mean 38.3 35.2

Opportunity to have an impact in the organization
18-29 year-olds 4-year college students
0-25 94% 95%
26-50 6 5
51-75 * *
76-100 * *
Mean 13.6 14.4

Opportunity to learn from more experienced professionals and mentors
18-29 year-olds 4-year college students
0-25 84% 82%
26-50 14 17
51-75 1 1
76-100 1 -
Mean 18.9 20.2

Opportunity to collaborate with peers
18-29 year-olds 4-year college students
0-25 95% 96%
26-50 5 4
51-75 * -
76-100 * *
Mean 14.2 13.7

Opportunity to have an impact on the world
18-29 year-olds 4-year college students
0-25 88% 83%
26-50 10 15
51-75 1 2
76-100 1 *
Mean 16.3 17.8
Source: Harvard IOP.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 56
 How much, if at all, does your current job allow you to use your skills and talents? Would you say a lot, somewhat, only a
little, or not at all?

A lot/Somewhat Only a little/Not at all
Sep. 2013 87% 13%
Note: Asked of employed.
Source: Wash Post/Miller Center American Dream and Economic Struggles survey.

 In the next five years, how likely is it that you will ______? Would you say it is very likely, somewhat likely, not too likely
or not at all likely?

Sep. 2013
Very/Somewhat likely Not too likely/Not at all likely
Receive a significant raise in pay
at your current job 42% 56%
Find a new job that pays more 43 56
Keep your current job and pay 75 24
Note: Asked of employed.
Source: Wash Post/Miller Center American Dream and Economic Struggles survey.




Commuting

 How do you (or member of family) commute to work—drive your own car, carpool, train, bus or how?

Drive own car Carpool Train Bus
Oct. 1965 Harris 82% 12% 2% 2%
Note: Asked of those with family member who commutes.

 On most days, about how long does it take you to get from your home to where you work?

Roper median NORC mean Gallup mean Census mean
minutes minutes minutes minutes
1973 14.5 --- --- ---
1977 14.8 --- --- ---
1980 14.7 --- --- 21.7
1986 --- 23 --- ---
WORK TIME AND COMMUTES: How a question is worded and the
methodology employed affect estimates of the number of hours worked each week. Data
from Gallup and the Census Bureau paint similar pictures of commuting times. The
American Community Survey, conducted by the US Census Bureau, shows that the average
commuting time fluctuated within a narrow range between 2000 and 2011. In the 2000
census, the average was 24.3 minutes. In 2011, that number was 25.5 minutes. Further, it
turns out that a lot of people like their commutes. In a comprehensive survey on traffic, 19
percent of those who worked outside the home and commuted to work told ABC
News/Washington Post interviewers in January 2005 that they liked their commute a great
deal, 41 percent said they liked it somewhat, 23 percent said they disliked it somewhat, and
12 percent disliked it a great deal. In the survey, 63 percent said their commute from home
to work usually took less than thirty minutes. Twenty-seven percent said it took from thirty to
fifty-nine minutes, and 9 percent, sixty minutes or more.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 57
1987 15 --- --- ---
1988 --- --- 21 ---
1990 --- --- --- 22.4
1992 16.5 --- --- ---
2000 --- --- 26 24.3
2011 --- --- --- 25.5
Note: Sample is adults employed full or part-time.
Source: Harris Interactive, the Department of Labor’s Current Employment Statistics, National Opinion Research Center’s
General Social Survey and Americans’ Use of Time Project (University of Maryland, John Robinson).

 Do you have a job outside your home? (If yes) Do you drive there yourself or use a carpool, or get to work some other way?

No job outside home Drive self Carpool Other (vol.)
Jun. 1979 CBS/NYT 34% 47% 8% 11%

 Do you usually drive to work alone or do you drive with someone?

Alone With someone
Jul. 1979 Cambridge 76% 24%
Note: Asked of those employed outside the home full or part time and they drive to work.

 Given a choice, would you prefer to ride or drive to work?

Ride Drive
Apr. 1980 Cambridge 37% 55%
Note: Asked of those who work outside the home.

 Tell me which one of the following best describes how you go to work…drive your own car, car pool, or some form of
public transportation?

Drive own car Carpool Public transportation Combination
Apr. 1990 NBC/WSJ 57% 6% 5% 3%
Note: Asked of registered voters.

 What methods of transportation do you currently use to get to work? Do you drive alone, carpool or both?

Drive alone Carpool Public transportation Walk Bicycle
Jul. 1993 Chilton 81% 9% 9% 4% 1%
Note: Asked of those who work. Adds to more than 100% due to multiple responses.

 How do you generally get to work – do you drive yourself, ride with someone else, take mass transportation, walk or
something else?

Drive Ride with someone else Mass transportation Walk
May 2000 Gallup/CNN/USA Today 86% 5% 4% 2%
Jun. 2004 AP/Ipsos 87 4 4 3
Aug. 2007* Gallup 85 6 4 3
May 2008* Gallup/USA Today 82 8 4 3
Aug. 2008* Gallup 82 6 5 3
Note: Asked of those employed outside the home. *Sample is adults employed full or part-time.








American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 58
 How many minutes does it usually take you to commute from home to work?

Less than Greater than 60
15 minutes 15 minutes 16-29 minutes 30 minutes 31-59 Minutes 60 minutes minutes
Jan. 2005* 31% 12% 20% 12% 15% 5% 4%
Note: Asked of those who work outside the home who drive themselves to work.
Source: ABC News/Wash Post/Time.

 How do you usually get to work—do you drive alone, drive or ride with someone else, walk, take a bus, take other public
transportation or what?

Drive/ride with Take other public
Drive alone someone else Walk Bus transportation
Jan. 2005 ABC/Time/WP 84% 8% 3% 3% 1%
Note: Asked of those employed outside the home. Sample is adults employed full or part-time.

 Is commuting to work something you like or dislike? Do you like/dislike it somewhat or a great deal?

Like Like Dislike Dislike
great deal somewhat somewhat great deal
Jan. 2005 19% 41% 23% 12%
Note: Asked of those who work outside the home. Seventy-four percent of those who had a commute of less than 15
minutes liked their commute compared to 42 percent whose commute was more than 30 minutes. Seventy-one percent who
worked in a rural area or town liked their commutes, compared to 56 percent who worked in a suburb, and 47 percent who
worked in a city.
Source: ABC News/Wash Post/Time.

 Just your best estimate, on an average day, how much time would you say you spend in a car for all reasons, including work,
school, errands and leisure?

Less than 30 30 31-59 60 Greater than 60
Jan. 2005 15% 12% 6% 22% 43%
Note: Asked of those who ever drive. Responses are in minutes.
Source: ABC News/Wash Post/Time.

 How much total time in minutes do you spend commuting to and from work in a typical day?

Less than 30 min. 30-60 min 60-90 min. 90 min to 2 hours 2 hrs or more
Aug. 2007 Gallup 28% 36% 17% 9% 8%
Aug. 2008 Gallup 31 35 16 7 11
Note: Sample is adults employed full or part-time.

 How many minutes does it usually take you to commute from home to work?

1-10 11-20 21-30 31-180
minutes minutes minutes minutes Depends
Dec. 2011 Reason/Rupe 25% 29% 18% 23% 3%

 And are you very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with the following aspects of
your job? If an item does not apply to you, please say so. Your commute.

Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Does no
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied apply
Jun. 2013 54% 24% 7% 7% 7%
Source: CNBC, Hart and McInturff Research Companies.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 59


 There is increasing talk these days about the ethical and moral standards in our society. We would like to know how
widespread you think certain questionable practices are...Do you think that is true of most, fairly many, not too many, or
very few (people, business people, employees, etc.)

--------------------------------Business people padding their expense accounts----------------------------------
Most Fairly many Not too many Very few
1973 32% 37% 15% 7%
1976 32 42 12 6
1978 31 43 12 7
1979 31 45 13 3
1982 33 45 13 4
1986 33 44 13 3
1987 28 32 21 10
1988 22 43 19 6
1993 23 44 20 6
1997 26 47 17 4
2000 24 43 20 6

-----------------------Employees taking company supplies home for their own use-------------------------------
Most Fairly many Not too many Very few
1988 17% 36% 30% 10%
1993 20 38 27 9
1997 20 45 24 7
2000 23 38 24 9

----------------------------People lying on their resumes/Employment applications------------------------------
Most Fairly many Not too many Very few
1997 20% 38% 29% 8%
2000 21 34 29 10
Note: Not all categories shown.
Source: Roper GfK-NOP.

 Do you have a strong sense of loyalty to the company or organization you work for, or not?

Yes, strong No, not
sense of loyalty strong
May 1993 Gallup 86% 12%
Sep. 1998 Gallup 85 14
Aug. 2001 Gallup 83 16
Aug. 2002 Gallup 86 14
Aug. 2003 Gallup 81 18
Aug. 2004 Gallup 85 15

 Does the company you work for have a strong sense of loyalty to you, or not?

Yes, strong No, not
sense of loyalty strong
May 1993 Gallup 67% 30%
Dec. 1993 Gallup 73 24
Sep. 1998 Gallup 66 32
LOYALTY: Huge majorities of workers say they are loyal to their companies. Solid
majorities say their companies are loyal to them. Workers’ perceptions of “most
employers’” loyalty are more negative, but they are also less reliable than people’s
personal experiences.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 60
Aug. 2001 Gallup 64 32
Aug. 2002 Gallup 70 27
Aug. 2003 Gallup 63 34
Aug. 2004 Gallup 67 29

 And, how much loyalty would you say you feel toward the company/organization you work for as a whole—a lot, some,
only a little, or no loyalty at all?

A lot of loyalty Some loyalty Only a little loyalty No loyalty at all
Sep. 1994 PSRA 54% 32% 10% 4%

 And, compared to a few years ago, would you say that today’s employees in general are more loyal to their employers, less
loyal to their employers, or has there been no change? (Wirthlin)
 In general, how loyal do you think that employees are to their companies today–very loyal, fairly loyal, just somewhat loyal,
or not too loyal? (Hart/Shell Oil)

More loyal Less loyal No change
1996 Wirthlin 14% 58% 27%
July 1998 Hart 33 55 –
Nov. 1998 Wirthlin 14 59 25

 Compared to a few years ago, would you say that today’s employers in general are more loyal to their employees, less loyal
to their employees, or has there been no change? (Wirthlin)
 In general, how loyal do you think that companies are to their employees today–very loyal, fairly loyal, just somewhat loyal,
or not too loyal? (Hart/Shell Oil)

------------------------------------------------Most employers’ loyalty---------------------------------------------------
More loyal Less loyal No change
1996 Wirthlin 11% 65% 22%
July 1998 Hart 25 73 –
Nov. 1998 Wirthlin 15 63 21

--------------------------------------------------My loyalty to employer----------------------------------------------------
Great deal Some Not too much Very little
Mar. 1994
a
47% 33% 9% 5%
May 2001
a
54 33 6 4
Note:
a
Sample is employed people. Some responses combined.
Source: University of Connecticut’s Center for Survey Research and Analysis, Wirthlin Worldwide and Peter D. Hart
Research Associates for Shell Oil Company and Roper GfK-NOP.

 I am going to read you a series of statements. For each, please tell me whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, neither
agree nor disagree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree... I feel a sense of loyalty to the company or organization that I
work for.
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
agree agree Neither disagree disagree
Aug. 1998 50% 36% 3% 6% 4%
Source: University of Connecticut Center for Survey Research and Analysis.

 I am going to read you a series of statements. For each, please tell me whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, neither
agree nor disagree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree...The company or organization I work for feels a sense of
loyalty towards me?

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
Agree agree Neither disagree disagree
Aug. 1998 27% 38% 7% 14% 13%
Note: Asked of those employed.
Source: University of Connecticut Center for Survey Research and Analysis.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 61
 Overall, how committed do you feel your company is to you? Very, moderately, only somewhat or not very committed at
all?

Loyal Not loyal
Nov.1998 Wirthlin 72% 29%
Jan. 2001 Wirthlin 77 20
Note: Asked of those employed.

 Overall, how committed do you feel to your company? Very, moderately, only somewhat or not very committed at all?
Loyal Not loyal
Nov.1998 Wirthlin 84% 16%
Jan. 2001 Wirthlin 92 2
Note: Asked of those employed.

 I am going to read to you a series of statements about your job. For each series, please tell me which statement comes closer
to your own views – A or B. Statement A: The company or agency I work for cares about me as an individual. I feel
respected. Statement B: The company or agency I work for does not really care about me. I am just a number.

Cares about me/ Does not care/
feel respected just a number
Feb. 2004 70% 26%
Note: Not all categories shown.
Source: Zogby International/Public Service Research Foundation.

 Please just tell me if you agree or disagree with each of the following statements…I feel a sense of loyalty to the company
or organization that I work for.

Agree Disagree
Nov. 2009 85% 13%
Note: Asked of those employed full or part-time/retired from their primary job but still working full or part-time and they
are not self-employed.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.

 Please just tell me if you agree or disagree with each of the following statements…The company or organization I work for
feels a sense of loyalty towards me.

Agree Disagree
Nov. 2009 63% 35%
Note: Asked of national adult workers.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.














American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 62



 If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?

Male boss Female boss No difference
Sep. 1953 66% 5% 25%
Aug. 1966 37 19 43
Sep. 1975 62 7 29
Jun. 1982 46 12 38
May 1988ˆ 36 12 50
Feb. 1989ˆˆ 40 8 46
Dec. 1989 48 14 34
Aug. 1993* 39 22 36
Jun. 1994 35 16 47
Sep. 1995* 46 19 33
Aug. 1999ˆˆ 38 16 45
Dec. 2000 48 22 28
Apr. 2002 31 19 49
Aug. 2006 37 19 43
Jun. 2008 ** 30 28 39
Aug. 2011ˆ 32 22 44
Aug. 2013 35 23 41
Note: Samples are employed adults. ˆSample is employed adults. ˆˆMail survey ˆˆAsked of those employed full/part time.
Sep. 1953 question wording was “If you were taking a new job, and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work
under a man or woman?” June 2008 question wording was “If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss
would you prefer to work for a man or woman? (If Say ‘depends on person’, probe once:) Everything else being equal,
would you prefer to work for a man or a woman?
Source: The Gallup Organization, *Gallup/CNN/USA Today, **Pew Research Center.

 It is the goal of some people who work to advance their position, while others like what they are doing and do not
particularly want to move up to more responsibilities. Thinking now of your present position and your immediate boss’s
position, do you think you would be interested in having your boss’s job or would you really prefer to keep your own?

Interested in boss’s job Prefer own job
1985 29% 63%
1992 23 70
1995 25 63
Source: Roper GfK-NOP.






THE BOSS: Around a quarter of those surveyed say they would be interested in having
the boss’s job. About the same number says they would be interested in running the
organization they work for. In a 1943 Roper survey of factory workers for Fortune, 55
percent said they would prefer a job which pays quite a low income but which they were
sure of keeping, 27 percent said a job which pays a good income but which you have a 50-
50 chance of losing, and 15 percent a job which pays an extremely high income “if you
make the grade,” but which you are sure to lose if you don’t. In 1993, those responses were
28, 32, and 32 percent respectively. Far more Americans daydream about being rich than
about having a better job.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 63

 Regardless of how you feel about having your boss’s job, do you think you would be interested in the top job–running the
organization you work for, or would you prefer to keep your own job?

Interested in running organization Prefer own job
1985 30% 62%
1992 24 67
1995 24 65
Source: Roper GfK-NOP.

 Who do you think makes a better boss, a man or a woman?

Man Woman Gender makes no difference
Jan. 1991 44% 18% 35%
Source: PSRA.

 For each of the following that I read, would you say you prefer to have a man or woman, or does it make no difference?...As
your boss.

Prefer man Prefer woman No difference
Jun. 1992 17% 6% 77%
Source: Wirthlin Group.

 If you could fire your current boss, would you do so, or not?

Yes No
1997 Gallup/USA Today 24% 70%
2002 Maritz 21 74

 Would you want your boss’s job?

Yes No
May–Jun. 2001 24% 73%
Source: Harris Interactive.

 I am going to read you a series of statements about your job. For each series, please tell me which statement comes closer to
your own view, A or B. Statement A: It is difficult to work with my immediate supervisor. Statement B: I have a good
working relationship with my immediate supervisor.

Difficult to work with Good working relationship
my immediate Supervisor with my immediate supervisor
Feb. 2005 15% 81%
Source: Zogby International/Public Service Research Foundation.

 I’m going to read you a list of characteristics of your job. For each one, please tell me if you are very satisfied, somewhat
satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with that aspect of your job.

Your boss or immediate supervisor
Very Somewhat Neither satisfied nor Somewhat Very
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
Aug. 2004^ 54% 31% -- 7% 3%
Mar. 2011* 33 28 15 8 8
Note: *Survey is an online survey conducted by Knowledge Networks “using its national panel which is randomly selected
from the entire national population and subsequently provided Internet access, if needed.”
Source: ^AP/Ipsos. *Source is AP/LifeGoesStrong.com.



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 64

 Now I’ll read a list of job characteristics. For each, please tell me how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with your current job
in this regard. First, are you completely satisfied, somewhat satisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, or completely dissatisfied
with...?

Your boss or immediate supervisor
Completely Somewhat Somewhat Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
1989 Gallup 40% 45% 9% 4%
1991 Gallup 37 45 10 6
1998 Gallup 47 38 7 5
1999 Gallup 47 35 7 4
2001 Gallup 51 29 8 6
2002 Gallup 56 28 7 5
2003 Gallup 54 28 9 5
2004 Gallup 60 24 6 4
2005 Gallup 50 30 10 5
2006 Gallup 55 29 6 4
2007 Gallup 60 24 5 4
2008 Gallup 53 26 8 5
2009 Gallup 56 25 6 4
2010 Gallup 58 27 5 4
2011 Gallup 58 23 5 7
2012 Gallup 54 28 7 4
2013 Gallup 56 26 7 4
2014 Gallup 60 -- -- --

 Thinking about your work life, would you lie to someday be a boss or one of the top managers, or is this not something you
would like to do?

Yes, would like to be a boss No, would not like
or top manager to do this
Oct. 2013 Pew 39% 45%

(Demographic breakdowns, sex)
Men 44% 36%
Women 34 53




 Here are three different kinds of jobs. If you had your choice, which would you pick? A job which pays quite a low
income, but which you were sure of keeping, or a job which pays a good income, but which you have a fifty-fifty chance of
losing, or a job which pays an extremely high income if you make the grade, but which you are sure to lose if you don’t?

Low income/ Good income/ High income/
will keep job 50-50 chance of losing could lose job
1943 Fortune
a
55% 27% 15%
1948 Fortune 47 32 19
1957 Roper GfK-NOP 42 26 26
1962 Gallup 48 33 14
1981 Roper GfK-NOP 22 34 36
1988 Roper GfK-NOP 22 34 38
1993 Roper GfK-NOP 28 32 32
Note:
a
Sample is factory workers. In 1939, when Roper asked, “If you had your choice, which would you prefer,” 87
OTHER WORK AND JOB ISSUES: Here we compile several questions that
cover a broad range of work- and job-related issues.


American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 65
percent of executives answered “a job that pays a high wage, but with a fifty-fifty chance of getting promoted or fired,” and
8 percent chose “a steady job earning just enough to get by on, but with no prospect of advancement.” Among factory
workers the responses were 53 and 45 percent, respectively. National results were 61 to 33 percent.
Source: Roper for Fortune, Roper GfK-NOP, and the Gallup Organization.

 Most people spend at least a small part of their waking hours daydreaming and thinking about different things. Some of
those daydreams may be complete flights of fancy, others just simple, like a hungry person thinking about lunchtime.
Here’s a list of some things people might be expected to daydream about from time to time. Would you look it over and call
off the things, if any, that you ever daydream or think about?

Being rich Having a better job Being elected to political office
1979 Roper GfK-NOP 41% 32% 6%
1984 Roper GfK-NOP 52 33 6
1989 Roper GfK-NOP 49 29 4
1992 Roper GfK-NOP 53 36 6
1997 Roper GfK-NOP 54 32 5
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 50 29 4
Note: Only selected categories shown.

 If you were free to do either, would you prefer to have a job outside the home, or would you prefer to stay home and take
care of a house and family?

---Prefer to stay home-- ---Prefer to have a job---
Total Men Women Total Men Women
1974 Roper GfK-NOP/VS – – 60% – – 35%
1978 Roper GfK-NOP – – 45 – – 49
1979 Roper GfK-NOP/VS – – 51 – – 46
1982 CBS – – 47 – – 48
1983 NYT 35% 21% 47 58 72 45
1984 LAT 23 14 34 72 81 60
1985 Roper GfK-NOP/VS – 12 45 – 86 51
1989 (Jul.) CBS/NYT – – 51 – – 35
1989 (Aug.) Roper GfK-NOP/VS – 13 51 – 81 42
1991 Roper GfK-NOP 37 19 53 59 77 43
1992 (Oct.) CBS/NYT 37 21 51 56 72 42
1994 Roper GfK-NOP 35 19 50 61 78 45
1994 (Dec.) Roper GfK-NOP/VS 31 15 47 62 78 46
1996 LAT 37 26 50 57 65 48
1997 (Sep.) Roper GfK-NOP 39 25 52 57 71 44
1997 (Sep.) CBS 30 17 42 62 74 50
1999 Roper/VS – 21 44 – 73 48
2000 Roper GfK-NOP 36 24 47 – – –
2001 Gallup 35 24 45 – – –
2002 Gallup 36 – – 59 – –
2003 Gallup 37 – – 58 – –
2005 Gallup 41 27 53 54 68 42
2007 Gallup 37 29 45 58 68 50
2008 Gallup 34 23 45 63 74 52
2009 CBS/NYT 38 – – 59 – –
2012 CNN/ORC 28 – – 66 – –
2012 Gallup 33 – – 63 – –








American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 66

 Considering everything, what would be the ideal situation for you – working full-time, working part-time, or not working at
all outside the home?

Full-time Part-time Not at all
Feb. 2007 Pew 40 31 28
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew 48 29 22

---------------Responses of mothers of children under 18 years old---------------
Mar. 1997 Pew 30% 44% 26%
Feb. 2007 Pew 20 50 29
Nov.-Dec. 2012 Pew 32 47 20
Note: Based on mothers of children under 18 years old.

 If you had enough money to live as comfortable as you’d like, would you prefer to work full-time, work part-time, do
volunteer-type work, or work at home caring for the family?
Work at home
Full time Part-time Volunteer work caring for the family
Apr. 1992 Harris Interactive 23% 29% 19% 25%

 How do you think things are going for most Americans these days? Would you say _____ are/is better, worse, or about the
same these days?

Jun.–Jul. 2006
Better Worse About the same
Job opportunities 26% 43% 26%
The amount of leisure time 16 43 36
Family life 18 45 33
Health care 20 52 24
Housing 31 38 26
Education 34 34 27
Work life 20 39 34
Note: Sample is employed adults.
Source: Pew Research Center.

 Do you work from home, either often or sometimes, or don’t you do this?

Primarily Often or
from home sometimes from home Do not
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 6% 26% 68%
Note: Sample is employed adults.

 If money were not a factor, would you quit your job tomorrow?

-------Responses of 40-59 year-olds-----
Yes No
May 2014 AARP/USA Today 50% 49%
Note: Asked of 40-59 year-olds employed full-time or part-time.









American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 67



 If you were to get enough money to live as comfortably as you would like for the rest of your life, would you continue to
work or would you stop working?

Continue to work Stop working
1973 NORC 68% 30%
1974 NORC 64 35
1976 NORC 68 31
1977 NORC 69 30
1980 NORC 76 23
1982 NORC 72 27
1984 NORC 74 25
1985 NORC 69 30
1987 NORC 74 25
1988*** NORC 70 29
1989*** NORC 71 27
1990*** NORC 72 27
1991*** NORC 66 33
1993*** NORC 68 30
1994*** NORC 65 34
ATTITUDES ABOUT LEISURE: University of Virginia historian Cindy Aron
argues that the idea of leisure has not come easily to Americans (Working at Play: A
History of Vacations in the United States, Oxford University Press, 1999). For most of the
19th century, vacations were limited to privileged elites. After the Civil War, when vacations
were becoming more widely available to the middle class, the new-found leisure time was
often used for work of other kinds (educational self-improvement, religious instruction, etc.).
The work ethic is still strong in America. In 1973, 68 percent said they would
continue to work if they were able to live as comfortably as they would like for the rest of
their lives. In 2008, 71 percent gave that response.
Survey data suggest that attitudes about leisure are changing. In 1975, 48 percent
told Roper GfK-NOP interviewers that “work is the important thing – and the purpose of
leisure time is to recharge people’s batteries so they can do a better job.” In 2000, 34
percent gave that response. In 1975, 36 percent agreed with the statement: “Leisure time is
the important thing – and the purpose of work is to make it possible to have the leisure time
to enjoy life and pursue one’s interests.” In 2000, 43 percent gave that response.
Forty-five percent told Peter D. Hart researchers that they had more leisure time
than their parents at the same point in their lives, 27 percent less, and 25 percent about the
same amount. Thirty percent of eighteen-to-sixty-four year olds with children at home said
they had more leisure time than their parents, 35 percent less, and 32 percent about the
same amount. Still, more Americans than a quarter century ago say they have “not quite as
much” or “not nearly as much leisure time as they would like.” Views about leisure time
are strongly related to where one is in the life cycle. Seniors often say they have too much
leisure time, parents of young children, too little.
Recent surveys suggest that when people are asked if they would prefer more money
or more time, people generally respond more money. But when choices are narrowed (a
week’s vacation or a week’s salary) time often trumps money.

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 68
1996*** NORC 67 32
1998*** NORC 69 30
2000*** NORC 68 31
2002* NORC 68 31
2004** NORC 69 31
2006 NORC 70 30
2008** NORC 71 28
2010** NORC 68 31
2012** NORC 73 27
Note: Asked of those who were either working or temporarily not working at the time. *Asked of a 1/3 sample. **Asked of
1/2 sample. ***Asked of a 2/3 sample.

 Which way do you tend to look at the relationship between work and leisure time: That work is the important thing–and the
purpose of leisure time is to recharge people’s batteries so they can do a better job or the other way around That leisure time
is the important thing–and the purpose of work is to make it possible to have the leisure time to enjoy life and pursue one’s
interests?

Work is important thing Leisure is important thing Both about equal (vol.)
1975 RASW 48% 36% 13%
1980 RASW 48 36 15
1985 RASW 46 33 17
1989 RASW 36 41 20
1991 RASW 30 36 24
1992
a
RASW 38 40 17
1993 RASW 31 42 25
1995 RASW 37 36 25
1996 RASW 35 40 22
1997 US News 39 57 --
1998 RASW 34 40 24
2000 RASW 34 43 20
Note: a. Roper for the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Question wording varied slightly. In 1980, when
the Los Angeles Times survey asked "Which do you think is more important in life: working hard and doing what is
expected of you or doing the things that give you personal pleasure," 59 percent of registered voters said working hard and
34 percent said doing things for pleasure. The question has been asked five times since then. In 1989, the responses (among
a national adult sample) were 49 and 44 percent respectively. In 1990, the last iteration of the question, the responses were
46 and 46 percent respectively.
Source: Roper GfK-NOP and US News and World Report.

 Which do you enjoy more—the things you do in your work (on your job) or the things you do in your leisure time?

Work Leisure Equal
Feb. 1948 35% 36% 25%
Note: Survey asked of half sample.
Source: The Gallup Organization (AIPO).

 Generally speaking, which do you enjoy more–the hours when you are on your job, or the hours when you are not on your
job?

On the job Not on the job
Jun. 1955 39% 48%
Sep. 1988 20 68
Sep. 1990 18 60
Jul. 1991 18 68
May 1993 22 70
Oct. 1998 23 69
Aug. 1999 16 77
Aug. 2001 19 76
Aug. 2006 13 81

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 69
Sep. 2006 14 80
Oct. 2006 19 78
Note: In 1948, Gallup asked which do you enjoy more–the things you do in your work (on your job) or the things you do in
your leisure time? Thirty-five percent of the respondents chose work, 36 percent leisure and 25 percent said they were
equal.
Source: The Gallup Organization and Ipsos.

 Do you enjoy your work so much that you have a hard time putting it aside?

Yes No
1955 Gallup 51% 45%
1988 Gallup
a
33 67
2001 Ipsos-Reid
a
23 77
Note:
a
Sample is employed people.

 On the whole, would you say that you are satisfied or dissatisfied with the amount of leisure and free time that you get to
yourself?

Satisfied Dissatisfied
1963 Gallup 76% 22%
1978 Cambridge Reports 62 32
1984 Gallup 80 17
May 1988 Times Mirror 70 28
Sep. 1988 Gallup 87 11
Oct. 1988 Gallup 87 13
1993 Gallup 68 32
1994 Times Mirror 73 26
1995 Times Mirror 72 27
1996 Pew 77 19
1997 Roper GfK-NOP 66 33
1998 Gallup 64 36
1999 Pew 80 15
2000 Hart/Teeter 66 33
2001 Roper GfK-NOP 77 23
2004 ABC/20-20 65 35
2005 Pew 79 16
Note: Question wording varied. Some questions use the word “leisure.” Others use the words “free time outside of work.”
The Pew askings specified free time as “free time – the time when you are not working”. The Pew responses are combined.
A separate question from Hart/Teeter’s April 2000 poll asked, “Comparing yourself with your parents when they were your
age, do you think that you have more leisure time, less leisure time, or about the same amount of leisure time as your parents
had?”. Forty-six percent answered more leisure time, 27 percent less leisure time and 25 percent about the same amount.

 About how much leisure time do you estimate you have each week to relax, engage in hobbies, go to movies and concerts
and other forms of entertainment, take part in sports, or get together with friends and so forth?

Jan. 1973 Associated Council of the Arts/Philip Morris

No leisure time 10 hours or less 11-20 hours 21-30 hours 31-40 hours over 40 hours
4% 18% 27% 17% 8% 17%
Note: Responses of students and housewives are included.

 Now I would like you to consider some specific aspects of your personal life. For each one that I read, tell me how satisfied
you are, if at all, with it…the amount of leisure time you have?

Completely Mostly Mostly Completely
satisfied satisfied dissatisfied dissatisfied
May 1988 Times Mirror/Gallup 23% 47% 21% 7%

American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 70
Source:

Times Mirror/Gallup.
 Here are some statements about why people work. Irrespective of whether you have a job or not, which of them comes
closest to what you think? I enjoy working but I don’t let it interfere with the rest of my life.

Mentioned Not mentioned
May 1990 41% 59%
Source: World Values Survey.

 How well does the term “workaholic” describe you?

Very well Somewhat well Not well
1991 Gallup 24% 53% 33%

 Which of the following statements comes closest to how you feel? I would rather earn more money, even if it requires more
of my free time, OR I would rather have more free time even if it means making less money. (US News)
 If you had a choice, would you prefer to have more money or more time? (Harris/Radcliffe)
 If you had the choice between either an extra day off from work every two weeks or an extra day’ s wages or salary every
two weeks, which would you prefer–the extra time or the extra money? (Hart-Teeter)
 Which would you rather have–a salary increase, OR more free time out of work? (Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates)
 If you could have more of one thing, which would you choose, time or money? (Roper GfK-NOP)

Extra time Extra money
Dec. 1995 US News 51% 35%
Feb. 2000 Harris/Radcliffe 64 34
Mar. 2000 Penn-Schoen 30 63
Apr. 2000 Hart-Teeter 58 40
June 2000 Penn-Schoen 32 57
Dec. 2002 Roper GfK-NOP 35 56
Source: Surveys by Roper GfK-NOP, KRC Communications/Research for US News & World Report, Harris Interactive for
Radcliffe Public Policy Center/FleetBoston Financial, Penn, Schoen and Berland and Hart-Teeter Research.

 Please say, for each of the following, how important it is in your life. Would you say extremely important, very important,
somewhat important, not too important, or not important at all? How about...?

Extremely Very Somewhat Not too Not important
important important important important at all
Your leisure time
2001 14% 50% 30% 4% 1%
2002 15 44 34 5 2
2005 11 46 35 6 2
Your work
2001 19 55 23 2 1
2002 21 52 25 2 0
2005 17 58 21 2 1
Note: In 2002, “your work” ranked third out of nine item in terms of “extremely/very important” and “your leisure” ranked
seventh. The other categories were “your family” (96 percent), “your health” (90 percent), “your friends” (70 percent),
“your money” (67 percent), “your religion” (65 percent), “your hobbies or recreational activities” (46 percent), and “your
community activities” (32 percent).
Source: The Gallup Organization.

 How satisfied are you with…confidence that you will be able to continue to enjoy your favorite leisure time activities in the
future?
Very Somewhat Not very Not at all
satisfied satisfied satisfied satisfied
Aug. 2001 Ipsos-Reid 55% 33% 8% 3%



American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 71
 I would be willing to give up one day’s pay per week in exchange for one day off per week to spend more time with family
and friends?

Jul. 2004
All Men Women Parents
Strongly agree 23% 19% 27% 28%
Somewhat agree 30 26 34 32
Somewhat disagree 21 23 18 18
Strongly disagree 19 25 14 17
Don’t know 7 7 8 6
Source: Center for a New American Dream.

 I would rather have more time off work than get a raise.

Jul. 2004
All Men Women Parents

Strongly agree 12% 8% 15% 13%
Somewhat agree 28 32 25 33
Somewhat disagree 26 24 27 23
Strongly disagree 28 32 24 26
Source: Center for a New American Dream.

 How much less in salary or pay, in terms of percentage, would you accept in order to have more free time? Would you
say...?

Jul. 2004
All Men Women Parents
0% 30% 33% 26% 27%
1%-5% 30 30 31 33
6%-10% 19 21 18 22
11%-15% 3 1 4 2
16%-20% 1 2 1 2
More than 20% 3 3 2 2
Source: Center for a New American Dream.

 After a long weekend, vacation, or a few days off from work, what best describes how you usually feel about going back to
work? Do you:

Feel ready to go back to work Wish you could have a longer break
Aug. 2004 Ipsos 51% 49%

 Are you regularly scheduled to work in the evenings or on the weekends, or not?

Yes No No set schedule (vol.)
Jun.–Jul. 2006 Pew 34% 61% 5%
Note: Sample is employed adults.

 Would you say you get more satisfaction from the things you do in your leisure time or the work you do?

Leisure time Work Both
May 2008 50% 30% 19%
Note: Survey asked of working adults.
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.




American Enterprise I nstitute compilation 72
 Would you like to work more hours than you currently work, the same number of hours, of fewer hours than you currently
do?

More Same Fewer
May 2008 14% 52% 33%
May 2009 17 61 22
Nov. 2009 29 45 25
Source: Survey by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University.






Compiled by Karlyn Bowman, Senior Fellow
Jennifer Marsico, Senior Research Associate
Heather Sims, Research Assistant

For comments or questions
contact Karlyn Bowman at kbowman@aei.org, Jennifer Marsico at Jennifer.Marsico@aei.org,
or Heather Sims at heather.sims@aei.org.

This document first appeared on the AEI website in August 2001.

Many pollsters in the United States regularly supply us with their data. This report could not have been done
without their assistance, and we thank them for it. The data in this report come from the archive of public
opinion polls at the American Enterprise Institute and from The Roper Center’s archive at the University of
Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. The Roper Center is the oldest and largest archive of public opinion data in
the world. To learn more about the Roper Center, visit http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/.

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