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Loading Characteristics of Shunt and Compound DC Generators


Christopher Reynolds
Electrical Machines
Professor Paula Bourne
October
th
! "#$
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Loading Characteristics of Shunt and Compound DC Generators
%ntroduction
Li&e DC generators DC motors 'or& off of the same principles but in a re(erse) %nstead of the
armature deli(ering the po'er to the shunt and the terminal! (oltage is fed into the motor!
supplying the shunt field and the armature 'ith po'er and allo'ing them to both create an EM*)
+hese lines of flu, react 'ith each other- the armature.s field distorts that of the shunt.s and
creates tor/ue) 0Ryff! 11$2 +his happens as the armatures conductors are pulled from a region of
high flu, density into one 'ith lo'er density) 3ith a multiple conductors this reaction is made
continuous and allo's us to ha(e a de(ice that 'ill! for the most part! efficiently con(ert
electrical energy into mechanical)
Safety Precautions
During this e,periment there is the use of high (oltages and the testing of li(e 'ires) %n
addition this (oltage 'ill be produced in DC form and 'ill ha(e an increased le(el of danger
then that of 4C) 5ands must be dry during any e,periments and there is absolutely no food or
drin&s allo'ed in the lab room) +his is to a(oid accidently damaging any e/uipment or creating
the potential for electrocution) Ensure that po'er supplies are turned off before ma&ing or
changing connections! and 'hile doing these connections ma&ing sure to only use one hand) By
only using one hand you a(oid accidently grounding a li(e connection and causing in6ury) +he
presence of rotating e/uipment also possesses a potential ha7ard to loose clothing! articles or
hair) +hese items can get caught in the e/uipment and cause serious in6ury) Long hair should be
tied bac& and loose clothing or articles should be secured or remo(ed) 8o open toed foot'ear is
allo'ed in the class and the use of electrical insulated 'or& boots or steal toes is re/uired) +his is
to pre(ent in6ury caused by the potential of falling e/uipment)
Ob6ecti(es
Lab 5:
+he ob6ecti(e of lab fi(e 'ill be to become familiar 'ith the 'iring of a DC shunt motor and
a manual motor starter) 3e 'ill be obser(ing the effects on current during motor starting and
ho' incorporating resistance can alter these effects) %n addition 'e 'ill be collecting data from
our circuit as the motor.s armature is physically loaded 'ith the use of a dynamometer) Each step
or motor is tor/ued do'n 'e 'ill be noting the tor/ue! speed! line (oltage! field current! and
armature current) *rom that data 'e 'ill then calculate the line current! po'er in! po'er out!
horsepo'er! and the motor.s efficiency)
Lab 6:
3ith lab si, 'e 'ill be in(estigating the characteristics of a DC compound motor) 3e 'ill be
doing the same loading process as in lab fi(e but instead 'e 'ill be using a DC compound
motor) +his configuration of the motor includes the use of a series field to help aid the motor
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through the loading process) %n addition 'e 'ill be manipulating our series field through the use
of a field di(erter) 3e 'ill be collecting four sets of data! one 'ith not field di(erter and three
'ith) +he three 'ith the field di(erter 'ill be done 'ith one at high! one at medium! and one at
lo' di(erter resistance) +he same data and calculations as in lab fi(e 'ill be done 'ith these four
setups! 'ith the addition of po'er losses for full and no load scenarios)
Procedure
Lab 5 Loading of a DC Shunt Motor:
Part9
3e began this lab by first chec&ing and implementing all safety precautions) Once 'e 'ere
sure that the lab could be performed safely 'e began to 'ire the lab board as per the dra'ing
0see appendi, 42! 'hile at the same time noting all of the e/uipment.s nameplate information)
+he prime mo(er 'as also set up to perform as a dynamometer and the manual motor starter set
to operate 'ith $ points) Once 'ired and chec&ed by the professor 'e began the testing
procedure)
*irst part of the lab 'as to e,periment 'ith inrush currents) +he motor 'as started 'ith the
manual motor starter ma&ing sure not to pass the first :; resistor mar&ing) 3hile this 'as done
the other lab partner made note of the inrush current through the armature! as 'ell as the steady
state current and the motor.s speed) +his 'as done three more times! each time going to the ne,t
resistor possession on the starter) 4ll data 'as collected and entered into table )
Part "9
3ith the manual motor starter fully in gauged and loc&ed in 'e set the motor to <##RPM and
the line (oltage to =>) 3e then used the prime mo(er 0no' set to be a dynamometer2 to apply
tor/ue to our motor.s armature) 3e increased the tor/ue in lb)in increments each time
recording the motor.s speed! line (oltage! field current! and armature current) +his process
continued until the armature current reached ?"=@ of the motor.s rated ma, current) 4dditional
data 'as then calculated! and the test board 'as po'ered do'n and disassembled)
Lab 6 Loading of a DC Compound Motor:
Part 9
3e began this lab by first chec&ing and implementing all safety precautions) Once 'e 'ere
sure that the lab could be performed safely 'e began to 'ire the lab board as per the dra'ing
0see appendi, B e,cluding the field di(erter2! 'hile at the same time noting all of the
e/uipment.s nameplate information) +he prime mo(er 'as also set up to perform as a
dynamometer and the manual motor starter set to operate 'ith $ points) Once 'ired and chec&ed
by the professor 'e began the testing procedure)
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%n this lab 'e 6umped to the same process as in part t'o of lab fi(e) +his time 'e incorporated
the use of a series field that 'as connected in series 'ith our armature and an initial line (oltage
of "#>DC) +he motor 'as loaded in steps of "lb)in till the armature current 'as ?"=@ of the
motor.s rated ma, current) *or each "lb)in increment 'e recorded the same sets of data as in part
t'o of the last lab) Once this 'as complete the board 'as po'ered do'n and 'e proceeded to
part " of the lab)
Part "9
*or the second part of the e,periment a field di(erter 'as incorporated across the series field)
Once 'ired in and chec&ed by the professor 'e repeated the same loading procedure as in part
one of this lab) +his 'as done three times o(er 'ith the field di(erter set at minimum! medium!
and ma,imum resistance) +his ga(e us three different sets of data! one for each le(el of
resistance) Once complete 'e po'ered do'n the board! disconnected the 'iring and made the
necessary calculations to complete the tables)
E/uipment
Lab 5&6:
AE/uipment cabinet 0LabA>olt <#A"#2
APo'er supply 0LabA>olt <<"A"#2
AB hp DC Machine 0LabA>olt <"A##2
APrime Mo(erCdynamometer 0LabA>olt <1:#A#2
AData 4c/uisition %nterface 0LabA>olt 1#:"A#2
A DC Manual Starter 0LabA>olt <:DA##2
AComputer 'ith L>D4MAEMS program
AESB Cable
Multiple AConnection Leads
Lab 6:
ASeries *ield Di(erter 0LabA>olt <:#A##2
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Results and 4nalysis
F*ormulas used for calculations can be found in appendi, C
Lab 5:

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Part 9
%n the first part of this lab 'e e,amined the concept of inrush current) +his high le(el of
current is due to the lo' resistance of the armature as 'ell as the little to no counter EM* that is
present during initial motor start up) +his counter EM* 0'hen at full strength2 opposes the line
(oltage and limits the amount of current that flo's through the armature) 0Ryff! 11$2 +his is
also called the armature reaction and basically means the motor also partially acts as a generator
'hile in full operation) 3hen there is little to no counter EM* being created (oltage has a free!
lo' resistance path through the armature 'indings and 'e get our spi&e in current) +his current
can be damaging to both our motor.s 'indings as 'ell as our po'er supplies) %n order to help
'ith this one of t'o things must be done to help limit the current) Ether the (oltage must be
lo'ered and gradually increased so that the armature is able to slo'ly build a field and opposing
(oltage to limit the current) Or 'e must incorporate an in line resistance to limit the amount of
current)
Referring to the data in table one you can see that 'ith 'ithout the incorporation of resistance
our inrush current much higher than the current readings ta&en 'ith the incorporation of
resistance) +his is because 'ith the resistors 'e get a (oltage drop before our armature) +his
drops our inrush current and allo's for safer starting of the motor) 4s you can see one do'nfall
to this method is that 'e get a decrease in our machine.s speed) +his is due to the additional
(oltage drop caused by our added resistance) Steady state current through the armature remains
the same because the resistors are in series 'ith the armature) %t is a good idea to note ho'e(er!
that this motor starter is designed so that 'hen in the full on position the resistors are no longer
part of the circuit and the armature is able to recei(e full (oltage)
Part "9
%n part t'o of the lab 'e e,amined the characteristics of a basic DC shunt motor) +he data in
table t'o as 'ell as the graphs illustrated abo(e sho' a comparison of the data that 'e collected!
as 'ell as calculated) 4s you can see as 'e increased the tor/ue on the armature the speed of the
motor dropped) +his is because the EM* being de(eloped by the shunt field and the counter
EM* from the armature 'as not strong enough to maintain a constant speed) 4s the rotation
slo'ed the current began to increase) +his increase in current 'as because the armature
conductors 'ere cutting the shunts field lines at a slo'er rate! there for reducing the (oltage
created by the armature reaction) +his decrease in armature reaction meant that there 'as less
opposing (oltage being created in the armature 'indings! allo'ing more line current to flo'
through the armature) +his increase in current creates additional heat 'ithin the motor and is 'hy
'hen a motor e,periences loc&ed rotor it can /uic&ly o(erheat and cause damage)
3hen 'e apply a restricting force to the spinning armature tor/ue is created) +he creation of
tor/ue can be e,pressed as the product of an amount of force offer a distance) 4s 'e add
resistance to our motor tor/ue is generated because the mo(ement of the armature can be related
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to a liner distance) +he motor.s speed decreases as force is added so it ta&es a balance bet'een
the rotational speed and the force being added in order to achie(e a gi(en amount of tor/ue)
E,amining the data collected it.s clear that this &ind of DC motor is not the greatest 'hen it
comes to handling large amounts of physical load) %t is ho'e(er good at maintaining speed 'ith
minimal load)
LAB 6:
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Part 9
3ith it this lab 'e e,perimented 'ith a DC compound motor) +he difference 'ith this motor
is that it incorporates the use of a series field) +his field is 'ired in series 'ith the armature so
our current through the armature 'ould also be the same through our series field) 4naly7ing the
data directly abo(e you can see that there is an e,tremely large drop in speed bet'een our no
load and our full load speeds) %f this motor 'as to ha(e the same characteristics as our shunt
motor 'e 'ould see a massi(e amount of armature current! but instead 'e don.t) +he biggest
difference bet'een this motor and the one found in lab fi(e is that this motor is able create large
amounts of tor/ue 'ithout creating too much current through the armature) +his is because of the
series field that has no' been incorporated) 4s force is applied to the armature the motor.s speed
begins to reduce) %n a shunt motor this 'ould cause the armature to create less and less counter
EM* to oppose the line (oltage! causing the armature current to increase) %n this instant ho'e(er!
the addition of the series field is able to counter act this by incorporating an additional field into
the e/uation) Because the series field does create resistance in our line the speed does drop
/uic&er! but 'e are able to support a much higher amount of tor/ue) +his motor is able to
produce more tor/ue 'ith less current dra' and is more efficient than that of the motor in lab =)
Part "9
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+he last part of this lab 'e added a field di(erter across the series 'inding) +his ga(e us the
ability to manipulate the amount of current through the series field) By doing this 'e 'ere able
to ad6ust the motor from being able to handle high tor/ue to being able to maintain high speed)
4s you can see in the graphs and data abo(e there is a definite difference bet'een the three
le(els of current di(ersion) One thing that.s made more noticeable in this part of the e,periment
is the field current for the three different tests) +he reason each test has % different le(el of shunt
field current is because each test re/uired a different amount to get the motor up to speed for the
set (oltage) 3hen the series field 'as being used 'e needed less shunt current because 'e had
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the series field helping it) Minimum di(erter resistance let most of the current around the series
field so 'e re/uired a larger shunt current to get the motor up to speed)
%n the tor/ue (s) speed graph 'e can see the difference bet'een full! partial! and no use of the
series field) Li&e in lab fi(e 'hen the motor has full current through the armature and none
through a series field 'e are able to maintain a higher le(el of speed but aren.t able to support
large amounts of tor/ue) On the opposite end of things the motor 'ith full use of a series field is
able to support more tor/ue but is not able to maintain speed (ery 'ell)
Conclusion
%n conclusion to our e,perimentation of series and compound generators 'e 'ere able to
establish a list of &ey characteristics that each motor has and ho' these are created) Shunt motors
are able to maintain speed more efficiently than that of compound but are not (ery good at
dealing 'ith large amounts of tor/ue) +his is due to the fact that as speed of the armature
decreases the counter EM* in the armature begins to deplete lessoning its ability to oppose the
line (oltage) +his allo's current through the armature to rise and the motor to reach its limits
more /uic&ly) +he compound motor on the other hand incorporated the use of a series field to
help e,ploit this increase in current) 4s tor/ue increased on the armature the speed began to drop!
and current began to increase) 3ith the addition of a series field this current 'as put to use and
'as con(erted into a usable EM* that allo'ed our motor to continue producing tor/ue 'ithin
rated operating conditions e(en though the speed 'as (ery slo') Compound motors ho'e(er are
not great at maintaining speed because it adds an additional (oltage drop in series 'ith the
armature pre(enting the motor from maintaining speed)


Lab GuestionsC 4ssignments
Lab 5
2 See appendi, 4
"2 See lab = analysis
D2 See lab = analysis
$2 See lab = analysis
11
=2 8reg@H 08 no load A 8I rated load2C 8I rated loadF##@
H 0<##A$::2C$::F##@
H "")<@
:2 4s 'e can see from the data in table one of this lab! inrush current can be (ery high
compared to that of our steady state current) +his 'ould become e(en more apparent
'hen the si7e of the motor is increased) 3ith a large inertia load this inrush current 'ould
last e(en longer because it 'ould ta&e the armature longer to pic& up enough speed in
order to create a counter (oltage 'ithin the armature) Esing a manual motor starter 'ith a
large inertia load 'ould allo' u lo limit the amount of (oltage across the armature) +his
'ould allo' us to slo'ly build the motor up to speed 'ithout creating a large amount of
inrush current)
%f smaller resistors 'ere to be used in our manual motor starter 'e 'ould see a larger
initial in rush current) +his is because 'e 'ould be letting a higher (oltage flo' through
the armature 'hen there is no armature reaction to limit the current) Our speeds 'ould be
higher though because once the motor is at a steady state 'e 'ould ha(e more (oltageC
current through our armature allo'ing it to create a larger amount of counter EM*)
Lab 6
2 See appendi, B
"2 See lab : analysis
D2 See lab : analysis
$2 See lab : analysis
=2 8reg@H 08 no load A 8I rated load2C 8I rated loadF##@
H 0<#A11"2C11"F##@
H <")=@
:2 4s the load increases on the motor the shunt field remains the same up until close to
the end! here the current through the shunt drops off a bit) +his is because the combined
resistance of the armature and the series field is still much less than that of the shunt field)
Once the armature.s counter EM* drops too lo' the path of least resistance is through the
armature so 'e see a small but /uic& drop in current through the shunt field) %nstead it is
no' being fed through the series field and the armature)
J2 Some industrial applications for a compound motor could be any process or tas& that
re/uires a high tor/ue motor) +his 'ould ha(e to be something that doesn.t re/uire the
maintaining of a constant speed) +his being because compound motors lose speed /uic&ly
'ith loading)
<2 %n table one for lab : you can see the copper losses at the bottom of the table) +he
totals for those losses are as follo's9 8o load9 ):"' *ull load9 D:)#D' 4s you can see
as our load increases so do our losses) +his is because of the relation of current flo'ing
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through the 'indings and the resistance of those 'indings) 4s our counter EM*
dissipates! current increases! and 'e get a larger loss across the armature and series fields)
+his ho'e(er doesn.t ma&e up all of our losses) +hings li&e core losses and friction also
play a part in our determining our total losses)
12 +he series field di(erter can be useful because it gi(es you the ability to control ho'
the motor reacts to load) By ad6usting the di(erter you can allo' the motor to be a little
better at maintaining consistent speed! or a little better at handling high tor/ue) +his could
help the shunt field rheostat by allo'ing the motor to achie(e a gi(en speed 'ith less
current needing to be passed through the shunt field) By increasing the resistance of the
di(erter you could increase the EM* of the series field and allo' for less current to be
needed through the shunt) +his may be used for cases 'here there isn.t enough (oltage
a(ailable to get the motor up to speed or maintain a speed)
References
Ryff! P) *) 011$2) Electric machinery) Prentice 5all! pgA$)