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Geometry 1.

3 Distance and Midpoints


Example 1 - Find Distance on a Number Line
Use the number line to find QR.



The coordinates of Q and R are -2 and 3.
QR = |-2 - 3| Distance Formula
= |-5| or 5 Simplify.

Example 2 - Find Distance on a Coordinate Plane
Find the distance between A(4, 2) and B(-6, 4).

Method 1 Pythagorean Theorem
Use the gridlines to form a triangle so you
can use the Pythagorean Theorem.
(AB)
2
= (BC)
2
+ (AC)
2
Pythagorean Theorem
(AB)
2
= 2
2
+ 10
2
BC = 2 units, AC = 10 units
(AB)
2
= 104 Simplify.
AB = 104 Take the square root of each side.

Method 2 Distance Formula
d = (x
2
- x
1
)
2
+ (y
2
- y
1
)
2
Distance Formula
AB = (-6 - 4)
2
+ (4 - 2)
2
(x
1
, y
1
) = (4, 2), (x
2
, y
2
) = (-6, 4)
AB = (-10)
2
+ (2)
2
Simplify.
AB = 104 Simplify.

The distance from A to B is 104 units. You can use a calculator to find that 104 is approximately
10.20.


Example 3 - Find Coordinates of a Midpoint
a. TEMPERATURE Find the coordinates of the midpoint of RS .
The coordinates of R and S are -10 and 60.
Let M be the midpoint of RS .
M =
-10 + 60
2
a = -10, b = 60
=
50
2
or 25 Simplify.


b. Find the coordinates of M, the midpoint of RS , for R(-3, -4) and S(5, 7).

Let R be (x
1
, y
1
) and S be (x
2
, y
2
). (x
1
, y
1
) = (-3, -4) (x
2
, y
2
) = (5, 7)
M(
x
1
+ x
2
2
,
y
1
+ y
2
2
) = M(
-3 + 5
2
,
-4 + 7
2
)
= M(
2
2
,
3
2
) or M(1, 1
1
2
) Simplify.
Geometry 1.3 Distance and Midpoints
Example 4 - Find Coordinates of Endpoint
Find the coordinates of C if B(2, 4) is the midpoint of AC and A has coordinates (6, 8).

Let A be (x
2
, y
2
) in the Midpoint Formula.
B(2, 4) = B(
x
1
+ 6
2
,
y
1
+ 8
2
) (x
2
, y
2
) = (6, 8)

Write two equations to find that coordinates of C.
2 =
x
1
+ 6
2

4 = x
1
+ 6 Multiply each side by 2.
-2 = x
1
Subtract 6 from each side.
4 =
y
1
+ 8
2

8 = y
1
+ 8 Multiply each side by 2.
0 = y
1
Subtract 8 from each side.

The coordinates C are (-2, 0).


Example 5 - Use Algebra to Find Measures
Multiple-Choice Test Item
What is the measure of AC if A is the
midpoint of BC ?
A 60 B 8
C 30 D 15


Read the Test Item
You know that A is the midpoint of BC , and the figure gives algebraic measures for BAand AC . You
are asked to find the measure of AC.

Solve the Test Item
Because A is the midpoint, you know that BA = AC. Use this equation and the algebraic measures to find
a value for x.
BA = AC Definition of midpoint
3x + 6 = 2x + 14 BA = 3x + 6, AC = 2x + 14
3x = 2x + 8 Subtract 6 from each side.
x = 8 Subtract 2x from each side.

Now substitute 8 for x in the expression 2x + 14.
AC = 2x + 14 Original measure
AC = 2(8) + 14 x = 8
AC = 16 + 14 or 30 Simplify.

The answer is C.