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Lng|neer|ng-re|ated Concepts and Assoc|ated Mathemat|cs

for LnC8101 Croup ro[ecL lall 2013

SLudylng maLh lndependenL of lLs appllcaLlon does llLLle Lo exclLe sLudenLs abouL englneerlng. 1he LnC8101 Croup
ro[ecL ls meanL Lo lmpress upon sLudenLs Lhe pracLlcallLy of maLh as well as be a fun exerclse ln dlscoverlng Lhe
exclLemenL of currenL englneerlng lnnovaLlons.

As an example of how Lo geL sLarLed, recall Lhe ln-class presenLaLlon on llbrary research done by Pema 8amachandran,
your Lnglneerlng Llbrarlan.
8ased on Lhe 8lSM arLlcle abouL Lhe blueglll sunflsh, you came Lo easlly recognlze Auv, propulslon, and drag as key
Lerms (Wordle provlded a greaL vlsual). 1hrough 3 peer-revlewed arLlcles (based on key Lerms), you would come across
some englneerlng-relaLed concepLs. lrom Lhe blueglll sunflsh arLlcle, you read abouL Lhe concepL of drag and dlscovered
LhaL SLoke's Law was found Lo besL relaLe Lo Lhe concepL of drag.
lor your LnC8101 Croup Project, just include a minimum one paragraph about the concept of drag, Stokes Law,
and include the mathematical formula associated with Stokes Law.
lor Lhe LnC8102 deslgn concepL, based on Lhls blueglll sunflsh arLlcle, you propose Lo bulld a small proLoLype of
a fln or oLher model Lo explaln whaL fln shapes produce lower drag (e.g., elllpLlcal, Lapered, hemlspherlcal, eLc.).
L|st of hys|ca| Laws:
1. AdapLlve ConLrol
2. ArLlflclal neuron
3. AsympLoLlc noLaLlon
4. 8ellman-lord AlgorlLhm
3. Bernoullis principle
6. 8lnary Search
7. 8loL-SavarL Law
8. 8readLh llrsL Search
9. 8ulldlng AuLomaLlon
10. CapaclLor
11. Caplllary 8lse
12. Cells or 8aLLerles ln Serles and parallel
13. CenLrlpeLal acceleraLlon ln a sLrlng
14. ComblnaLlons
13. ConLrol 1heory
16. Coulombs Law
17. uepLh llrsL Search
18. ulfferenL ComblnaLlon of lnducLors
19. ulfferenL comblnaLlons of CapaclLors
20. Dijkstras Algorithm
21. ue Morgan Laws
22. LlecLromagneLlc lnducLlon
23. laradays law of lnducLlon
24. lllLer ClrculL
23. Craph (MaLhemaLlcs)
26. Pandshaklng Lemma
27. Hookes law
28. lnducLor
29. lnformaLlon LnLropy
30. l Address
31. Kirchhoffs Current Law
32. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law
33. Law of ConservaLlon of Lnergy
34. Law of conservaLlon of MomenLum
33. Lenz Law
36. Llnear congruenLlal generaLor
37. LorenLz lorce
38. Merge SorL
39. Newtons Second law of motion
40. Nortons Theorem
41. Chms Law.
42. Cnlon 8ouLlng
43. CSl Model
44. arallel laLe CapaclLor wlLh or wlLhouL dlelecLrlcs
43. ermuLaLlons
46. reclslon of lnformaLlon reLrleval sysLem
47. ubllc key CrypLography
48. p-n [uncLlon/dlode
49. 8ecall of lnformaLlon reLrleval sysLem
30. 8eslsLance ln arallel
31. 8eslsLance ln Serles
32. 8LC Serles ClrculL
33. Seven 8rldges of knlgsberg
34. Spannlng 1ree
33. SLaLlc or klneLlc frlcLlon
36. SLaLlc 8eam LquaLlon
37. Stokes law (Frictional force or drag on spherical body)
38. SymmeLrlc CrypLography
39. 1C Model
60. 1emperaLure uependence of reslsLlvlLy
61. 1hermlsLor
62. 1hevenln's Lheorem
63. 1ransfer ConLrol roLocol
64. 1ree (Craph 1heory)
63. WheaLsLone 8rldge

L|st of Lng|neer|ng-re|ated Concepts and Assoc|ated Mathemat|cs:
1. Adapt|ve Contro|
a. Adapt|ve contro| ls Lhe conLrol meLhod used by a conLroller whlch musL adapL Lo a conLrolled sysLem
wlLh parameLers whlch vary, or are lnlLlally uncerLaln. lor example, as an alrcrafL flles, lLs mass wlll
slowly decrease as a resulL of fuel consumpLlon, a conLrol law ls needed LhaL adapLs lLself Lo such
changlng condlLlons. AdapLlve conLrol ls dlfferenL from robusL conLrol ln LhaL lL does noL need a prlorl
lnformaLlon abouL Lhe bounds on Lhese uncerLaln or Llme-varylng parameLers, robusL conLrol
guaranLees LhaL lf Lhe changes are wlLhln glven bounds Lhe conLrol law need noL be changed, whlle
adapLlve conLrol ls concerned wlLh conLrol law changes Lhemselves.
b. ClasslflcaLlon of AdapLlve ConLrol 1echnlques:
c. ln general one should dlsLlngulsh beLween:
l. leedforward AdapLlve ConLrol
ll. leedback AdapLlve ConLrol
2. Art|f|c|a| Neuron
3. Asymptot|c Notat|on
a. means
l. ln words, Lhere exlsL consLanLs k>0 and n0>0 such LhaL |f(n)|<=k*|g(n)| for all n>n0
b. means
l. ln words, Lhere exlsL consLanLs k>0 and n0>0 such LhaL |f(n)|>=k*|g(n)| for all n>n0
c. means
l. f(n) ls bounded boLh above and below g(n) by a consLanL facLor as n geLs large
4. 8e||man-Iord A|gor|thm
a. An algorlLhm for flndlng Lhe shorLesL paLh ln a graph
b. Pas appllcaLlons ln rouLlng slnce lL can be dlsLrlbuLed.
S. Bernoullis principle
a. AppllcaLlon ln venLure MeLers
6. 8|nary Search
a. 8lnary search ls performed on a sorLed array of numbers.
b. A posslble funcLlon deflnlLlon ls blnarySearch(A, p, q, key)
l. A ls Lhe array
ll. p ls Lhe sLarL lndex
lll. q ls Lhe end lndex
lv. key ls Lhe key Lo flnd
c. 1he lnlLlal call ls blnarySearch(A, 0, A.lengLh-1, key)
d. 1he algorlLhm works llke Lhls. lrom Lhe array, plck Lhe mlddle value and compare Lhe key Lo Lhe mlddle
value. lf Lhe key ls less Lhan Lhe mlddle value, conLlnue blnary search on Lhe upper half of Lhe array, lf
Lhe key ls greaLer Lhan Lhe mlddle value, conLlnue Lhe search on Lhe lower parL of Lhe array. lf Lhe key ls
found, reLurn Lhe lndex of where Lhe key was found.
e. 8lnary Search can be lmplemenLed recurslvely or lLeraLlvely.
7. 8|ot-Savart Law
a. 1he 8loLSavarL law ls an equaLlon ln elecLromagneLlsm LhaL descrlbes Lhe magneLlc fleld 8 generaLed by
an elecLrlc currenL. 1he vecLor fleld 8 depends on Lhe magnlLude, dlrecLlon, lengLh, and proxlmlLy of Lhe
elecLrlc currenL, and also on a fundamenLal consLanL called Lhe magneLlc consLanL. 1he law ls valld ln Lhe
magneLosLaLlc approxlmaLlon, and resulLs ln a 8 fleld conslsLenL wlLh boLh Ampere's clrculLal law and
Causs's law for magneLlsm.
b. 1he 8loLSavarL law ls used Lo compuLe Lhe magneLlc fleld generaLed by a sLeady currenL, l.e. a conLlnual
flow of charges, for example Lhrough a wlre, whlch ls consLanL ln Llme and ln whlch charge ls nelLher
bulldlng up nor depleLlng aL any polnL. 1he equaLlon ln Sl unlLs ls
d. or, equlvalenLly,
f. where
g. ! ls Lhe currenL,
h. "| ls a vecLor, whose magnlLude ls Lhe lengLh of Lhe dlfferenLlal elemenL of Lhe wlre, and whose dlrecLlon
ls Lhe dlrecLlon of convenLlonal currenL,
l. 8 ls Lhe neL magneLlc fleld,
ls Lhe magneLlc consLanL,
k. ls Lhe dlsplacemenL unlL vecLor ln Lhe dlrecLlon polnLlng from Lhe wlre elemenL Lowards Lhe polnL aL
whlch Lhe fleld ls belng compuLed, and
l. ls Lhe full dlsplacemenL vecLor from Lhe wlre elemenL Lo Lhe polnL aL whlch Lhe fleld ls belng
m. All Lhe quanLlLles wrlLLen ln bo|dface are vectors.
8. 8readth I|rst Search
a. A Lree search LhaL searches ln order by level of Lhe Lree
9. 8u||d|ng Automat|on
a. 8u||d|ng automat|on descrlbes Lhe funcLlonallLy provlded by Lhe conLrol sysLem of a bulldlng. A bulldlng
auLomaLlon sysLem (8AS) ls an example of a dlsLrlbuLed conLrol sysLem. 1he conLrol sysLem ls a
compuLerlzed, lnLelllgenL neLwork of elecLronlc devlces, deslgned Lo monlLor and conLrol Lhe mechanlcal
and llghLlng sysLems ln a bulldlng.
b. 8AS core funcLlonallLy keeps Lhe bulldlng cllmaLe wlLhln a speclfled range, provldes llghLlng based on an
occupancy schedule, and monlLors sysLem performance and devlce fallures and provldes emall and/or
LexL noLlflcaLlons Lo bulldlng englneerlng sLaff. 1he 8AS funcLlonallLy reduces bulldlng energy and
malnLenance cosLs when compared Lo a non-conLrolled bulldlng. A bulldlng conLrolled by a 8AS ls ofLen
referred Lo as an lnLelllgenL bulldlng sysLem.
c. !"#$%&' 8lock dlagram of 8ulldlng AuLomaLlon SysLem
10. Capac|tor
a. A capaclLor (formerly known as condenser) ls a passlve Lwo-Lermlnal elecLrlcal componenL used Lo sLore
energy ln an elecLrlc fleld. 1he forms of pracLlcal capaclLors vary wldely, buL all conLaln aL leasL Lwo
elecLrlcal conducLors separaLed by a dlelecLrlc (lnsulaLor). CapaclLors used as parLs of elecLrlcal sysLems,
for example, conslsL of meLal folls separaLed by a layer of lnsulaLlng fllm.
b. When Lhere ls a poLenLlal dlfference (volLage) across Lhe conducLors, a sLaLlc elecLrlc fleld develops
across Lhe dlelecLrlc, causlng poslLlve charge Lo collecL on one plaLe and negaLlve charge on Lhe oLher
plaLe. Lnergy ls sLored ln Lhe elecLrosLaLlc fleld. An ldeal capaclLor ls characLerlzed by a slngle consLanL
value, capaclLance, measured ln farads. 1hls ls Lhe raLlo of Lhe elecLrlc charge on each conducLor Lo Lhe
poLenLlal dlfference beLween Lhem.
c. 1he capaclLance ls greaLesL when Lhere ls a narrow separaLlon beLween large areas of conducLor, hence
capaclLor conducLors are ofLen called "plaLes," referrlng Lo an early means of consLrucLlon. ln pracLlce,
Lhe dlelecLrlc beLween Lhe plaLes passes a small amounL of leakage currenL and also has an elecLrlc fleld
sLrengLh llmlL, resulLlng ln a breakdown volLage, whlle Lhe conducLors and leads lnLroduce an undeslred
lnducLance and reslsLance.
d. CapaclLors are wldely used ln elecLronlc clrculLs for blocklng dlrecL currenL whlle allowlng alLernaLlng
currenL Lo pass, ln fllLer neLworks, for smooLhlng Lhe ouLpuL of power supplles, ln Lhe resonanL clrculLs
LhaL Lune radlos Lo parLlcular frequencles and for many oLher purposes.
e. 1heory of Cperat|on:
f. A capaclLor conslsLs of Lwo conducLors separaLed by a non-conducLlve reglon. 1he non-conducLlve
reglon ls called Lhe dlelecLrlc or someLlmes Lhe dlelecLrlc medlum. ln slmpler Lerms, Lhe dlelecLrlc ls [usL
an elecLrlcal lnsulaLor. Lxamples of dlelecLrlc medlums are glass, alr, paper, vacuum, and even a
semlconducLor depleLlon reglon chemlcally ldenLlcal Lo Lhe conducLors. A capaclLor ls assumed Lo be
self-conLalned and lsolaLed, wlLh no neL elecLrlc charge and no lnfluence from any exLernal elecLrlc fleld.
1he conducLors Lhus hold equal and opposlLe charges on Lhelr faclng surfaces, and Lhe dlelecLrlc
develops an elecLrlc fleld. ln Sl unlLs, a capaclLance of one farad means LhaL one coulomb of charge on
each conducLor causes a volLage of one volL across Lhe devlce.
g. 1he capaclLor ls a reasonably general model for elecLrlc flelds wlLhln elecLrlc clrculLs. An ldeal capaclLor
ls wholly characLerlzed by a consLanL capaclLance C, deflned as Lhe raLlo of charge C on each conducLor
Lo Lhe volLage v beLween Lhem:
l. SomeLlmes charge bulld-up affecLs Lhe capaclLor mechanlcally, causlng lLs capaclLance Lo vary. ln Lhls
case, capaclLance ls deflned ln Lerms of lncremenLal changes:
11. Cap|||ary k|se
a. Lhe ablllLy of a llquld Lo flow agalnsL gravlLy where llquld sponLaneously rlses ln a narrow space such as a
Lhln Lube, or ln porous maLerlals such as paper or ln some non-porous maLerlals such as llquefled carbon
b. 1he helghL # of a llquld column ls glven by
d. where gamma ls Lhe llquld-alr surface Lenslon (force/unlL lengLh), LheLa ls Lhe conLacL angle, rho ls Lhe
denslLy of llquld (mass/volume), g ls local gravlLaLlonal fleld sLrengLh (force/unlL mass), and r ls radlus of
Lube (lengLh).
12. Ce||s or 8atter|es |n Ser|es and para||e|
a. 1he volLage of baLLerles ln serles ls Lhe sum of Lhe volLages
13. Centr|peta| acce|erat|on |n a str|ng
a. l= mv
14. Comb|nat|ons
1S. Contro| 1heory
a. ConLrol Lheory ls an lnLerdlsclpllnary branch of englneerlng and maLhemaLlcs LhaL deals wlLh Lhe
behavlor of dynamlcal sysLems. 1he deslred ouLpuL of a sysLem ls called Lhe reference. When one or
more ouLpuL varlables of a sysLem need Lo follow a cerLaln reference over Llme, a conLroller manlpulaLes
Lhe lnpuLs Lo a sysLem Lo obLaln Lhe deslred effecL on Lhe ouLpuL of Lhe sysLem.
b. 1he usual ob[ecLlve of conLrol Lheory ls Lo calculaLe soluLlons for Lhe proper correcLlve acLlon from Lhe
conLroller LhaL resulL ln sysLem sLablllLy, LhaL ls, Lhe sysLem wlll hold Lhe seL polnL and noL osclllaLe
around lL.

d. !"#$%&' 1he concepL of Lhe feedback loop Lo conLrol Lhe dynamlc behavlor of Lhe sysLem: Lhls ls negaLlve
feedback, because Lhe sensed value ls subLracLed from Lhe deslred value Lo creaLe Lhe error slgnal,
whlch ls ampllfled by Lhe conLroller.
e. ConLrol Lheory ls
l. a Lheory LhaL deals wlLh lnfluenclng Lhe behavlor of dynamlcal sysLems
||. an lnLerdlsclpllnary subfleld of sclence, whlch orlglnaLed ln englneerlng and maLhemaLlcs, and
evolved lnLo use by Lhe soclal sclences, llke psychology, soclology, crlmlnology and ln flnanclal
f. ConLrol sysLems can be LhoughL of as havlng four funcLlons, Measure, Compare, CompuLe, and CorrecL.
1hese four funcLlons are compleLed by flve elemenLs, ueLecLor, 1ransducer, 1ransmlLLer, ConLroller, and
llnal ConLrol LlemenL. 1he measurlng funcLlon ls compleLed by Lhe deLecLor, Lransducer and LransmlLLer.
ln pracLlcal appllcaLlons Lhese Lhree elemenLs are Lyplcally conLalned ln one unlL. A sLandard example ls
a 8eslsLance LhermomeLer. 1he compare and compuLer funcLlons are compleLed wlLhln Lhe conLroller
whlch may be compleLed elecLronlcally Lhrough a roporLlonal ConLrol, l ConLroller, lu ConLroller,
8lsLable, PysLereLlc conLrol or rogrammable loglc conLroller. 1he correcL funcLlon ls compleLed wlLh a
flnal conLrol elemenL. 1he flnal conLrol elemenL changes an lnpuL or ouLpuL ln Lhe conLrol sysLem whlch
affecLs Lhe manlpulaLed or conLrolled varlable.
g. An examp|e:
h. Conslder a car's crulse conLrol, whlch ls a devlce deslgned Lo malnLaln vehlcle speed aL a consLanL
deslred or reference speed provlded by Lhe drlver. 1he conLroller ls Lhe crulse conLrol, Lhe planL ls Lhe
car, and Lhe sysLem ls Lhe car and Lhe crulse conLrol. 1he sysLem ouLpuL ls Lhe car's speed, and Lhe
conLrol lLself ls Lhe englne's LhroLLle poslLlon whlch deLermlnes how much power Lhe englne generaLes.
l. A prlmlLlve way Lo lmplemenL crulse conLrol ls slmply Lo lock Lhe LhroLLle poslLlon when Lhe drlver
engages crulse conLrol. Powever, lf Lhe crulse conLrol ls engaged on a sLreLch of flaL road, Lhen Lhe car
wlll Lravel slower golng uphlll and fasLer when golng downhlll. 1hls Lype of conLroller ls called an open-
loop conLroller because no measuremenL of Lhe sysLem ouLpuL (Lhe car's speed) ls used Lo alLer Lhe
conLrol (Lhe LhroLLle poslLlon.) As a resulL, Lhe conLroller cannoL compensaLe for changes acLlng on Lhe
car, llke a change ln Lhe slope of Lhe road.
[. ln a c|osed-|oop contro| system, a sensor monlLors Lhe sysLem ouLpuL (Lhe car's speed) and feeds Lhe
daLa Lo a conLroller whlch ad[usLs Lhe conLrol (Lhe LhroLLle poslLlon) as necessary Lo malnLaln Lhe deslred
sysLem ouLpuL (maLch Lhe car's speed Lo Lhe reference speed.) now when Lhe car goes uphlll Lhe
decrease ln speed ls measured, and Lhe LhroLLle poslLlon changed Lo lncrease englne power, speedlng
Lhe vehlcle. leedback from measurlng Lhe car's speed has allowed Lhe conLroller Lo dynamlcally
compensaLe for changes Lo Lhe car's speed. lL ls from Lhls feedback LhaL Lhe paradlgm of Lhe conLrol loop
arlses: Lhe conLrol affecLs Lhe sysLem ouLpuL, whlch ln Lurn ls measured and looped back Lo alLer Lhe
k. C|osed Loop 1ransfer Iunct|on:
l. 1he ouLpuL of Lhe sysLem y(L) ls fed back Lhrough a sensor measuremenL l Lo Lhe reference value r(L).
1he conLroller C Lhen Lakes Lhe error e (dlfference) beLween Lhe reference and Lhe ouLpuL Lo change Lhe
lnpuLs u Lo Lhe sysLem under conLrol . 1hls ls shown ln Lhe flgure. 1hls klnd of conLroller ls a closed-loop
conLroller or feedback conLroller.
m. 1hls ls called a slngle-lnpuL-slngle-ouLpuL (SlSC) conLrol sysLem, MlMC (l.e. MulLl-lnpuL-MulLl-CuLpuL)
sysLems, wlLh more Lhan one lnpuL/ouLpuL, are common. ln such cases varlables are represenLed
Lhrough vecLors lnsLead of slmple scalar values. lor some dlsLrlbuLed parameLer sysLems Lhe vecLors
may be lnflnlLe-dlmenslonal (Lyplcally funcLlons).
o. lf we assume Lhe conLroller C, Lhe planL , and Lhe sensor l are llnear and Llme-lnvarlanL (l.e.: elemenLs
of Lhelr Lransfer funcLlon C(s), (s), and l(s) do noL depend on Llme), Lhe sysLems above can be analyzed
uslng Lhe Laplace Lransform on Lhe varlables. 1hls glves Lhe followlng relaLlons:
s. Solvlng for %(&) ln Lerms of '(&) glves:
u. 1he expresslon ls referred Lo as Lhe ()*&+",)**- ./01&2+/ 231(.4*1
of Lhe sysLem. 1he numeraLor ls Lhe forward (open-loop) galn from / Lo 5, and Lhe denomlnaLor ls one
plus Lhe galn ln golng around Lhe feedback loop, Lhe so-called loop galn. lf , l.e. lL
has a large norm wlLh each value of &, and lf , Lhen %6&7 ls approxlmaLely equal Lo '6&7 and
Lhe ouLpuL closely Lracks Lhe reference lnpuL.
16. Coulombs Law
l=k q
17. Depth I|rst Search
a. When Lraverslng a Lree, vlslL all chlld nodes before Lraverslng Lhe vlslLed node
b. seudocode
18. D|fferent Comb|nat|on of Inductors
a. arallel or Serles
19. D|fferent comb|nat|ons of Capac|tors
a. arallel or Serles
20. Dijkstras Algorithm
a. lL ls a shorLesL paLh algorlLhm
b. 8equlres knowlng enLlre sLrucLure of a graph before applylng
21. De Morgan Laws
22. L|ectromagnet|c |nduct|on
a. AppllcaLlon ln generaLors
23. Iaradays |aw of Induct|on
a. Faraday's law is applicable to a closed circuit made of thin wire and states that: 1he |nduced
e|ectromot|ve force (LMI) |n any c|osed c|rcu|t |s equa| to the t|me rate of change of the magnet|c f|ux
through the c|rcu|t.
b. Or alternatively: 1he LMI generated |s proport|ona| to the rate of change of the magnet|c f|ux
c. LMl ls deflned as Lhe energy avallable per unlL charge LhaL Lravels once around Lhe wlre loop (Lhe unlL
of LMl ls Lhe volL). LqulvalenLly, lL ls Lhe volLage LhaL would be measured by cuLLlng Lhe wlre Lo creaLe
an open clrculL, and aLLachlng a volLmeLer Lo Lhe leads

e. Where: L ls Lhe elecLrlc fleld , 8 ls Lhe magneLlc flux denslLy.
24. I||ter C|rcu|t
a. LlecLronlc fllLers are elecLronlc clrculLs whlch perform slgnal processlng funcLlons, speclflcally Lo remove
unwanLed frequency componenLs from Lhe slgnal, Lo enhance wanLed ones, or boLh. LlecLronlc fllLers
can be:
l. passlve or acLlve
ll. analog or dlglLal
lll. hlgh-pass, low-pass, bandpass, band-re[ecL (band re[ecL, noLch), or all-pass.
lv. dlscreLe-Llme (sampled) or conLlnuous-Llme
v. llnear or non-llnear
vl. lnflnlLe lmpulse response (ll8 Lype) or flnlLe lmpulse response (ll8 Lype)
b. ass|ve I||ters
c. asslve lmplemenLaLlons of llnear fllLers are based on comblnaLlons of reslsLors (8), lnducLors (L) and
capaclLors (C). 1hese Lypes are collecLlvely known as passlve fllLers, because Lhey do noL depend upon
an exLernal power supply and/or Lhey do noL conLaln acLlve componenLs such as LranslsLors.
d. lnducLors block hlgh-frequency slgnals and conducL low-frequency slgnals, whlle capaclLors do Lhe
reverse. A fllLer ln whlch Lhe slgnal passes Lhrough an lnducLor, or ln whlch a capaclLor provldes a paLh
Lo ground, presenLs less aLLenuaLlon Lo low-frequency slgnals Lhan hlgh-frequency slgnals and ls a low-
pass fllLer. lf Lhe slgnal passes Lhrough a capaclLor, or has a paLh Lo ground Lhrough an lnducLor, Lhen Lhe
fllLer presenLs less aLLenuaLlon Lo hlgh-frequency slgnals Lhan low-frequency slgnals and ls a hlgh-pass
fllLer. 8eslsLors on Lhelr own have no frequency-selecLlve properLles, buL are added Lo lnducLors and
capaclLors Lo deLermlne Lhe Llme-consLanLs of Lhe clrculL, and Lherefore Lhe frequencles Lo whlch lL
e. 1he lnducLors and capaclLors are Lhe reacLlve elemenLs of Lhe fllLer. 1he number of elemenLs deLermlnes
Lhe order of Lhe fllLer. ln Lhls conLexL, an LC Luned clrculL belng used ln a band-pass or band-sLop fllLer ls
consldered a slngle elemenL even Lhough lL conslsLs of Lwo componenLs.
f. AL hlgh frequencles (above abouL 100 megaherLz), someLlmes Lhe lnducLors conslsL of slngle loops or
sLrlps of sheeL meLal, and Lhe capaclLors conslsL of ad[acenL sLrlps of meLal. 1hese lnducLlve or capaclLlve
pleces of meLal are called sLubs.
g. S|ng|e L|ement 1ypes:
h. asslve lmplemenLaLlons of llnear fllLers are based on comblnaLlons of reslsLors (8), lnducLors (L) and
capaclLors (C). 1hese Lypes are collecLlvely known as passlve fllLers, because Lhey do noL depend upon
an exLernal power supply and/or Lhey do noL conLaln acLlve componenLs such as LranslsLors.
l. ( *"+,&%' An L fllLer conslsLs of Lwo reacLlve elemenLs, one ln serles and one ln parallel
k. A low-pass elecLronlc fllLer reallzed by an 8C clrculL
l. T and filters:
m. 1hree-element filters can have a 'T' or '' topology and in geometries, a low-pass, hlgh-pass, band-pass,
or band-sLop characLerlsLlc ls posslble. 1he componenLs can be chosen symmeLrlc or noL, dependlng on
Lhe requlred frequency characLerlsLlcs. 1he hlgh-pass 1 fllLer ln Lhe lllusLraLlon has very low lmpedance
aL hlgh frequencles, and very hlgh lmpedance aL low frequencles. 1haL means LhaL lL can be lnserLed ln a
Lransmlsslon llne, resulLlng ln Lhe hlgh frequencles belng passed and low frequencles belng reflecLed.
Llkewlse, for Lhe lllusLraLed low-pass filter, the circuit can be connected to a transmission line,
LransmlLLlng low frequencles and reflecLlng hlgh frequencles. uslng m-derlved fllLer secLlons wlLh correcL
LermlnaLlon lmpedances, Lhe lnpuL lmpedance can be reasonably consLanL ln Lhe pass band.

Plgh-pass 1 fllLer Low-pass filLer
2S. Graph (Mathemat|cs)
a. A graph ls an absLracL represenLaLlon of ob[ecLs connecLed wlLh llnks. 1he ob[ecLs are called verLlces and
Lhe llnks are called edges. Ldges may be dlrecLed or undlrecLed.
26. nandshak|ng Lemma
a. 8ased on Lhe degree sum formula
c. SLaLes LhaL every flnlLe undlrecLed graph has an even number of verLlces whlch have an odd degree
27. Hookes law
a. l= consLanL of proporLlonallLy x dlsplacemenL
28. Inductor
a. An lnducLor (or reacLor or coll) ls a passlve Lwo-Lermlnal elecLrlcal componenL used Lo sLore energy ln a
magneLlc fleld. An lnducLor's ablllLy Lo sLore magneLlc energy ls measured by lLs lnducLance, ln unlLs of
henrles. Any conducLor has lnducLance (see "SLralghL wlre conducLor" equaLlon below) alLhough Lhe
conducLor ls Lyplcally wound ln loops Lo relnforce Lhe magneLlc fleld.
b. uue Lo Lhe Llme-varylng magneLlc fleld lnslde Lhe coll, a volLage ls lnduced, accordlng Lo laraday's law of
elecLromagneLlc lnducLlon, whlch by Lenz's Law opposes Lhe change ln currenL LhaL creaLed lL. lnducLors
are one of Lhe baslc componenLs used ln elecLronlcs where currenL and volLage change wlLh Llme, due Lo
Lhe ablllLy of lnducLors Lo delay and reshape alLernaLlng currenLs. lnducLors called chokes are used as
parLs of fllLers ln power supplles or can be used Lo block AC slgnals from passlng Lhrough a clrculL.
c. 1he effecL of an lnducLor ln a clrculL ls Lo oppose changes ln currenL Lhrough lL by developlng a volLage
across lL proporLlonal Lo Lhe raLe of change of Lhe currenL. An ldeal lnducLor would offer no reslsLance Lo
a consLanL dlrecL currenL, however, only superconducLlng lnducLors have Lruly zero elecLrlcal reslsLance.
d. 1he relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe Llme-varylng volLage v(L) across an lnducLor wlLh lnducLance L and Lhe
Llme-varylng currenL l(L) passlng Lhrough lL ls descrlbed by Lhe dlfferenLlal equaLlon:
f. When Lhere ls a slnusoldal alLernaLlng currenL (AC) Lhrough an lnducLor, a slnusoldal volLage ls lnduced.
1he ampllLude of Lhe volLage ls proporLlonal Lo Lhe producL of Lhe ampllLude (l) of Lhe currenL and Lhe
frequency (f) of Lhe currenL.
[. ln Lhls slLuaLlon, Lhe phase of the current lags that of the voltage by /2.
k. lf an lnducLor ls connecLed Lo a dlrecL currenL source wlLh value l vla a reslsLance 8, and Lhen Lhe currenL
source ls shorL-clrculLed, Lhe dlfferenLlal relaLlonshlp above shows LhaL Lhe currenL Lhrough Lhe lnducLor
wlll dlscharge wlLh an exponenLlal decay:
29. Informat|on Lntropy
30. I Address
a. l addresses are Lhe addresslng scheme used aL layer 3 of boLh Lhe 1C model and CSl Model
b. 1he 2 ma[or verslons of l are lv4 and lv6
c. lv4 ls (aL Lhe Llme of Lhls wrlLlng) Lhe mosL wldespread verslon lf l
l. Class A
ll. Class 8
lll. Class C
31. Kirchhoffs Current Law
a. This law is also called Kirchhoffs first law, Kirchhoffs point rule, Kirchhoffs junction rule (or nodal rule)
and Kirchhoffs first rule.
b. 1he prlnclple of conservaLlon of elecLrlc charge lmplles LhaL Lhe algebralc sum of currenLs ln a neLwork
of conducLors meeLlng aL a polnL ls zero.
c. 8ecalllng LhaL currenL ls a slgned (poslLlve or negaLlve) quanLlLy reflecLlng dlrecLlon Lowards or away
from a node, Lhls prlnclple can be sLaLed as:
e. n ls Lhe LoLal number of branches wlLh currenLs flowlng Lowards or away from Lhe node
32. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law
a. This law is also called Kirchhoffs second law, Kirchhoffs loop (or mesh) rule, and Kirchhoffs second rule.
b. 1he prlnclple of conservaLlon of energy lmplles LhaL
c. 1he dlrecLed sum of Lhe elecLrlcal poLenLlal dlfferences (volLage) around any closed clrculL ls zero.
d. or
e. More slmply, Lhe sum of Lhe emfs ln any closed loop ls equlvalenL Lo Lhe sum of Lhe poLenLlal drops ln
LhaL loop.
f. or
g. 1he algebralc sum of Lhe producLs of Lhe reslsLances of Lhe conducLors and Lhe currenLs ln Lhem ln a
closed loop ls equal Lo Lhe LoLal emf avallable ln LhaL loop.
h. Slmllarly Lo kCL, lL can be sLaLed as:
[. Pere, n ls Lhe LoLal number of volLages measured.
33. Law of Conservat|on of Lnergy
a. sLaLes LhaL Lhe LoLal amounL of energy ln an lsolaLed sysLem remalns consLanL over Llme (ls sald Lo be
conserved over Llme).
b. A consequence of Lhls law ls LhaL energy can nelLher be creaLed nor be desLroyed: lL can be Lransformed
from one form Lo anoLher or Lransferred from one place Lo anoLher.
34. Law of conservat|on of Momentum
a. Mass1 x veloclLy1 = Mass2 x veloclLy 2
3S. Lenz Law
a. Lenz's law ls a common way of undersLandlng how elecLromagneLlc clrculLs musL always obey newLon's
Lhlrd law and Energy. Lenzs law is named after Pelnrlch Lenz, and lL says:
b. An lnduced elecLromoLlve force (emf) always glves rlse Lo a currenL whose magneLlc fleld opposes Lhe
orlglnal change ln magneLlc flux.
c. Lenz's law ls shown wlLh Lhe mlnus slgn ln laraday's law of lnducLlon, whlch
lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe lnduced emf ( ) and the change in flux (B) have opposite signs.
36. L|near congruent|a| generator
a. A meLhod for generaLlng pseudorandom numbers
37. Lorentz Iorce
a. ln physlcs, Lhe LorenLz force ls Lhe force on a polnL charge due Lo elecLromagneLlc flelds. lL ls glven by
Lhe followlng equaLlon ln Lerms of Lhe elecLrlc and magneLlc flelds:
c. Where
d. I ls Lhe force (ln newLons)
e. L ls Lhe elecLrlc fleld (ln volLs per meLre)
f. 8 ls Lhe magneLlc fleld (ln Leslas)
g. 8 ls Lhe elecLrlc charge of Lhe parLlcle (ln coulombs)
h. v ls Lhe lnsLanLaneous veloclLy of Lhe parLlcle (ln meLres per second)
l. ls Lhe vecLor cross producL
[. All Lhe quanLlLles wrlLLen ln bo|dface are vectors.
k. 1he LorenLz force law has a close relaLlonshlp wlLh laraday's law of lnducLlon.
l. A poslLlvely charged parLlcle wlll be acceleraLed ln Lhe same llnear orlenLaLlon as Lhe L fleld, buL wlll
curve perpendlcularly Lo boLh Lhe lnsLanLaneous veloclLy vecLor v and Lhe 8 fleld accordlng Lo Lhe rlghL-
hand rule (ln deLall, lf Lhe Lhumb of Lhe rlghL hand polnLs along v and Lhe lndex flnger along 8, Lhen Lhe
mlddle flnger polnLs along l).
m. 1he Lerm qL ls called Lhe elecLrlc force, whlle Lhe Lerm qv 8 ls called Lhe magneLlc force. Accordlng Lo
some deflnlLlons, Lhe Lerm "LorenLz force" refers speclflcally Lo Lhe formula for Lhe magneLlc force, wlLh
Lhe LoLal elecLromagneLlc force (lncludlng Lhe elecLrlc force) glven some oLher (nonsLandard) name. 1hls
arLlcle wlll noL follow Lhls nomenclaLure: ln whaL follows, Lhe Lerm "LorenLz force" wlll refer only Lo Lhe
expresslon for Lhe LoLal force.
38. MergeSort
a. MergeSorL ls used Lo sorL an array of numbers
b. MergeSorL works by spllLLlng Lhe array lnLo 2 halves, recurslvely sorLlng each half, Lhen uslng a merge
subrouLlne Lo comblne Lhe arrays back LogeLher.
39. Newtons Second law of motion
a. l=Mass x AcceleraLlon or l= mass x d(veloclLy)/d(Llme)
40. Nortons Theorem
a. norLon's Lheorem for llnear elecLrlcal neLworks, known ln Lurope as Lhe MayernorLon Lheorem, sLaLes
LhaL any collecLlon of volLage sources, currenL sources, and reslsLors wlLh Lwo Lermlnals ls elecLrlcally
equlvalenL Lo an ldeal currenL source, l, ln parallel wlLh a slngle reslsLor, 8. lor slngle-frequency AC
sysLems Lhe Lheorem can also be applled Lo general lmpedances, noL [usL reslsLors. 1he norLon
equlvalenL ls used Lo represenL any neLwork of llnear sources and lmpedances, aL a glven frequency. 1he
clrculL conslsLs of an ldeal currenL source ln parallel wlLh an ldeal lmpedance (or reslsLor for non-reacLlve
41. Chms Law
a. 1he Chms Law sLaLes LhaL Lhe currenL Lhrough a conducLor beLween Lwo polnLs ls dlrecLly proporLlonal
Lo Lhe poLenLlal dlfference across Lhe Lwo polnLs and lnversely Lo Lhe reslsLance beLween Lhem.
b. 1he maLhemaLlcal equaLlon LhaL descrlbes Lhls relaLlonshlp ls:
42. Cn|on kout|ng
a. 8ouLlng refers Lo Lhe problem of deLermlnlng Lhe paLh neLwork packeLs Lake when Lravellng across a
b. Cnlon rouLlng occurs when each rouLer ln Lhe neLwork ls an onlon rouLer. Lach rouLer has a
publlc/prlvaLe key palr. Lach rouLer only knows 2 Lhlngs, where an lncomlng packeL came from and
where lL ls golng.
c. A sender determines the path across the network, then encrypts all packets with each routers public
key ln reverse.
d. Example of an onion below
43. CSI Mode|
a. When sendlng daLa lL Lravels down Lhe sLack and when belng recelved Lravels back up.
44. ara||e| |ate Capac|tor w|th or w|thout d|e|ectr|cs
a. CapaclLance, C=Charge on plaLe/oLenLlal dlfference beLween plaLes
4S. ermutat|ons
a. 1he number of k-permutat|ons of n |s
46. rec|s|on of Informat|on ketr|eva| System
47. ub||c key Cryptography
a. ln publlc key crypLography each user has a publlc key LhaL ls shared and a prlvaLe key. A user would
encrypL daLa wlLh hls/her prlvaLe key and send lL Lo anoLher user. 1he reclplenL would decrypL Lhe daLa
uslng Lhe senders publlc key.
b. A user can comblne his/her private key with the recipients public key (encrypting more than once) to
creaLe a secreL no one else can see.
48. p-n [unct|on]d|ode
a. A pn [uncLlon ls formed aL Lhe boundary beLween a -Lype and n-Lype semlconducLor creaLed ln a
slngle crysLal of semlconducLor by doplng, for example by lon lmplanLaLlon, dlffuslon of dopanLs, or by
eplLaxy (growlng a layer of crysLal doped wlLh one Lype of dopanL on Lop of a layer of crysLal doped wlLh
anoLher Lype of dopanL). lf Lwo separaLe pleces of maLerlal were used, Lhls would lnLroduce a graln
boundary beLween Lhe semlconducLors whlch severely lnhlblLs lLs uLlllLy by scaLLerlng Lhe elecLrons and
holes.[clLaLlon needed].
b. n [uncLlons are elemenLary "bulldlng blocks" of many semlconducLor elecLronlc devlces such as
dlodes, LranslsLors, solar cells, LLus, and lnLegraLed clrculLs, Lhey are Lhe acLlve slLes where Lhe
elecLronlc acLlon of Lhe devlce Lakes place. lor example, a common Lype of LranslsLor, Lhe blpolar
[uncLlon LranslsLor, conslsLs of Lwo pn [uncLlons ln serles, ln Lhe form npn or pnp.
-. ropert|es of p-n [unct|on'
d. 1he pn [uncLlon possesses some lnLeresLlng properLles whlch have useful appllcaLlons ln modern
elecLronlcs. A p-doped semlconducLor ls relaLlvely conducLlve. 1he same ls Lrue of an n-doped
semlconducLor, buL Lhe [uncLlon beLween Lhem can become depleLed of charge carrlers, and hence non-
conducLlve, dependlng on Lhe relaLlve volLages of Lhe Lwo semlconducLor reglons. 8y manlpulaLlng Lhls
non-conducLlve layer, pn [uncLlons are commonly used as dlodes: clrculL elemenLs LhaL allow a flow of
elecLrlclLy ln one dlrecLlon buL noL ln Lhe oLher (opposlLe) dlrecLlon. 1hls properLy ls explalned ln Lerms
of forward blas and reverse blas, where Lhe Lerm blas refers Lo an appllcaLlon of elecLrlc volLage Lo Lhe
pn [uncLlon.
e. Lqu|||br|um (zero b|as):
f. ln a pn [uncLlon, wlLhouL an exLernal applled volLage, an equlllbrlum condlLlon ls reached ln whlch a
poLenLlal dlfference ls formed across Lhe [uncLlon. 1hls poLenLlal dlfference ls called bullL-ln poLenLlal
g. AfLer [olnlng p-Lype and n-Lype semlconducLors, elecLrons near Lhe pn lnLerface Lend Lo dlffuse lnLo Lhe
p reglon. As elecLrons dlffuse, Lhey leave poslLlvely charged lons (donors) ln Lhe n reglon. Slmllarly, holes
near Lhe pn lnLerface begln Lo dlffuse lnLo Lhe n-Lype reglon leavlng flxed lons (accepLors) wlLh negaLlve
charge. 1he reglons nearby Lhe pn lnLerfaces lose Lhelr neuLrallLy and become charged, formlng Lhe
space charge reglon or depleLlon layer.
|. I|gure 1 I|gure A: A pn [unct|on |n therma| equ|||br|um w|th zero b|as vo|tage app||ed. L|ectrons and
ho|es concentrat|on are reported respect|ve|y w|th b|ue and red ||nes. Gray reg|ons are charge neutra|.
L|ght red zone |s pos|t|ve|y charged. L|ght b|ue zone |
k. 1he elecLrlc fleld creaLed by Lhe space charge reglon opposes Lhe dlffuslon process for boLh elecLrons
and holes. 1here are Lwo concurrenL phenomena: Lhe dlffuslon process LhaL Lends Lo generaLe more
space charge, and Lhe elecLrlc fleld generaLed by Lhe space charge LhaL Lends Lo counLeracL Lhe
llgure A: A pn [uncLlon ln
Lhermal equlllbrlum wlLh zero
blas volLage applled. LlecLrons
and holes concenLraLlon are
reporLed respecLlvely wlLh blue
and red llnes. Cray reglons are
charge neuLral. LlghL red zone
ls poslLlvely charged. LlghL blue
zone ls negaLlvely charged. 1he
elecLrlc fleld ls shown on Lhe
boLLom, Lhe elecLrosLaLlc force
on elecLrons and holes and Lhe
dlrecLlon ln whlch Lhe dlffuslon
Lends Lo move elecLrons and
dlffuslon. 1he carrler concenLraLlon proflle aL equlllbrlum ls shown ln flgure A wlLh blue and red llnes.
Also shown are Lhe Lwo counLerbalanclng phenomena LhaL esLabllsh equlllbrlum.
m. I|gure 2 I|gure 8: A pn [unct|on |n therma| equ|||br|um w|th zero b|as vo|tage app||ed. Under the
[unct|on, p|ots for the charge dens|ty, the e|ectr|c f|e|d and the vo|tage are reported.
n. 1he space charge reglon ls a zone wlLh a neL charge provlded by Lhe flxed lons (donors or accepLors) LhaL
have been lefL uncovered by ma[orlLy carrler dlffuslon. When equlllbrlum ls reached, Lhe charge denslLy
ls approxlmaLed by Lhe dlsplayed sLep funcLlon. ln facL, Lhe reglon ls compleLely depleLed of ma[orlLy
carrlers (leavlng a charge denslLy equal Lo Lhe neL doplng level), and Lhe edge beLween Lhe space charge
reglon and Lhe neuLral reglon ls qulLe sharp (see flgure 8, C(x) graph). 1he space charge reglon has Lhe
same magnlLude of charge on boLh sldes of Lhe pn lnLerfaces, Lhus lL exLends farLher on Lhe less doped
slde (Lhe n slde ln flgures A and 8).
o. Idea| D|odes:
p. 1he dlode equaLlon glves an expresslon for Lhe currenL Lhrough a dlode as a funcLlon of volLage. 1he
ldeal ulode Law, expressed as:
r. where:
l = Lhe neL currenL flowlng Lhrough Lhe dlode,
l0 = "dark saLuraLlon currenL", Lhe dlode leakage currenL denslLy ln Lhe absence of llghL,
v = applled volLage across Lhe Lermlnals of Lhe dlode,
q = absoluLe value of elecLron charge,
k = 8olLzmann's consLanL, and
1 = absoluLe LemperaLure (k).
s. 1he "dark saLuraLlon currenL" (l0) ls an exLremely lmporLanL parameLer whlch dlfferenLlaLes one dlode
from anoLher. l0 ls a measure of Lhe recomblnaLlon ln a devlce. A dlode wlLh a larger recomblnaLlon wlll
have a larger l0.
,. /0,& ,12,'
". 34 "5-%&26&6 26 7 "5-%&26&68 259
ll. 34 9&-%&26&6 26 :2,&%"2+ ;$2+",< "5-%&26&6.
u. AL 300k, k1/q = 23.83 mv, Lhe "Lhermal volLage".
49. keca|| of |nformat|on retr|eva| system
S0. kes|stance |n ara||e|
a. A clrculL ls parallel Lo anoLher clrculL or several clrculLs lf and only lf Lhey share common Lermlnals, l.e. lf
boLh Lhe branches Louch each oLher's endpolnLs. Pere ls an example:
c. 81, 82, and Lhe volLage source are all ln parallel. 1o prove Lhese facLs conslder Lhe Lop and boLLom parLs
of Lhe clrculL.
d. areas ln yellow are all connecLed LogeLher, as well as Lhe areas ln blue. So all Lhe branches have Lhe
same Lermlnals, whlch mean LhaL 81, 82, and Lhe source are all ln parallel.

lf we Lake Lhls dlscusslon of Lhe waLer flow analogy. LlecLrlc currenL can be seen as waLer and Lhe
conducLors as waLer plpes. SomeLhlng lnLeresLlng happens as Lhe currenL reaches Lhe common node of
reslsLors LhaL are connecLed ln parallel: Lhe LoLal currenL ls dlvlded lnLo Lhe parallel branches.
e. lor serles reslsLors Lo flnd Lhe LoLal reslsLance we slmply add Lhem LogeLher. lor parallel reslsLors lLs a
llLLle more compllcaLed. lnsLead we use Lhe followlng equaLlon:
g. Powever for Lhe case of only Lwo reslsLors we can use Lhe followlng slmpllfled form:
h. 1oLal arallel 8eslsLance
[. 71& ,0,2+ %&6"6,25-& 0* =2%2++&+>-055&-,&9 %&6"6,0%6 ?"++ 2+?2<6 @& +&66 ,125 ,1& %&6"6,25-& 0* 6:2++&6,
0* ,1& "59"A"9$2+ %&6"6,0%6.
S1. kes|stance |n Ser|es
a. A Ser|es of reslsLors means reslsLors connecLed end Lo end ln a llne.
b. 1hls means LhaL Lhe reslsLance for Lhe clrculL ls dlfferenL from any one reslsLor. 1ake Lwo reslsLors ln
serles ln a clrculL wlLh a volLage supply.
"9 1o flnd Lhe overall reslsLance of Lhe clrculL, add up Lhe lndlvldual reslsLances of Lhe each of Lhe reslsLors.
l.e. 6':';<'=7
e. When reslsLors are wlred ln serles, Lhe LoLal reslsLance ls Lhe sum of all Lhe lndlvldual reslsLances. lor an
explanaLlon of Lhls, see Lhls proof. So for Lhe reslsLor neLwork Lo Lhe rlghL, Lhe LoLal reslsLance, 8LoL, ls:
g. lf n ldenLlcal reslsLors are ln serles, Lhen Lhe LoLal reslsLance ls n Llmes Lhe reslsLance of Lhose ldenLlcal
reslsLors. 1hls ls useful when you wanL a slmple mulLlple of Lhe reslsLance.
1. B1&5 2 %&6"6,25-& "6 299&9 "5 6&%"&6 ?",1 0,1&%6C ,1& ,0,2+ %&6"6,25-& 2+?2<6 "5-%&26&6. 71& ,0,2+
%&6"6,25-& ?"++ ,1&%&*0%& @& :0%& ,125 ,1& #%&2,&6, A2+$& 0* %&6"6,0% =%&6&5,.
l. ln general Lhe expresslon for Lhe equlvalenL reslsLance ln serles ls glven by:
k. Where 8 equlvalenL ls Lhe sum of all n reslsLors ln serles. So lL really doesn'L maLLer how many reslsLors
Lhere are. lf reslsLors are seL up ln serles Lhey can be added up lnLo an equlvalenL reslsLance.
S2. kLC Ser|es C|rcu|t
a. An 8LC clrculL (or LC8 clrculL) ls an elecLrlcal clrculL conslsLlng of a reslsLor, an lnducLor, and a capaclLor,
connecLed ln serles or ln parallel. 1he 8LC parL of Lhe name ls due Lo Lhose leLLers belng Lhe usual
elecLrlcal symbols for reslsLance, lnducLance and capaclLance respecLlvely. 1he clrculL forms a harmonlc
osclllaLor for currenL and wlll resonaLe ln [usL Lhe same way as an LC clrculL wlll. 1he dlfference LhaL Lhe
presence of Lhe reslsLor makes ls LhaL any osclllaLlon lnduced ln Lhe clrculL wlll dle away over Llme lf lL ls
noL kepL golng by a source. 1hls effecL of Lhe reslsLor ls called damplng. Some reslsLance ls unavoldable
ln real clrculLs, even lf a reslsLor ls noL speclflcally lncluded as a componenL. A pure LC clrculL ls an ldeal
whlch really only exlsLs ln Lheory.
b. 1here are many appllcaLlons for Lhls clrculL. 1hey are used ln many dlfferenL Lypes of osclllaLor clrculL.
AnoLher lmporLanL appllcaLlon ls for Lunlng, such as ln radlo recelvers or Lelevlslon seLs, where Lhey are
used Lo selecL a narrow range of frequencles from Lhe amblenL radlo waves. ln Lhls role Lhe clrculL ls
ofLen referred Lo as a Luned clrculL. An 8LC clrculL can be used as a band-pass fllLer or a band-sLop fllLer.
1he Lunlng appllcaLlon, for lnsLance, ls an example of band-pass fllLerlng. 1he 8LC fllLer ls descrlbed as a
second-order clrculL, meanlng LhaL any volLage or currenL ln Lhe clrculL can be descrlbed by a second-
order dlfferenLlal equaLlon ln clrculL analysls.
c. 1he Lhree clrculL elemenLs can be comblned ln a number of dlfferenL Lopologles. All Lhree elemenLs ln
serles or all Lhree elemenLs ln parallel are Lhe slmplesL ln concepL and Lhe mosL sLralghLforward Lo
analyze. lf Lhe Lhree clrculL elemenLs (8LC) are connecLed ln serles, Lhe clrculL ls called 8LC serles clrculL.

8LC serles clrculL

V - Lhe volLage of Lhe power source
I - Lhe currenL ln Lhe clrculL
k - Lhe reslsLance of Lhe reslsLor
e. ln Lhls clrculL, Lhe Lhree componenLs are all ln serles wlLh Lhe volLage source. 1he governlng dlfferenLlal
equaLlon can be found by subsLlLuLlng lnLo klrchhoff's volLage law (kvL) Lhe consLlLuLlve equaLlon for
each of Lhe Lhree elemenLs. lrom kvL,
g. where are Lhe volLages across 8, L and C respecLlvely and ls Lhe Llme varylng volLage
from Lhe source. SubsLlLuLlng ln Lhe consLlLuLlve equaLlons,
l. lor Lhe case where Lhe source ls an unchanglng volLage, dlfferenLlaLlng and dlvldlng by L leads Lo Lhe
second order dlfferenLlal equaLlon:
k. 1hls can usefully be expressed ln a more generally appllcable form:
m. and are boLh ln unlLs of angular frequency. ls called Lhe neper frequency, or aLLenuaLlon, and
ls a measure of how fasL Lhe LranslenL response of Lhe clrculL wlll dle away afLer Lhe sLlmulus has been
removed. neper occurs ln Lhe name because Lhe unlLs can also be consldered Lo be nepers per second,
neper belng a unlL of aLLenuaLlon. ls Lhe angular resonance frequency.
n. lor Lhe case of Lhe serles 8LC clrculL Lhese Lwo parameLers are glven by:
o. &
p. A useful parameter is the damping factor, which is defined as the ratio of these two,
r. ln Lhe case of Lhe serles 8LC clrculL, Lhe damplng facLor ls glven by,
L. 1he value of Lhe damplng facLor deLermlnes Lhe Lype of LranslenL LhaL Lhe clrculL wlll exhlblL. Some
auLhors do noL use and call Lhe damplng facLor.
S3. Seven 8r|dges of kn|gsberg
b. eople wanLed Lo be able Lo vlslL each area of Lhe clLy and cross each brldge only once. Luler proved Lhls
ls lmposslble.
c. An Luler paLh ls a paLh ln a graph LhaL crosses each edge (Lhe brldges ln Lhls case) only once.
S4. Spann|ng 1ree
a. A spannlng Lree 1 of a connecLed undlrecLed graph C ls a Lree whlch conLalns all Lhe edges of C
SS. Stat|c or k|net|c fr|ct|on
a. f= (sLaLlc) x normal reacLlon or f= (relaLlve moLlon)x normal reacLlon
S6. Stat|c 8eam Lquat|on
S7. Stokes |aw (Ir|ct|ona| force or drag on spher|ca| body)
a. F= 6rv
b. = coefficient of viscosity
c. r=radlus of sphere
d. v=veloclLy of sphere Lhrough fluld
S8. Symmetr|c Cryptography
a. SymmeLrlc crypLography uses Lhe same key Lo encrypL as Lo decrypL
b. 1o encrypL a message M, perform L(M, key), where M ls Lhe message and key ls a secreL key
c. 1o decrypL a message LM, perform u(LM, key) where LM ls Lhe encrypLed message and key ls a secreL
d. noLe: L and u may be Lhe same funcLlon
S9. 1C Mode|
a. 8elow ls a dlagram of Lhe 1C model on Lhe rlghL and how lL compares Lo Lhe CSl model on Lhe lefL
b. When daLa ls senL lL Lravels down Lhe proLocol sLack Lhen when belng recelved Lravels back up.
60. 1emperature Dependence of res|st|v|ty
a. P T = P0 [1 + (>>0)]
61. 1herm|stor
a. A LhermlsLor ls a Lype of reslsLor whose reslsLance varles slgnlflcanLly wlLh LemperaLure, more so Lhan ln
sLandard reslsLors. 1he word ls a porLmanLeau of Lhermal and reslsLor. 1hermlsLors are wldely used as
lnrush currenL llmlLers, LemperaLure sensors, self-reseLLlng overcurrenL proLecLors, and self-regulaLlng
heaLlng elemenLs.
b. 1hermlsLors dlffer from reslsLance LemperaLure deLecLors (81u) ln LhaL Lhe maLerlal used ln a LhermlsLor
ls generally a ceramlc or polymer, whlle 81us use pure meLals. 1he LemperaLure response ls also
dlfferenL, 81us are useful over larger LemperaLure ranges, whlle LhermlsLors Lyplcally achleve a hlgher
precision within a limited temperature range [usually 90 C Lo 130 C].
c. Assumlng, as a flrsL-order approxlmaLlon, LhaL Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween reslsLance and LemperaLure ls
llnear, Lhen:
e. Where
f. ' = change ln reslsLance
g. > = change ln LemperaLure
h. ? = flrsL-order LemperaLure coefflclenL of reslsLance
l. 1hermlsLors can be classlfled lnLo Lwo Lypes, dependlng on Lhe slgn of k. lf k ls poslLlve, Lhe reslsLance
lncreases wlLh lncreaslng LemperaLure, and Lhe devlce ls called a poslLlve LemperaLure coefflclenL (1C)
LhermlsLor, or poslsLor. lf k ls negaLlve, Lhe reslsLance decreases wlLh lncreaslng LemperaLure, and Lhe
devlce ls called a negaLlve LemperaLure coefflclenL (n1C) LhermlsLor. 8eslsLors LhaL are noL LhermlsLors
are deslgned Lo have a k as close Lo one as close Lo zero as posslble(smallesL posslble k), so LhaL Lhelr
reslsLance remalns nearly consLanL over a wlde LemperaLure range.
[. lnsLead of Lhe LemperaLure coefflclenL k, someLlmes Lhe LemperaLure coefficient of resistance T (alpha
sub 1) ls used. lL ls deflned as[2]
n. 1hermlsLor Symbol
62. 1hven|n's theorem
a. ln clrculL Lheory, 1hevenln's Lheorem for llnear elecLrlcal neLworks sLaLes LhaL any comblnaLlon of
volLage sources, currenL sources, and reslsLors wlLh Lwo Lermlnals ls elecLrlcally equlvalenL Lo a slngle
volLage source v and a slngle serles reslsLor 8. lor slngle frequency AC sysLems Lhe Lheorem can also be
applled Lo general lmpedances, noL [usL reslsLors.
b. 1hls Lheorem sLaLes LhaL a clrculL of volLage sources and reslsLors can be converLed lnLo a 1hevenln
equlvalenL, whlch ls a slmpllflcaLlon Lechnlque used ln clrculL analysls. 1he 1hevenln equlvalenL can be
used as a good model for a power supply or baLLery (wlLh Lhe reslsLor represenLlng Lhe lnLernal
lmpedance and Lhe source represenLlng Lhe elecLromoLlve force). 1he clrculL conslsLs of an ldeal volLage
source ln serles wlLh an ldeal reslsLor.
63. 1ransfer Contro| rotoco|
a. 1C runs aL Lhe edges of Lhe neLwork, and ls layer 4 of boLh Lhe 1C and CSl model (noL Lo be confused
wlLh Lhe 1C model, 1C ls also parL of Lhe 1C model).
b. 1C ensures a loglcal end-Lo-end communlcaLlon beLween 2 compuLers connecLed by an unrellable
neLwork. 1here ls a 3 way handshake Lo lnlLlaLe Lhe connecLlon. AfLer LhaL Lhe sender sends messages
and Lhe recelver acknowledges packeLs. lf no acknowledgemenL ls senL afLer a LlmeouL perlod Lhe daLa ls
64. 1ree (Graph 1heory)
a. Any connecLed acycllc graph ls a Lree.
6S. Wheatstone 8r|dge
a. A WheaLsLone brldge ls an elecLrlcal clrculL used Lo measure an unknown elecLrlcal reslsLance by
balanclng Lwo legs of a brldge clrculL, one leg of whlch lncludes Lhe unknown componenL.