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INSTRUCTION MANUAL

for

REYNOLDS APPARATUS



OBJECTIVE :

To study different types of flow.

AIM :

To determine the Reynolds Number and hence the type of flow either laminar or turbulent.

INTRODUCTION :

From an engineering point of view, the many variables that affect the velocity profile cannot be
evaluated for all possible flow meters and for all pipe conditions. For this reason, steady flow and fully
developed flow profile as defined by a Newtonian, homogeneous fluid, are initially assumed. Co-efficient
can then be predicted with the dimensionless Reynolds number. This number has been found to be an
acceptable correlating parameter that combines the effect of viscosity, density and pipe line velocity.

THEORY :

CO-EFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE :

In Reynolds experiment, the ratio of inertia to viscous forces was observed to be dimensionless and related
to viscosity, average pipeline velocity and geometrically similar boundary conditions. For a homogeneous
Newtonian fluid, this dimensionless ratio is R, expressed as :

Re = DV


Where

= Density of fluid in kg/m
3


V = Average velocity of fluid flow in m/sec

D = Diameter of Glass tube

= Viscosity of fluid in Ns/m
2




Re < 2000 for Laminar flow

Re > 4000 for Turbulent flow.

Re 2100-4000 in Transition zone



When the dye filament wavers in the Reynolds experiment, it indicates critical state of flow and the
corresponding Reynolds Number is called the critical Reynolds number Re 2000, beyond which the flow
is in transition state and then becomes turbulent.

Depending upon the relative magnitudes of viscous and inertial forces, flow can occur in two different
manners. A streamline flow is defined as a line, which lies in the direction of flow at every point at a given
instant. Laminar flow is defined as a flow in which the streamlines need not be straight as the flow steady as
long as this criteria is fulfilled. This type of motion is also called streamline or viscous flow. If the Reynolds
number, the motion is generally found not to be laminar throughout the channel, Eddies generated in the
initial zone of instability spread rapidly through the fluid, thereby producing a disruption of the entire flow
pattern. The result is fluid turbulence superimposed upon the primary motion of translation, producing what
is called the turbulent flow.













DESCRIPTION :

The equipment consists of a glass tube with one end bell mouth entrance connected to the water tank. At the
other end of the glass tube a cock is provided to vary the rate of flow. Flow rate of water can be measured
with the help of Measuring cylinder and Stop Watch supplied with the set up. A capillary tube is introduced
centrally in the bell mouth. To this tube dye is fed from a small container placed at the top of the constant
head tank.

PROCEDURE :

1. Clean the apparatus and make all the tanks free from dust.
2. Close the drain valves provided.
3. Close the flow control valve given at the end of the test section i.e. Glass Tube.
4. Fill storage tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.
5. Prepare a dye solution (KMnO
4
) solution in clear water in a separate vessel. Close the control
valve for dye, given on the P.U. tubing. Put this solution in the dye vessel after ensuring that
there are not foreign particles in the solution.
6. Regulate minimum flow of water through test section with the help of given gate valve at the end
of the test section. Then adjust the flow of dye through capillary tube such that a fine color
thread is observed indicating laminar flow. Increase the flow through glass tube and observe the
color thread. If it is still straight the flow still remains to be in laminar region and if waviness
starts, it is the indication that the flow is not laminar.
7. Note down the discharge at which color thread starts moving in wavy form which corresponds to
Higher Critical Reynolds Number and Higher Critical Velocity. Increase the discharge still
further. The filament starts breaking indicating greater turbulence. Further increase in the
discharge will cause the flow to be turbulent, which is apparent with the diffusion of the dye with
the flowing water.

8. Now start decreasing the discharge. First diffusion will continue. Further decrease will decrease
diffusion. If the discharge is further reduced, a stage will be reached when the dye filament
becomes straight. This corresponds to Lower Critical Reynolds Number and Lower Critical
Velocity.
9. Measure the flow rate using the Measuring Cylinder and Stop Watch.
10. When the experiment is over, switch off the pump.
11. Switch off the power supply to the panel.
12. Drain water from the tanks with the help of the drain valves provided.

FORMULAE:

Reynolds Number, Re = DV


Kinematic Viscosity of Fluid, v =


=> Re = DV
V

Average Velocity of the Fluid, V = Q m/sec
A
Discharge, Q = Vo
t

OBSERVATIONS & CALCULATIONS :

DATA :

d = ID of the glass tube = 25 mm = 0.025 m

A = d
2
/ 4 = Cross sectional area of the tube = 0.00049 m

Kinematic Viscosity of water at 0 C = 1.792 x 10
-6
m
2
/sec
20 C = 1.006 x 10
-6
m
2
/sec
40 C = 0.657 x 10
-6
m
2
/sec
60 C = 0.478 x 10
-6
m
2
/sec


Re < 2100 for Laminar flow
Re > 4000 for Turbulent flow
Re 2100-4000 is Transition zone


OBSERVATION TABLE :


S. No. Volume, v
(ml)
Time taken for v, t
(sec)

1

2

3




CALCULATION TABLE :



S. No.
Velocity ,V
m/sec
Q
m
3
/sec
Re= V d / Observation of
the dye
(Type of flow)

1

2

3




NOMENCLATURE :

= Density of fluid in kg/m
3


= Viscosity of fluid in Ns/m
2


V = Average velocity of fluid flow in m/sec

Vo = Volume of water collected in measuring cylinder m
3


t = Time taken for v

A = Cross sectional area of the glass tube






PRECAUTIONS & MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS :

1. Conduct the experiment when the water gets stable.
2. Always keep the apparatus free from dust.
3. Always use clean water.
4. If the apparatus will not be in use for more than one month, drain the apparatus completely.

TROUBLE SHOOTING :

1. If the dye blocks the capillary tube and needle, remove the needle by disconnecting it from
capillary tube and pass air pressure through both of them.