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Turnitin Originality Report

Paper1 by Musa Alamour


From Paper 1 (OL 7001-8)
Processed on 27-Jul-2014 12:41 PM CDT
ID: 441388088
Word Count: 1587

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2
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Submitted to Higher Education Commission Pakistan on 2013-09-10
10
3% match (Internet from 14-Sep-2011)
http://www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/36_4_smith.pdf
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2% match (Internet from 13-Aug-2012)
http://beyondintractability.colorado.edu/booksummary/10403/
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http://www.upeace.org/system/capacity/pdf/2012/George%20Jeriko%20-
%20The%20Practices%20of%20Negotiation%20and%20Mediation.pdf
13
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paper text:
AmourMOL7001-8-5 DR Fox, Jeanne Conflict Resolution and Mediation Assignment 5 Assignment
5: Describe a work-related conflict Experience OL7001-8 Conflict Resolution and Mediation Al
Amour, Musa DR Fox, Jeanne NORTHVENTRAL UNIVERSITY Date July 26, 2014
13Introduction Conflict is any situation in which incompatible goals, attitudes,
emotions, or behaviors lead to disagreement or opposition between two or more
parties. In the organizations, the conflict is inevitable. 5Estimates suggest that
managers spend about 21 percent of their time dealing with conflict. Conflict
management skills are a major predictor of managerial success and are related
to emotional intelligence (EQ)2(Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)).
Conflict9can arise between co-workers, supervisors and subordinates or
employees and external stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers and
regulatory agencies. Managing conflict is a key management competency, and
all small business owners should study and practice effective conflict
management skills to maintain a positive workplace environment (Swan, J., &
Scarbrough, H. (2005)). 5Conflict causes categorized into structural factors and
personal factors. ? Structural Factors Structural factors include specialization,
interdependence, common resources, goal differences, authority relationships,
status inconsistencies, and jurisdictional ambiguities. Jurisdictional ambiguity
refers to unclear lines of responsibility in an organization. Such ambiguities may
increase with team and group work, when conflict arises from confusion over
group responsibilities (Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004)). ? 5Personal Factors
Personal factors include skills and abilities, personalities, perceptions, values
and ethics, emotions, communication barriers and cultural differences.
Communication barriers can be physical or value-related. The examples of conflict
are on the basis of types of conflicts. Below are the set of examples against the different kind of
issues: 1. Discriminative Issues: Discrimination is due to 4heated conflict, potentially
ending in legal trouble for a company or its owners. Discriminatory conflicts can
arise from personal prejudices on the part of employees or perceptions of
mistreatment of employees. Example of a discrimination-related conflict,
imagine a minority employee in a team setting which feels that he consistently
assigned the most menial work tasks in the group. This employee may begin to
harbor resentment against team members and managers, eventually lashing out
through decreased productivity or outright verbal conflict. To resolve this issue,
a manager could sit down with the whole team and discuss the way in which job
tasks are assigned, making changes as necessary to ensure that tasks divided
equitably2(Alper, S., Tjosvold, D., & Law, K. S. (2000)). 2. Personal Review Conflicts: It
is related to the performance issue of one employee on another employee. 3Employees may
become angry over not receiving expected pay raises promotions or other
performance-related incentives, and may lash out by spreading discontent
through gossip and a negative attitude at work (Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D.
(2005)). 3Employees may argue directly with supervisors during performance
reviews, creating sensitive situations that require tactful communication. To
resolve the conflict was arising from a negative performance review, work directly
with the employees to create a solid, time-bound plan of action to improve
performance, and tie the completion of these goals to guaranteed incentives.
Allow employees a voice when setting goals to increase their dedication to
achieving the goals. 3. Conflict with customers: Sales and customer service
employees can experience conflict with customers on a fairly regular basis,
depending on the industry. A common conflict experienced by salespeople is a
dissatisfied customer who feels personally defrauded by an individual salesperson
(Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). 6For example, if a car salesman sells a used car
without a performance guarantee or warranty and the car breaks down on the
buyer, the buyer may return to angrily confront the salesperson and demand a
refund. The best first step to solve these conflicts is to involve a manager who
has the right to offer refunds, discounts or other conciliatory gestures to the
customer unless you are in a situation where employees are empowered to
make these kinds of decisions. Mediation Process Conflicts can 1be avoided,
talked out, negotiated, arbitrated, adjudicated, resolved by legislation, by
political action, or by violent force (Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986)). Mediation
10defined as"an intervention in a standard negotiation or conflict of an acceptable
third party who has limited or no authoritative decision-making power but who
assists the involved parties in voluntarily reaching a mutually acceptable
settlement of issues in dispute." The mediator starts to collect data and information
from different resources relating to that conflict and utilize these data for the resolution. Types of
data to be collected and analyzed by mediator: Any conflict analysis and management
1begins with data collection directed by the mediator. In any process there are
various types of data to be collected and analyzed, below are the types of data and steps followed in
any mediation process (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)). ? 1Data collection methods
available include direct observations, consultations with secondary sources
such as maps, financial records, background check and interviews with the
involved parties. ? Interviews, joint sessions with the parties and brainstorming session to
have a win-win situation for all parties. ? The identification of all relevant parties is done and
1plan for the order and timing of the interviews, and plan for building rapport
with the parties done. ? Interviews can 1be focused or unfocused, structured or
non- structured, individual or joint. ? At the last the mediator decides what sort of
questions to ask in the interviews, and exercise good listening skills during the
interviews. Once the data is collected same needs to be analyzed and interpreted.
15The main task of the mediator is to integrate and understand the elements of
the dispute: people, dynamics, issues and interests. The methods used in the
integration of data are: ? Timelines ? Case studies Mediators 8develop an interpretation
of the conflict be separating unrealistic causes of the conflict from realistic
causes. Unrealistic causes include stereotypes, miscommunication, and
confusion over the facts, and inappropriate competitive behavior. Realistic
causes include competing interests, differing values, structural constraints, and
disagreement over the collection or importance of data. Once the above information
is gathered and identified then it becomes a part of the 12mediation plan. Mediation plan
is a sequence of procedural steps initiated by the intervener that will assist
negotiators in exploring and reaching an agreement2(Amabile, T., Conti, R.,
Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996)). A plan made in accordance with the parties
involved in the process as identified during interview sessions. The plan consists of the parties to be
involved in the negotiation, the place of negotiation and the physical arrangement for the negotiation
process. Example includes the 1interests and issues important to the parties, the
psychological conditions of the parties and the deadlocks issues among the same and the
ways to handle the same. 1Throughout the negotiation process, mediators work to
build trust and foster cooperation.1The mediator identifies the parties'
perceptions, assesses their accuracy assesses whether they help or hinder
negotiations, and then helps the parties revise their inaccurate or negative
perceptions.1Mediators encourage the parties to be clear and consistent, to
follow through promptly on their promises, to expose small vulnerabilities to the
other side, to accept penalties for breaches of faith and to refrain from making
threats.11The mediator must determine where the problem is occurring, and
then act to change the content, timing, setting, Manner, or agent of
communication as appropriate. Mediators must also be attentive to nonverbal
forms of communication and miscommunication (Vangen, S., & Huxham, C. (2003)).
1There are a number of factors which influence choice of mediation strategies.
They include the stage of the conflict and the parties' abilities to resolve their
dispute, the balance of power between the parties, which negotiation procedures
are being used, how complex the issues are, and what the parties expect from
the mediator. In crafting a mediation strategy, the mediator must decide on the
level, target and focus of intervention. The mediator decides whether to
concentrate on the level of general problem-solving or a specific issue (Vangen,
S., & Huxham, C. (2003)). Conclusion Handling conflicts and mediation process is very important in
any organization and any team. If the conflict is handled in the right manner then, it leads to
innovation among the team members, and it leads to growth of the team as a whole. Mediation
process enables the teams to resolve the issues and move to constructive measures of teamwork
References Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J. (2011) Interpersonal conflict. 7Abigail, R. A., & Cahn,
D. D. (2011) Managing conflict through communication. Articles 7de Wit, F. R.
C., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012, March). The paradox of intragroup conflict: A
meta-
analysis.7http://proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.asp
x?direct=true&db= pdh&AN=apl-97-2-360&site=ehost-live2Alper, S., Tjosvold, D.,
& Law, K. S. (2000). Conflict management, efficacy, and performance in
organizational teams. Personnel Psychology, 53, 625642. Amabile, T., Conti, R.,
Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996). Assessing the work environment for
creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 11541184.14Baron, R. M., &
Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social
psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical
considerations.2Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 11731182.
Chen, G., Liu, C., & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Conflict Management for Effective Top
Management Teams and Innovation in China. Journal of Management Studies,
42(2), 277300.2Moye, N., & Langfred, C. W. (2004). Information sharing and
group conflict: Going beyond decision making to understand the effects of
information sharing on group performance. The International Journal of Conflict
Management, 15, 381410. Swan, J., & 2Scarbrough, H. (2005). The politics of
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