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GCSE Biology Summary

Volume One - Life Processes and Green Plants


1. Transport and Water Relations in Plants
An overview of plant transport tissue
Xylem
Phloem
Water absorption by the root
Mineral absorption by the root
Water loss by the leaf
Passage of water through a leaf
Water movement through a plant
Measuring transpiration
The bubble potometer
Factors affecting transpiration
The purpouse of transpiration
The facts about Stoma
Sugar transport in plants
Radioactive tracing eperiments
!periments with Aphids
2. Movement and Growth
"ontrol of movement and growth #overview$
Tropic movements
Phototropism
%eotropism
&ydrotropism
%rowth at the shoot and root tips
Phototropism and Auins
'istribution of the hormone Auin
%eotropism and Auins
The commercial uses of Auins
3. Photosynthesis
An overview of the chemical process
The leaf
The cells involved in photosynthesis
"hloroplasts
The light reaction
The dar( reaction
Photosynthesis eperiments
'e)starching* de)colouring and testing
!periment to show chlorophyll is essential
!periment to show light is essential
!periment to show carbon dioide is essential
!periment to show oygen is produced
+ses of the products of photosynthesis
Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
,imiting factors
Photosynthesis and respiration
"ompensation point
4. Mineral nutrition in plants
Mineral nutrition in plants overview
Sachs and -nop bac(ground
Water culture eperiments
Phosphorous deficiency
"alcium deficiency
Sulphur deficiency
.itrogen deficiency
/ron deficiency
Magnesium deficiency
Potassium deficiency
Farming and nutrients
The effects of fertilisers
Fertilisers
/norganic and organic fertilisers
5. Osmosis
Substances entering and leaving plants
Passive processes
The cell membrane
0smosis
An eperiment to demonstrate osmosis
0smosis and plant cells
0smosis and animal cells
Active processes
The protein pump
6. n!ymes
An en1yme overview
!n1yme production
Factors affecting en1yme action
/nhibitors
Temperature
p&
!n1yme concentration
Substrate concentration
". #ells and $hromosomes
0verview #a somatic cell$
"hromosomes and genes
&omologous chromosomes
"hromosome number
'iploid
&aploid
"ell division
Stages of Mitosis
Stages of meiosis
%. &i'e pro$esses
%eneralised animal cells
%eneralised plant cells
!nergy production in the cell
"haracteristics of living things
Specialised plant cells
Specialised animal cells
Tissues organs and organ systems
An organ* the small intestine
0rgan systems
The organ systems of mammals

Volume Two - umans as Organisms
(. )utrition and *i+estion
!utrition
.utrients
Malnutrition
"arbohydrates
Proteins and Amino acids
Protein deficiencies
Fats
2itamins
2itamin deficiencies
Minerals
Mineral deficiencies
'ietary fibre
Water
"igestion
'igestive system
Mechanical 'igestion
Mouth and Teeth
"hemical 'igestion
!n1ymes
Saliva
Swallowing
Stomach ) peristalsis
Stomach ) digestive fluids
Mucus
Small /ntestine
,iver and %all 3ladder ) bile
Pancreas ) pancreatic 4uice
2illi
,arge /ntestine
Summaries of digestive process
Tables of digestive chemicals
2. #ir$ulation
Circulatory System
"apillaries
"ellular re5uirements
&eart as a pump
&eart6s valves
&eartbeat
Pulse
Pulmonary circulation
Summary
T#e eart
&eart as an organ
&eart structure
Atria and 2entricles
&eart6s muscle walls
"oronary system
Blood
Red blood cells
&aemoglobin and diffusion
Platelets
3lood clotting
White blood cells
Phagocytes
Phagocytosis
,ymphocytes
Antibodies
Antigens
Antitoins
Plasma
Substances within plasma
Blood Vessels
Aorta
Arteries
Regulation of blood flow
2eins
2ena cava
3. Respiration and ,reathin+
$es%iration
"ellular re5uirements
"onversion of food into energy
Aerobic respiration
Mitochondria
Anaerobic respiration
,actic acid and oygen debt
Breat#ing - T#e &ir Passages
,ungs
3ronchial structure
Alveoli
Protective mechanisms
"ough refle
Mucous membranes and cilia
Breat#ing - T#e 'ec#anics
Ribs and diaphragm
Thoracic cavity
/nspiration
!piration
Pleural membranes
3rain6s breathing centre
Breat#ing - "iffusion and Trans%ort of Gases
%as echange in lungs
'iffusion between alveoli and capillaries
&aemoglobin6s role in oygen supply to organs
!ffects of carbon monoide
4. #oordination and #ontrol
Coordination and Control
/ntroduction to .erves and &ormones
Stimulus)Response mechanism
!er(es - Pat#ways and $efle) arc
.eurones and nerve impulses
"entral nervous system
3rain
Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
Sensory and Motor nerves
.eurones and their structure
Synapses and .eurotransmitters
Refle Arc
!er(es - S%ecial Senses and T#e Eye
Sensory receptors
/nternal receptors and homeostasis
!ternal receptors and sensations
Sense organs
The !ar* .ose and Tongue
The !ye
!ye structure
2ision ) role of lens in focussing light
Rods and cones and optic nerve
ormones
!ndocrine glands
Pancreas
,oc( and (ey mechanism
Adrenaline
.egative feedbac( mechanism
Se) ormones
Pituitary gland
Testes and ovaries
Puberty
Menstrual cycle
0varian cycle
0estrogen and Progesterone
"ontraceptive pill
Sugar ormones
%lucose ) blood sugar level
Pancreas
/nsulin and %lucagon
'iabetes
5. Movement
S(eleton
3ones
7oints
"artilage* ligaments and tendons
Muscles
Antagonistic pairs
.erve impulses ) stimuli to muscles
6. Reprodu$tion
Male gametes #sperm$ and meiosis
Female gametes #ova$ and meiosis
Fertilisation
8ygote and mitosis
!mbryo
Placenta and amnion
Fetus
,abour
3irth
*. -omeostasis
omeostasis
'ynamic e5uilibrium
.ormal range for internal environment
.egative feedbac( mechanism
"ontrol centre* Sensor* !ffector
$ole of S+in - Body Tem%erature
S(in6s sensors ) monitoring eternal environment
S(in6s effectors ) regulating internal temperature
3rain6s control centre for temperature regulation
2asodilation and sweating
2asoconstriction and hair erector muscles
$ole of ,idneys - Le(el of Salts in Blood
Removal of waste
Filtration of blood
.ephrons ) structure and functions
+rinary system
+rine etraction
"oncentration of Salts in 3lood
'ialysis
Transplants
%. -ealth
Body "efences
/nfections
First)line defence mechanisms
Role of White blood cells
/mmunisation
"rugs
0rigins of drugs
Medicines
Antibiotics
'ependence and Addiction
/mmediate !ffects
,ong)term !ffects
Volume T#ree - Variation- .n#eritance and E(olution
(. volution
An overview of evolution
Special creation
!vidence for evolution
Fossils
&omologous and vestigial structures
"lassification
Selective breeding
%eographical distribution
"omparative embryology
"omparative biotechnology
3inomial .omenclature
2. The -ypothesis o' volution
'evelopment of the theory of evolution
"harles 'arwin
"ompetition for resources
.atural selection in action
'arwin6s finches
The eample of the Peppered moth
Antibiotic resistant bacteria
Speciation
Population structure
&eritable variation
Selection
The eample of the &awaiian &oney creepers
!tinction
Adaptation
3. .nheritan$e
%enes
'ominant and recessive alleles
Alleles during breeding
/nheritance of characteristics
%enetic diagrams
The Punnet s5uare
"ross breeding
Terms used in genetics
Parental generation
Monohybrid inheritance
3ac( crossing
The wor( of %regor Mendel
Analysis of Mendel6s numerical results
4. -uman Geneti$s
The inheritance of se
&uman blood groups
%enetic diseases in humans
%enetic counselling
Sic(le cell anaemia
&aemophilia
'own6s syndrome
Family trees
5. Populations
Material "overed
Factors affecting population growth
"arrying capacity
"hanges in population si1e
Predators and population si1e
Population simulation eercise
"ompetition and population si1e
Plant communities
&uman population
Age structure of populations
%eneration time
6. ner+y 'low and li'e $y$les
The biosphere
!cosystems
!cosystem communities
Food chains
Food webs
!nergy flow through food chains
9uantitative treatment of feeding relationships
Pyramids of number
Pyramids of biomass
Pyramids of energy
'ecomposers and recycling of nutrients
Preventing decay
The carbon cycle
The nitrogen cycle
3acteria and the nitrogen cycle
". -umans and the nvironment
Pollution from fossil fuels
"arbon dioide and the green house effect
Acid rain
'eforestation
01one layer
'amaging ecosystems
Toin accumulation
Artificial fertilisers
%. /ariation
Sources of variation
Types of variation
"ontinuous variation
'iscontinuous variation
Ac5uired characteristics
2ariation and evolution
0. ,iote$hnolo+y
Material "overed
Single cell protein
/ndustrial fermenters
Mycoprotein
!n1ymes
!n1yme production
+ses of en1ymes
%enetic engineering
%enetic engineering and agriculture
Animal cloning
Plant cloning
%ene therapy
3iosensors
'.A Fingerprinting
Medicine and biosensors