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The Validity of Transcribing Bach's Lute Music

Robert Paterson

August, 2005
Careful interpretation of Baroque music often entails making educated guesses about what composers intended.
Of course, performance practice research is ongoing and constantly being reevaluated, so this is not easy.
Compared to most music from 1900 until today, interpretation of Baroque music is an inexact science. We could
compare the performance of Baroque music to jazz: many subtle details were not written down, but understood
to be freely, stylistically interpreted.If J. S. Bach were alive today, there are undoubtedly many questions we
would ask. As a percussionist, I would love to know which instruments he preferred his lute music to be
played on. Did this concern him? Did he have a preference? If he did not, can we justify playing his music on
other instruments today? Along these lines, would he have approved of his music being played on modern
versions of the instruments he was familiar with and on instruments that were not around during his lifetime
such as the marimba and the synthesizer?In order to come up with educated guesses to these questions, it is
necessary to trace the history of the lute and related instruments during the Baroque era and also to analyze
what was happening historically at the time, with Bach himself and with events of the day.During the Baroque
period, the lute was considered the noblest instrument, played in courts by kings and noblemen, especially
during the reign of Louis XIV. The lutes nobility had much to do with the kings and noblemen being fairly
competent players.[1] It was important at this time to know how to dance and play music, and the lute was the
popular instrument for entertaining at the time.[2] The lute in use during the Baroque period had up to
thirteen total courses, depending on the type of lute. In addition to the traditional six courses of upper strings,
five courses of bass strings that did not pass over the fingerboard were tuned diatonically to suit the key of the
piece. One refers to courses rather than strings, because lutes had all but the highest strings doubled at the
unison or octave.[3] Unlike guitars, the high octaves of the lute are only intended to add harmonic richness to
the low notes and are not considered to be musical tones in their own right. The strings below the sixth course
were commonly played open and were adjusted chromatically to the key of the individual piece.Baroque music
for lute falls into two major categories: Arioso or lyrical style with a singing melody, and style bris or broken
style, consisting of extensive use of the arpeggio. The lute is particularly suitable for the latter.[4] Most of the
late 15th century repertory of the lute, beside song accompaniments, was intabulated (transcribed into
tablature, the notation used for lute) from chansons and other vocal originals. The lute was also widely used as
a solo instrument to accompany songs, and for preludes and interludes during court ballets. In Spain, the local
variant of the lute, the vihuela [de mano] [5] was favored.

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Lute music in the Early Baroque consisted of stylized dances which were compiled in books according to type.
Later the separate dances were arranged in groups according to keys, forming suites.[6] From this practice,
J.S. Bach probably learned the idea of the suite form for his lute and cello suites.To French musicians during
the Baroque period, the suite was an anthology rather than a strict sequence of dances.[7] The dance music for
chamber ensembles and for keyboard was far surpassed in quantity by the dance collections for lute and guitar
which, like recordings of the twentieth century, contributed most to the dissemination of popular dances. These
dance collections may be compared in many ways to fake books used by jazz musicians. Lute tablature may
also be compared to modern guitar fingering charts. Of course, jazz and Baroque lute music are quite different,
but both seem to fulfill a similar purpose of providing suitable entertainment music during each respective era.
It was not necessary to read the usual staff notation to play the lute, since its music was notated in tablatures,
which showed the placement on frets that marked off semitones on the fingerboard. (Tablatures were also
devised for viols and keyboard instruments.)[8] This made the instrument and its repertory accessible to
unschooled musicians. However, it was not an easy instrument to master, and the tuning of sixteen or more
strings was an awesome hurdle.[9]
Eventually, lute tablature became much too difficult for the average player and gradually fell into disuse.[10] At
this point, the Spanish guitar became popular in Italy: the simpler, shorthand harmonic notation for guitar
replaced the more complex, contrapuntal tablature notation of the lute.[11] Although the lute was by far the
most popular solo instrument of the Renaissance, lute music reached a definite high point during the middle
Baroque period, particularly in Germany. The German lute music of the middle Baroque is best represented by
Esajas Reusner (1636-1679) who, trained in the French school, brought the refined French lute technique to
Germany.[12] Froberger may also be credited with carrying the French style to Germany.Lute music flourished
in France during the early seventeenth century, culminating in the work of Denis Gaultier (1603-72).[13] The
lute was the most common instrument of French amateur musicians before the harpsichord assumed the role in
the last half of the seventeenth century.[14] The beginning of the Baroque period saw French composers of
instrumental solo music, notably the lutenists and clavecinists, developing an idiom that became exemplary for
the rest of Europe. The art of the lutenists, which flourished mainly in the early and middle Baroque periods,
laid the basis for the clavacinists who flourished mainly in the middle and late Baroque periods.After the death
of Gaultier, French lute music declined. However, its musical achievements were not dissipated: they survived
in the music of keyed instruments. The clavecinists studiously imitated nearly all the lute idioms on their
instrument. This astonishing and unique transfer of idioms had no technical justification because the Clavacin
did not have the technical limitation of the lute.[15] Since lute music during the Baroque era enjoyed the
highest level of social prestige, it naturally invited imitation.The clavecinists were not bound by the technical
handicaps of the lute: they were able to bring the style bris to a perfection not dreamed of by the lutenists. In
clavecin music the free-voiced texture was no longer a necessity but a calculated stylistic feature. They
substituted for ornaments that could only be executed on the lute a large number of new
keyboard agrments that gave the melody not only an unprecedented flexibility, but also a brilliant rhythmic
sparkle.[16]

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During the Baroque era, the harpsichordists were so strongly influenced by the lutenists that the
harpsichordists enthusiastically augmented their style, copying the lutenists mannerisms, stile
bris, imaginative titles, ornamentation, variations and grouping of dances according to keys.[17] The
harpsichordists included, along with the lutenists manner, the repertory dances, preludes, tombeaux, and other
characteristic pieces. The greatest hits of the lute were transcribed for the keyboard, as in the collection of
works by Ennemond and Denis Gaultier edited by Perrine, Pieces de Luth en Musique (Lute pieces in
Score), Paris, 1680 or in the arrangement by dAnglebert.[18] French harpsichordists for a time ignored the
capabilities of their own instrument to rival lutenists in their area.[19] This was especially true of J. S. Bach,
was so taken with the lute that he even had a lute-harpsichord built for him.The lute-harpsichord, or lute-
clavier as it is also called, is a variety of the harpsichord strung with gut, occasionally supplemented by a 4
choir of metal strings. It is intended to imitate the sound of the lute rather than the harp, as in the case of the
arpicordo.[20] The lute-harpsichord was primarily cultivated in Germany during Bachs lifetime, and his estate
included two lutes and an instrument called alautenwerk (lute-harpsichord)[21] Bach "invented the lute-clavier,
which he had Zacharias Hildebrand make for him." What Bach meant to do with this clavier is not quite clear. It
could only be used for playing his lute compositions on a keyed instrument.[22] It is reasonable to suppose
that Bach had a working knowledge of the lute, but in view of the difficulty of playing he instrument well on a
part-time basis he may have preferred the ease of the keyboard imitation.[23] It is certain that he enjoyed the
lute, and when Wilhelm Friedman Bach brought the S.L. Weiss and J. Kropfgans to see him in July 1739, it was
reported that something special in the way of music occurred.[24] In Musica mechanica II, Adlung mentions
having seen and heard a lute-harpsichord devised by Bach and constructed by Zacharias Hildebrand in Leipzig
around 1740. It was slightly smaller than an ordinary clavicembelo, but in other respects was made like one. It
had two catgut strings to each note and a so-called little octave of brass strings. Under ordinary
circumstances, when one stop is drawn, it sounded more like a theorbo than the lute. In contrast, when the so-
called lute stop was drawn (the damping of the metal strings) was drawn with the cornet stop, the lutenists by
profession might almost be deceived by it.[25] Bachs pupil Johann Friedrich Agricola, in a note to the sections
of Jakob Adlungs Musica mechanica organoedi (1768) dealing with the lute-harpsichord (pp. 333ff.) also recalls
having seen and heard one in Leipzig in about 1740 that had been made at Bachs suggestion by Zacharias
Hildebrand. No historical example has survived.[26] However enamored Bach was with his lute-harpsichord, he
seemed to favor the clavichord even more. According to Forkel, Bach clung to the older, in fact to the very
oldest instrument the clavichord. This was his favorite. The clavecn was too soulless for him.[27] For
himself, for private musical entertainment, and for practice, Bach used only the clavichord. He found it most
apt for the expression of his finest thoughts, and did not believe that such variety of nuance in the tone could
be got on any Flgel or pianoforte as on this instrument, that was indeed poor in tone, but extraordinarily
flexible in detail.[28] However, Adlung, in Musica mechanica II, clarifies that in all of the instruments, left by
Bach, not a single clavichord is enumerated.[29]

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Whichever instruments Bach preferred, he must have enjoyed the sound of the lute, since he owned one and
also owned the lute-harpsichord. Bach also transcribed many of his pieces from violin to lute and from cello to
lute. Two of Bachs most famous lute compositions are his transcription of Cello Suite V/Lute Suite III and his
Prelude [, Fugue and Allegro].It is not always possible to tell whether a Baroque composer intended a given
piece to be played on the on the lute or the lute-harpsichord, or for this matter, on the harpsichord or the
clavichord. They seemed to allow for different kinds of instruments and varying numbers of musicians.Bach and
many other composers of the Baroque period sometimes transcribed lute arrangements for the harpsichord.
Lutenists normally strike one note at a time, however fast the arpeggiation may be. This necessitates sketching
in the melody, bass and harmony by sounding the appropriate tones in one register and then in another,
leaving it to the imagination of the hearer to supply the implied continuity of the various lines. This was
the style bris or broken style which other French composers adapted to the harpsichord, together with certain
features of the variation technique derived from the English virginalists.[30] Except for chords that are plucked
with several fingers at once or quickly strummed, a player using style bris plucks only one note at a time,
alternating the fingers. Alternating higher and lower strings creates an allusion of two parts on the lute. Style
bris results when inner voices enter at will and soon evaporate. In this sense, Style bris is not strumming, as
the breaking up of the chords is slow enough to sound deliberate. Style brisis a deliberate, yet idiomatic
arpeggiation on the lute.Style bris is native to the lute. Keyboard composers during the Baroque era
appropriated it because they liked the aerated, loose mixture of polyphony and chords, particularly its richness
of rhythmic nuance and its animation.[31]In Bachs music, lute-like style-bris textures are apparent in his
preludes, especially in suites 1 4 and in suite 6:
...where the quality of the arpeggios and the easy way of the chords lie under the hand make it seem as if the
suites were originally composed for the guitar. Cello Suite V/Lute Suite III, is of course, a model for
transcription from a bowed to a plucked medium, since Bach himself wrote a version of this suite for cello and a
version for Baroque-lute.[32]
Style bris was at its peak with the French lutenists in the 17th century and was copied by keyboard players
throughout the Baroque period. In this style, chords are spun out over several voices rather than being played
as blocks and the notes are left to ring in all voices as long as possible, so that one harmony melts into the
next. This effect is most idiomatic on plucked string instruments and is a natural way of enriching the sonority
while producing an elegant, subtly varied texture. Free mixture of chordal and linear texture is typical of the
lute. The usually un-notated linear motion so idiomatic of the lute has to be reconstructed by modern
transcribers: the duration of any one note is only as long as the vibration continues or until another note is
fingered on the same string. Thus, although appearing orthographically as one line, the lute melodies are not a
single melody as they may first appear, but a series of melodic fragments and broken harmonies:
The peculiar charm of free-voiced texture is best felt on the lute, or instrument with short duration, not the
piano. Its texture, more suggestive than real, is definitely bound up with the instrument. Lute music
represents perhaps the cleverest example of making a virtue of necessitya veritable triumph of mind over
matter.[33]

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Beside Bach, the composer who took style bris to its peak was Jacques Gaultier of the Gaultier dynasty. The
quickly fading sound of the lute did not lend itself to polyphonic voice-leading and called for specific techniques
that compensated for the technical limitations of the instrument. The broken style of lute music paired with a
most ingenious and consistent application of such a technique may be called the glorification of the simplest
lute figure: the arpeggio. The broken style is characterized by rapidly alternating notes in different registers
that supply, in turn, melody and harmony. Seemingly distributed in arbitrary fashion over various registers, the
notes produced in their composite rhythm a continuous strand of sound. The lute composer was able to
articulate the even flow by means of double and triple stops which suggested the rhythmic patterns essential to
the dance. "The texture of lute music was of necessity free-voiced since no voice could be carried through and
since notes that hinted at one voice at the beginning of the measure dropped out as soon as they had
appeared.[34] Performers in the Baroque era were always expected to add to what the composer had written.
Lute compositions were dependent on performers skill, taste and experience for their proper completion. Many
of the characteristic ornaments and agrments of Baroque keyboard and ensemble music originated in lute
music.Beside style bris, other innovations in lute performance of the Baroque era were the tremblements (a
refined group of ornaments), also called little ornaments(agrments), verre cass or vibrato, and several forms
of left hand legato playing. The lute does not lend itself to polyphonic voice-leading: ornaments were used to
help sustain the line.[35] All of these innovations were indicated by stenographic signs on the page and
sometimes left to the discretion of the player.[36] There are two main ornaments used in the Baroque era, the
trill and the mordent. The trill is an alternation of the main note with an upper auxiliary a step or half-step
above, beginning with the dissonant note (the upper note in all standard cases). Where trills are indicated at
cadences, they are obligatory since they are an integral part of the harmony.The mordent (a trill sign with a
slash through the middle of it) is an alternation of the main note with a lower auxiliary note a step or half-step
below, and it is often executed with one repercussion.[37] In some cases, one may wish to execute this
ornament with more than one repercussion or begin with the lower auxiliary note. Adding trills and mordents in
lute music is a very idiomatic procedure: the fingers are comfortably spaced on the neck of the instrument in
such a way as to allow very easy single step alternating neighbor tones with the main note. Since the sound of
the strings die away as the tremblements are being performed, a somewhat delicate effect is conveyed to the
audience.The extreme delicacy of the ornaments bespeaks the highly intimate character of lute music; it was
destined for a solo virtuoso and a very small audience.[38] The composers, who, in many cases, were the
performers themselves, gave those solo virtuosos a relatively large amount of interpretative freedom.

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However, the freedom was not absolute or haphazard: it was governed by certain conventions and by the mood
and tempo of the piece. There are different opinions as to how Baroque tempi should be interpreted, as well as
for what instrument some Baroque music is intended for, and even whether the instrument makes any
difference or not.[39] Baroque performers had a certain sensibility and were sensitive to Baroque style.[40] In
this respect, ornamentation probably came somewhat naturally to Baroque performers. Most performers and
composers were probably very familiar with all of the popular dances of the time, and this familiarity obviously
helped the performers interpret dance music because they thoroughly knew the dances that went along with
the respective music. This also helped composers such as Bach compose dance suites.Bachs suites for solo
cello were composed around 1720 during his tenure as Kapellmeister at Cthen.[41] Bach wrote two versions of
his fifth suite for unaccompanied cello, one for the cello (Cello Suite V) and another entitled Suite pour la Luth
par J.S. Bach [Lute Suite III]. This is a model from a bowed to a plucked medium.[42] The autograph of this
lute version is harmonically clearer and more polyphonically filled-out than the cello version. According to the
date of the watermark on the manuscript of the autograph lute version, Bach wrote down this version between
1727 and 1731. It is probably a more mature composition than the cello version which was written down before
the lute version.[43] Bach probably wrote Lute Suite III after Cello Suite V for the same reason that most
modern composers write multiple versions of a work: to guarantee as many performances as possible and to
guarantee sales of the sheet music. In many ways, the transgression from cello to lute is a natural one,
especially since they share a similar range.Was the Suite pour la Luth par J.S. Bach written for lute or the lute-
harpsichord? The title of his autograph manuscript (Suite for the Lute) should leave little doubt for what
instrument it was intended. However, Bach wrote notes which cannot be played on the lute, most notably the
low G at the beginning of the Prelude in Lute Suite III. In the following examples 1a and 1b, the first note is
the lowest non-scorditura note of the unstopped contrabass string on a Theorbo, a large six-course bass lute.
The second note is the low G that J.S. Bach wrote in the Prelude (mm. 3, 57, etc.):

At first glance, one might assume that you could just re-tune the A contrabass string for the entire piece. This
necessitates not having a low A in the entire movement, unless there is a suitable rest to re-tune the note.
Unfortunately in m. 16, there appears a low A, right after a low G in m. 14 and before a low G in m.18. Of
course, you could also assume that the other contrabass string could be re-tuned, but they are all needed in
their regular tunings throughout the entire movement.

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The manuscript of the score for Lute Suite III is also not in tablature, the universal notation system for lutenists
during Bachs lifetime.[44] You could chalk this up to expediency on Bachs part; it may have been easier for
him to write in regular notation for the sake of getting it down on paper. Adding further confusion is the
recorded fact that Bach could play the lute. Perhaps we will never know why the lute music was not always
notated using tablature.As an interesting aside, we should take note of the bourre from theSuite in E Minor
(BWV 996) occurring in a collection made by Bachs pupil Johann Ludwig Krebs in two staff notation. A later
hand added the words aufs Lautenwerk.[45] In addition to Lute Suite III, some of Bachs clavier pieces were
probably composed first for the lute (possibly from an improvisation): the little prelude in C minor, the prelude
in E-flat major, (B.G. XLV, p. 141), the suite in e minor (B.G. XLV, p. 149 ff.) and the one in E Major (B.G. XL
II, p. 16 ff.). The one in C minor (B.G. XLV, p. 156 ff.) is a clavier arrangement of a composition for the lute.
The fugue of the G minor sonata for solo violin and the Suite discordable for cello have also come down to us in
lute tablature. The three Bach partitas for lute mentioned in Breitkopfs catalogue in 1761 are thus not lost, as
many had thought. Conclusively, and as written earlier, Bach himself probably played the lute, whatever his
ability may have been.Interestingly, Lute Suite III is the most lutenistic of all of Bachs lute works. However, it
contains technical impossibilities such as a contrabass G, a note that exists on no known 18th century lutes
(even with scorditura tuning),[46] but is within the range of a large Baroque harpsichord.Similar problems in
Bachs other lute pieces suggest that Bach played the lute, but probably not very well. However, as stated
earlier, he owned a lute which was listed among the instruments in his estate in 1750. He was also personally
acquainted with many German lutenists, among them Silvius Leopold Weiss, Johann Kropfganss, Johann
Christian Weyrauch, and Luise Gottsched. His own keyboard and composition students Johann Ludwig Krebs
and Rudolph Straube and probably Ernst Gottlieb Baron (who visited the Cthen court in 1720 and praises the
playing of Bach in his book of 1727) were also lutenists. Thus, we can assume that Bach was intimately
acquainted with the lute and its notation and technique even though he probably was not an adept lute
performer.[47] There is a strong possibility that the Lute Suite III was composed as a piece of idealized lute
music for, or at least upon, this lute-harpsichord. In writing in this manner Bach would not have had to use
tablature, and it would have been easy to write passages that are awkward on the lute even though they sound
lutenistic. Bach could also extend the range of the lute easily downward. In a chamber setting, no time would
need to be spent retuning the lute strings.In an anonymous tablature version of Lute Suite III made during
Bachs time, the lutenist who adapted the work had to transpose low Gs and other notes that are difficult or
impossible to play. This tablature version is a good example of the performance practices of lutenists of the
time.There is no question that the original medium of the Lute Suite III and his other lute works was the
plucked string, whether lute, lute-harpsichord or harpsichord. The arpeggiated style of the suite is clearly, what
inspired the anonymous intabulation.[48] While modern guitarists and marimbists may be interested to know
for what instrument the music was actually composed, they can rest assured that it falls idiomatically on the
guitar and on a more modern instrument, the marimba.[49]

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There exists three principal existent 18th-century manuscripts of Lute Suite III/Cello Suite V: the manuscript
for lute in J.S. Bachs hand, another for unaccompanied cello in the script of Anna Magdalena Bach and a third
in French Baroque lute tablature in the script of an anonymous lutenist.[50] Two copies also exist of the cello
version, one by J.P. Kellner and the other by an anonymous scribe.Bachs music is essentially a synthesis of two
musical styles that were identified with the countries of their origin, Italy and France. The Italian Style was
virtuostic, extroverted, expressive and disposed to straightforward, vigorous rhythms, drama, and high
contrast. The French style was restrained, graceful, impressionistic, and inclined to intricate rhythms, elegance,
balance and subtle nuance. The music of all of the cello suites, except Cello Suite V, is mostly Italian in style,
whereas Cello Suite V seems to be mostly in a French style. We may speculate that Bach looked over Cello
Suite V and saw an opportunity to make another version of it. Perhaps one of his sons, his wife or one of the
many lutenists he was acquainted with suggested this idea to him.Another of Bach's compositions supposedly
written for the lute, Prelude [, Fugue and Allegro], (BWV 998) (Prelude our la Luth. Cmbal. par J.S.
Bach.) is confined to the range of the lute and is in a lutenistic style (generally a slow-moving bass and a
relatively thin texture). It seems to have been conceived as a lute piece but written at the harpsichord. This
impression is also suggested by the alternative instrumentation in Bachs own hand: Prelude for the lute and
harpsichord. It is very unlikely that the work was composed at the lute since there are many awkward and
uncomfortable fingerings that never occur in the works of a lutenist such as Silvious Weiss, for example,
although his musical style is quite similar. Where this sort of writing appears in the Prlude Fugue and Allegro,
the fingering many guitarists and lutenists use is intended to allow the individual voices of the harmonies to
ring as long as possible.In the past, some scholars have doubted whether it is a complete composition and even
whether it is by Bach. Upon examining the autograph score, these doubts are easily laid to rest: the autograph
score is signed in Bachs hand, par [by] J.S. Bach, and Bach writes Fin at the end of the Allegro. On the
basis of the watermark analysis and the character of Bachs script, the date of composition of BWV 998 has
recently been placed in the beginning to mid-1740s, though it could conceivably be a revision of another piece
since lost. The late date is substantiated by the da capo fugue, a rare form that Bach used in a few other late
compositions, among them the C minor lute suite, BWV 997.[51] Was Bach particular about which instruments
music should be played on? The evidence suggests that he was not. In fact, he composed pieces for the
purpose of being played on multiple instruments.Through careful research, it seems that if Bach played the
lute, he was not very good at it, or he was idealistic about the range of the lute. He probably indulged himself
with the sound of the lute on his lute-harpsichord because it was easier to play and had a larger range.
Although it is difficult for a somewhat hero-worshipping society to imagine, Bach was probably not good at all
things, particularly at playing the lute. The keyed instruments were what he played most of all, so that is
probably what he composed with and mostly wrote for, including the lute-harpsichord. We may conclude that
Bach probably would not mind if his music were played on different instruments, as long as the instruments are
sufficiently sensitive to warrant an excellent performance.

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[1]Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), 164.
[2]John Gingerich, Music of the Baroque Period, M653 Class Notes, fall 1996, Indiana University.
[3]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 184.
[4]The Baroque Guitar, selected and trans. Frederick Noad, (New York: Ariel Music Publications, Inc., 1974),
17.
[5]Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton &
Company, inc., 1988), 288.
[6]Harold Gleason and Warren Becker, Music in the Baroque, Music Literature Outlines, Series II, 3d ed.
(Frangipani Press, Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., 1987), 56.
[7]Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), 167.
[8]Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton &
Company, inc., 1988), 289.
[9]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 186.
[10]Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), 168.
[11]Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), 47.
[12]Ibid., 111.
[13]Donald Jay Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton &
Company, inc., 1988), 397.
[14]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 184.
[15]Manfred F. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque Era, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1947), 169.
[16]Ibid., 169.
[17]Harold Gleason and Warren Becker, Music in the Baroque, Music Literature Outlines, Series II, 3d ed.
(Frangipani Press, Alfred Publishing Co., Inc., 1987), 56.
[18]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), pp.
186-187.
[19]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 187.
[20]The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music (1988), s.v. Lute-harpsichord.
[21]A description of this instrument and an account by Bachs pupil Johann Friedrich Agricola of a particular
lute-harpsichord owned J.S. Bach are included in Jacob Adlungs Musica Mechanica Organoedi (Berlin, 1768.)
This work has been reprinted in facsimile by Brenreiter-Verlag (Kassel, 1961). Howard Ferguson also describes
the instrument in his article Bachs Lauten Werck in Music and Letters (1967.)
[22]Palisca, 204.
[23]Amelia Hollins, Information to Aid the Marimbist in the Transcription of Music Written for the Guitar, [ca.
1980], collection, Leigh Howard Stevens, Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1.
[24]Jacob Adlung, Musica mechanica II, 1768, pp. 144 and 152, as quoted in Albert Schweitzer, J.S. Bach
Volume I, trans. Ernest Newman, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 204.
[25]Ibid., 204.
[26]The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music (1988), s.v. Lute.
[27]Jacob Adlung, Musica mechanica II, 1768, pp. 144 and 152, as quoted in Albert Schweitzer, J.S. Bach
Volume I, trans. Ernest Newman, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 202.
[28] Forkel, ber Johann Sabastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke, Leipzig, 1802, p. 17, quoted in Albert
Schweitzer, J.S. Bach Volume I, trans. Ernest Newman, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, p. 203.
[29]Jacob Adlung, Musica mechanica II, 1768, pp. 144 and 152, as quoted in Albert Schweitzer, J.S. Bach
Volume I, trans. Ernest Newman, Dover Publications, Inc. New York, 203.
[30]Perhaps the most ironic accusation of twentieth century musicians is the accusation that baroque lute
music is tonal and non-dissonant and/or spicy, when in fact this is almost always due to musicians lack of
knowledge of how to ornament baroque lute music. The agrments are what make the music spicy, ad taking
the intended ornaments away reduces the music to a tonal skeleton.
[31]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 184.
[32]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite III (BWV 1009), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer (New York: Shattinger-
International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[33]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 166.
[34]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 165.
[35]John Gingerich, Music of the Baroque Period, M653 Class Notes, Fall 1996, Indiana University.
[36]Perhaps the most ironic accusation of twentieth century musicians that Baroque lute music is tonal and
non-dissonant and/or spicy, when in fact this is almost always due to musicians lack of knowledge of how to
ornament Baroque lute music. The agrmentsare what make the music spicy. Taking the intended ornaments
away reduces the music to a tonal skeleton.
[37]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite III (BWV 1009), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer (New York: Shattinger-
International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[38]Claude V. Palisca, Baroque Music, 3d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1991), 167.
[39]Author and title unknown. Extracted from note pack of Leigh Howard Stevens.
[40]The Baroque Guitar, selected and trans. Frederick Noad, (New York: Ariel Music Publications, Inc., 1974),
13.
[41]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite III (BWV 1009), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer (New York: Shattinger-
International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[42]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite V (BWV 1011)/Lute Suite III (BWV 995), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer
(New York: Shattinger-International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[43]Ibid., 2.
[44]Ibid., 2.
[45]Amelia Hollins, Information to Aid the Marimbist in the Transcription of Music Written for the Guitar, [ca.
1980], collection, Leigh Howard Stevens, Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1.
[46]The difficulties this suite presents to a lutenist are discussed in Hans Radkes article War Johann Sebastian
Bach Lautenspieler? in Festschrift Hans Engle zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, edited by Horst Heussner (Kassel,
1964), 281ff.
[47]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite V (BWV 1011)/Lute Suite III (BWV 995), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer
(New York: Shattinger-International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[48]The surprising aspect of this intabulation is that Bach was probably inspired by the lute; he then probably
wrote Lute Suite III on his lute-harpsichord, and then the anonymous intabulation was made for the regular
lute. Thus, a cycle was made.
[49]Johann Sebastian Bach, Cello Suite V (BWV 1011)/Lute Suite III (BWV 995), guitar trans. Michael Lorimer
(New York: Shattinger-International Music Corp., 1977), 2.
[50]J.S. Bachs original autograph score is in the Brussels Biblioteque Royale. The cello version is in
the Oeffentliche Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek, Berlin. The tablature version is in the Leipzig Stadtbibliothek.
[51]Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude [, Fugue and Allegro], BWV 998, guitar trans. Michael Lorimer (New York:
Shattinger-International Music Corp., 1977), 2.