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Subgrade Characterization

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Pavement Design Factors
Changes over Time
Subgrade Support Provided
Seasonal Changes in Subgrade Support
Magnitude of Wheel Loads
Wheel Loads Applied to Pavement
Type of Wheel Loads (Single or Tandem Axles)
Number of Wheel Load Applications
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Subgrade Support
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (k)
HveemResistance Value (R)
Resilient Modulus (M
R
)
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)
AASHTO Group Index
CBR Inventor
Source: http://gsl.erdc.usace.army.mil/gl-history/images/gl_img_25r.jpg
O. J ames Porter
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California Bearing Ratio
Source: http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/ha/dmrb/index.htm
Sample soaked
for 4 days prior
to testing
(Area = 3 in
2
)
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California Bearing Ratio
Source: http://www.southerntesting.co.uk/insitutesting.html
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California Bearing Ratio
Penetration(inches)
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
9000
0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
6000
3000
L
o
a
d

(
p
o
u
n
d
s
)
100
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California Bearing Ratio
3500
3000
L
o
a
d

(
l
b
)
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
PistonPenetration(in)
0.0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

2050
CBR 100 68
3000
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Typical CBR Values
Description of Material CBR
Well-graded crushed aggregates 100
Well-graded natural gravels 80
Silty gravel or silty, sandy gravel 40-80
Well-graded sands, gravelly sands 20-50
Clayey gravel or sandy, clayey gravel 20-40
Silty or clayey sands 10-40
Fine clean sands 10-20
Lean (low-plasticity) clays, sandy clays 5-15
Silts, sandy silts 5-15
Organic silts, lean organic clays 4-8
Fat (high-plasticity) clays 3-5
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Rigid Pavements
Spring constant = modulus of subgrade reaction (K)
CIVL 3137 39
Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
30 in.
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Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
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Modulus of Subgrade Reaction
K
1
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

(
P
S
I
)












DEFLECTION (IN)
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Typical K Values
Description of Material K (psi/in)
Well-graded gravel 300-450
Silty sands 300-400
Well-graded sands, gravelly sands 200-400
Fine sand (e.g. beach sand) 150-350
Clayey sands 150-350
Fat (high-plasticity) clays 40-225
Lean (low-plasticity) clays, sandy clays 25-225
Silts, sandy silts 25-200
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Resilient Modulus
Resilient Modulus
CIVL 3137 44
CIVL 3137 46
Resilient Modulus
S
t
r
e
s
s

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Typical M
R
Values
Description of Material M
R
(psi)
Crushed Stone
Sandy Subgrade
Silty Subgrade
Clayey Subgrade
20,000 50,000
15,000 30,000
5000 20,000
5000 15,000