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174 F&AM

Sutherland Lodge No. 174 F&AM

JoAnne Dalton Scott
University of Tampa

May 7, 2013


Organization Description
Sutherland Lodge No. 174 F&AM (Free and Accepted Masons) is a fraternal
organization located in Palm Harbor, Florida. The lodge is an independently functioning
component of the network of masonic lodges in Florida which are governed by the Grand Lodge
of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Florida. Similarly, each state has its own Grand
Lodge and network of dependent lodges. As an organization, its purpose is to make good men
better (Roberts, 1974, p. 8). A masons first responsibility is to improve himself and secondly
to work for the good of his community and fellow man (Roberts, 1974).
Chartered in 1909, Sutherland Lodge has an extensive history of participation in the Palm
Harbor community and boasts a membership populated by renowned Pinellas County residents.
Just as Paul Revere, Samuel Adams and other forefathers of the United States shaped the history
of our country from the lodge room of St. Andrews Lodge in Boston (Newton, 1924),
Sutherland members such as E. W. McMullen, Albert Gilchrist and Julius Ulmer (Sutherland
Lodge, 2013) actively participated in their community, as prescribed by the masonic code
(Roberts, 1974).
Originally, Sutherland Lodge meetings were held in the store owned by Worshipful
Master J.C. Craver. Cravers store eventually passed to ownership of the lodge and became a
dedicated lodge building. All lodge functions and ventures continue to originate here, as they
have for over 100 years.
The lodge functions following the historic and evolving mandates prescribed by the
Grand Lodge of Florida. Regularly scheduled monthly meetings known as stated
communications and monthly officer meetings are a time of fellowship for members, as well as
the designated time for conducting lodge business. Each officer position has designated
responsibilities. Officer positions are held for a period of one year. The organizational hierarchy

was designed in antiquity to provide members with a mentoring experience as they advance
through the officer positions. It is the mentoring process that passes the knowledge and skills
from mentor to apprentice that are necessary to successfully execute the duties of each officer
position (G. Scott, personal communication, January, 2011). Lodge members choose to enter the
officer line at their discretion.
For administration and fellowship purposes Florida is divided into districts. Each lodge
belongs to a defined district that is overseen by district officers. Officers of each district are
responsible to Grand Lodge officers. Lodge members qualify for district and state officer
positions by first progressing through the officer line in their home lodge and then continuing to
participate in mentoring activities preparatory for each additional officer position. District
officers facilitate district wide masonic events as prescribed by Grand Lodge, in addition to
supplementary fellowship activities and fundraisers at their discretion.
Performance Problems
The masonic organization has endured for an undetermined period of time, with the
earliest known reference to its existence being found in the Regius Poem dated 1390 (Newton,
1924). During the centuries it has evolved in response to social, geographical and technological
progress. Performance issues are present at many lodges, but specifically documented here as
observed at Sutherland Lodge.
1. Participation in stated communications, district events and schools of instruction is
2. Members do not have a thorough knowledge of masonic history, law and principles
so as to participate in lodge functions optimally and exemplify masonic character in
the community.

3. Officers are not adequately trained for their positions resulting in a lack of the
knowledge and experience necessary to execute the duties of their office.
4. The Worshipful Master does not have a thorough knowledge of masonic law so as to
optimally minister to the needs of the lodge in time of crisis or during unusual
Some of the performance problems result from the fact participation is not compulsory
and achievement is intrinsically rewarded. Additionally, the organization currently suffers from
a lack of relevance to the current social setting. Deficits in officer performance are further
magnified by the temporary nature of the positions.
Performance Goals
Due to the intermittent nature of contact, addressing performance problems within the
lodge will be a prolonged process with results recognized gradually. The membership must
initially vote to participate in performance oriented activities. As officer positions expire yearly,
it will be necessary to create a committee to facilitate and oversee progress until the membership
deems goals have been attained.
1. Increase participation in monthly stated communication so attendance equals or
exceeds 50% of lodge membership.
2. Increase participation in district events with lodge representation at a minimum of six
events per year.
3. Improve participation in all forms of masonic education with lodge representation at a
minimum of three schools of instruction per year and earn the Masonic Education
Achievement Award.
4. Increase general membership knowledge of masonic history and law.

5. Ensure officer and Worshipful Master candidates have mastered requisite skills prior
to installation by demonstrating proficiency to outgoing officer or completing
training, varies as applicable to the office.
Performance Proposal
Each of the listed goals is attainable by utilizing instructional design trends applicable to
the characteristics of the performance objective.
1. Mentoring involves building a symbiotic and lasting relationship between the mentor
and protge in which each learns characteristics and traits of the other. This
relationship facilitates attainment of learning and performance goals (Smith, 2005).
2. The mentor possesses expertise through experience that is transferred via informal
teaching to the protge (Swap, 2001).
3. Content transfer includes skills as well as, organizational norms and values. (Swap,
4. The learning process of mentoring progresses from protge readiness to learn, to
active learning and culminates in the development of self-monitoring (Swap, 2001).

Relationship. Historically, the mentoring relationship has been used by masons to
preserve and transmit knowledge. Since much of this knowledge is only recorded in code,
comprehension of its meaning is evidence that mentoring has been successfully employed.
However, modern societal changes make the frequent contact necessary to develop an intimate
relationship difficult. The mentoring relationship must transcend the bounds of lodge activities;
mentor and protge must pursue contact that satisfies the human need for interaction, not just
the need to learn. To accomplish this, mentor and protge must be paired taking into account
proximity, interests and personality characteristics. This social relationship will encourage
participation in lodge events, as members will desire fellowship. The result will be realized as
increased participation in all lodge events, promoting the first three performance goals.
Informal teaching. When an intimate mentor/protge relationship has been established,
each individual will naturally seek the counsel of the other. The mentor will invite his protge

to participate in the completion of his duties, providing an unplanned, observational learning
experience. The protge will become accustomed to this practice and seek the participation of
his mentor when he assumes similar duties, creating an action learning experience (Swap, 2001).
The result will be realized as an increase in knowledge pertaining to both masonic content and
officer training, promoting the fourth and fifth performance goals.
Norms and values. Certain aspects of masonic etiquette are legislated and recorded for
member reference. However, there are additional norms that have become universally accepted
and others that are lodge specific. The established mentoring relationship creates the
environment for transmitting unrecorded etiquette without creating friction between members or
dissonance within the lodge. Mentors must learn how to appropriately convey behavioral
feedback, which is part of the learning cycle. Members will participate more readily in lodge
and district events when they are comfortable with the setting and the role they fulfill. The result
will be realized as an increase in all lodge events, promoting the first three performance goals.
Learning cycle. All aspects of mentoring apply to the masonic call to make good men
better (Roberts, 1974, p. 8). In this context the protge enters the organization with a desire to
learn. A capable mentor provides a fulfilling personal relationship, content knowledge and the
example of how to monitor ones own personal growth. Furthermore, as the protge progresses
through the learning process he will begin to realize a desire to become a mentor (Swap, 2001).
Perpetuating the mentoring process is the method that has sustained masonic lodges since
inception of the organization. As the stone masons, ancestors of todays Free and Accepted
Masons, taught their trade through mentoring (Roberts, 1974), todays members must invest
themselves in mentoring. The result will promote the fourth and fifth performance goals and
reach into the community to increase lodge membership and promote community prosperity.


1. Curiosity about what a person does not know stimulates his desire to learn and turn
that learning into performance. This is the attention portion of the ARCS model of
motivation (Keller, 2008).
2. Knowledge and/or skills that are perceived as useful and applicable to task
performance stimulates desire to learn. This is the relevance portion of the ARCS
model (Keller, 2008).
3. An internal belief in inevitable personal success or accomplishment prompts
individuals to work toward that end. This is the confidence portion of the ARCS
model (Keller, 2008).
4. Feelings of gratification for personal accomplishments, present and future, stimulate
motivation. This is the satisfaction portion of the ARCS model (Keller, 2008).

Attention. When an individual seeks information about the lodge he is naturally curious
regarding the history of masonry and the events in which masons participate. If this curiosity is
not nurtured it will disappear and take with it the candidates desire for involvement. Therefore,
lodge members must initially provide an acceptable glimpse into the organization and explain the
myriad of resources available to members. This will get the candidates attention and create a
desire for additional information to fill gaps in knowledge and understanding, which in turn
prompts continued participation. Escalating exposure to new information, resources and artifacts
at appropriate intervals will cultivate continued curiosity (Keller, 1987). Matching prospective
or new members with a well-chosen mentor early on will facilitate the process and maintain
motivational momentum. The result will be realized as increased participation in all lodge
events, promoting the first four performance goals. When members choose to pursue officer
positions the fifth performance goal will benefit.
Relevance. One of the basic tenants of masonry is to promote community success
(Roberts, 1974). Many of the skills taught in masonry are directly transferable to involvement in
community activities and personal goals. The key here is understanding how masonic teachings
are relevant in other situations. Again, this portion of motivation works complimentary to the
features of mentoring. As an example, the store manager of Wilsons Book World in St.

Petersburg is a mason and actively engages any mason that visits the store. The result will be
realized as increased participation in masonic education, the third and fourth performance goals.
Additionally, when members choose to pursue officer positions the fifth performance goal will
Confidence. Progressing naturally from relevance, members motivation to participate in
lodge events will increase as they use their skills and gain confidence in their abilities. Growing
confidence will in turn foster the desire to participate in mentoring. All these characteristics
motivate members to become increasingly active in lodge activities, fulfilling all performance
goals. For those individuals that seek out officer positions, confidence is critical since they must
mentor the junior officers that follow behind them.
Satisfaction. In the context of masonry the experience of satisfaction is a result of the
other three factors. Satisfaction will be experienced when the member observes how his
participation in lodge and community events has prompted desired results. For example, when a
mentor witnesses the installation of his protge in an officer position he will feel intrinsic
satisfaction regarding his participation in that accomplishment. Alternately, when members
advance their personal prospects as a result of participation in lodge activities and the skills
learned there, their reward may be of an extrinsic nature. Both types are necessary for true
satisfaction (Keller, 1987). Satisfaction begets future participation and the motivational cycle
continues, promoting all performance goals.
Knowledge Management
1. Stakeholders must believe in the knowledge management (KM) effort and become
involved in its design and implementation. There must also be leadership within the
organization to promote continued operation. (Bergeron, 2003).
2. The KM system must be designed to complement the organizational culture
(Bergeron, 2003).
3. Use of a Learning Management System (LMS) to provide the option of learning
activities delivered at the students convenience. The LMS also satisfies

administrative functions involved in documenting content mastery leading to
attainment of certifications (Carliner, 2005).
4. Technology facilitates the KM effort and must be planned for so technological
devices satisfy organizational goals (Bergeron, 2003). Web 2.0 tools can be used to
fulfill financial and distribution requirements (Bebensee, 2011).

Both mentoring and motivation cues use of the informational tools and participation in
the learning events covered in this section. Unlike the other covered trends, KM must be
sanctioned by Grand Lodge; it cannot be applied in isolation to a single lodge. Long term results
will be realized as benefiting all lodges regarding the fourth and fifth performance goals.
Stakeholder buy in. Following masonic guidelines, the project must be legislated and
voted upon by the entire membership of Florida lodges at the Annual Grand Communication.
Once approved, the committee within Grand Lodge charged with masonic education will be
responsible to oversee the KM effort. As officer positions change yearly, it is critical that all
masons are committed to the project. Legislating the KM effort ensures commitment.
Complement the organization. There is a very distinct organizational culture that must
be considered when designing the KM system, as well as vast differences among individuals in
the user population. An expert on masonic law must be part of the committee to ensure cultural
compliance. A systematic survey of lodges covering user expectations and access to technology
will assist in minimizing user barriers to implementation.
Learning management system. There is a vast amount of information in the form of
printed materials that is difficult to access due to uncertainty about what exists and where it can
be found. Additionally, training events that provide some of these materials are not always
convenient. A learning management system (LMS) that offers the same content available
through classroom delivered schools of instruction will increase access to learning activities.
The LMS will be designed so the user gains access to content as prerequisites are completed
ensuring progresses through the program in sequential order. There will also be a provision for

providing proof of classroom instruction in order to pass to the next step. Finally, a library will
be included to house digitized versions of print material for easy reference and updating. The
use of a LMS as opposed to a course management system (CMS) will provide for administrative
functions (Carliner, 2005) such as documenting participating in schools of instruction and
issuing certifications.
Technology. Financial restrictions limit technology use in terms of software and
hardware choices and in terms of experts to create the product. Easy access and data security are
additional considerations. Security can be addressed by using the Grand Lodge website as an
entry portal to the KM system. Masons in good standing use their password to gain access. A
cloud based application such as Google Docs provides economical and easily integrated software
solutions that require minimal instruction for users and is compatible with Canvas, a cost
effective LMS.
Human Performance aids

1. Execution of duties is affected by the performers lack of knowledge about the task(s) to
be completed and/or inadequacies in the performance environment. This particularly
applies to tasks that are completed infrequently (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008).
2. Human performance aids compliment training. They are a reminder of content learned or
a cue to performance procedures (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008).
3. Human performance aids are suitable for situations where funds and time for training are
limited (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008).
4. Tools such as checklists and procedure manuals, once created, are easy to update and
maintain (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2008).

All results realized by utilizing of human performance aids pertain to the fifth
performance goal.
Infrequently completed tasks. Progression through the officer positions is designed to
include ample time for junior officers to learn from senior officers prior to promotion. Currently
there are not enough members seeking officer positions, resulting in promotion prior to mastery
of required skills. When results of motivation and mentoring are realized, larger numbers of

officer candidates will present themselves eliminating the need to rush candidates through
training. They will progress through the line only when they have demonstrated mastery of
required skills. This fulfills the fifth performance goal with exponential results. Officers ascend
the line ultimately reaching the level of Worshipful Master. In this usage the term worshipful
means knowledgeable (Grand Lodge of Florida, 2012). Complete training of officer
candidates will ultimately result in a Worshipful Master that is truly knowledgeable of the duties
pertinent to his office.
Aids compliment training. Many of the officer duties are completed on a monthly or
less frequent basis. Even with adequate training, details such as what information the secretary
needs to fill out a voucher or how the treasurer completes the monthly financial report are easily
forgotten. Checklists and procedure manuals specific to the lodge will lower incidence of
mistakes and relieve performer stress. These two types of aids are applicable to the context. For
example, the officer responsible for securing the lodge building after an event can refer to a
checklist to ensure no task has been forgotten. Similar aids are used by alarm companies to
prompt consumer performance and lower occurrence of false alarm reports. This feature of
human performance may ultimately lower expenses caused by inadequate performance.
Limited funds and time for training. Due to the financial nature of non-profit
organizations there are no lodge funds allocated to training or performance aids. Fortunately,
checklists and manuals can be made by experienced officers working independently or as a
Ease of aid maintenance and revision. As procedures change the officer using the
pertinent checklist or procedure manual can easily make updates, produce the revised document
and pass it to the next officer when the time comes. Utilizing a cloud based application such as

Google Docs will prevent documents from being lost, promote access as officer positions change
and facilitate revisions.
Historically, the performance problems discussed here were circumvented by effective
use of mentoring and culturally complementary organizational design. Social changes resulting
from factors such geographic sprawl and cultural evolution have affected the success of that
design. Because Sutherland Lodge is a fraternal organization with participation intrinsically
rewarded, it is necessary to revisit the original factors of mentoring and motivation. Updating
the relevance of their implementation so as to create successful results cues member participation
in additional activities and behaviors.
Motivated members engage in masonic education activities and leadership positions.
Providing varied options for access to education and information in the form of knowledge
management devices and human performance aids further reinforces and promotes motivation.
The deficits in officer performance previously experienced as substandard performance and
limited service commitment will progressively decline. All these factors work in harmony to
accomplish the performance goals and strengthen the foundation of the organization.



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