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PHYSICS

Topic Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity-2

Q.1 The half life period of a radioactive element X is same as the mean life time of another radioactive element Y.

Initially both of them have the same number of atoms. Then -

(1) X and Y have the same decay rate initially (2) X and Y decay at the same rate always

(3) Y will decay at a faster rate than X (4) X will decay at a faster rate than Y

Q.2 radioactive nuclide can decay simultaneously by two different processes which have individual decay constants

1 and 2 respectively. The effective decay constant of the nuclide is !iven by -

(1) "

2 1

(2)

1

"

1

1

#

2

1

(3) "

2

1

(1 # 2) (4) " 1# 2

Q.3 radioactive sample has initial concentration N$ of nuclei -

(1) The number of undecayed nuclei present in the sample decays e%ponentially with time

(2) The activity (R) of the sample at any instant is directly proportional to the number of undecayed nuclei

present in the sample at that time

(3) The number of decayed nuclei !rows linearly with time

(4) The number of decayed nuclei !rows e%ponentially with time

Q.4 radioactive substance disinte!rates completely in 1$ days. &uppose each day it disinte!rates at a rate which

is twice the rate of the precious day. The percenta!e of the material left to be disinte!rated after passin! of '

days is (appro%) -

(1) 1$ (2) 2$ (3) 2( (4) ($

Q.5 ssumin! that all laws of thermodynamics can be applied to a nucleus) the decay of a nucleus may be

re!arded as an -

(1) isothermal process (2) isobarric process (3) adiabatic process (4) isochoric process

Q.6 A and B are isotopes. B and C are isobars. If dA) dB and dc be the densities of nuclei A) B and C respectively

then -

(1) dA * dB * dC (2) dA + dB + dc (3) dA " dB " dc (4) dA" dB + dC

Q. radioactive nuclide is produced at the constant rate of n per second (say) by bombardin! a tar!et with neutrons).

The e%pected number N of nuclei in e%istence t seconds after the number is N$ is !iven by

(1) N " N$e

,t

(2) N "

n

# N$e

,t

(3) N "

n

#

n

N ,

$

e

,t

(4) N "

n

#

+

n

N

$

e

,t

-.here is the decay constant of the sample/

Q.! The percenta!e of 0uantity of a radioactive material that remains after ( half lives will be -

(1) 311 (2) 3.12(1 (3) $.31 (4) 11

CAREER POINT) CP Tower, IPIA, Road No.1, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-3040000 1

CP Live Enthuse Class XII -2015

PRE

E!IEERI!

"PPS #$ - 05 2iscussion on 3 14-6-2"14

Q.# The masses of two radioactive substances are same and their half lives are 1 year and 2 year respectively. The

ratio of their activities after si% year will be -

(1) 1 3 4 (2) 4 3 1 (3) 1 3 4 (4) 4 3 1

Q.1" In a cancer therapy unit) patients are !iven treatment from a certain radioactive source This source has a half-

life of 4 years. particular treatment re0uires 1$ minutes of irradiation when the source is first used. 5ow

much time is re0uired for this treatment) usin! the same source) 2 years later 6

(1) 7 minutes (2) 1$ minutes (3) 14 minutes (4) 2$ minutes

Q.11 8adiation from a radioactive source enters an evacuated re!ion in which there is a uniform ma!netic field

perpendicular to the plane of the dia!ram. This re!ion is divided into two by a sheet of aluminum about 1

mm thic9. The curved) hori:ontal path followed by the radiation is shown in fi!. .hich of the followin!

correctly describes the type of radiation and its point of entry 3

type of radiation point of entry

(1) alpha x

(2) alpha y

(3) beta x

(4) beta y

Q.12 If 1$1 of a radioactive substance decays in every ( years) then the percenta!e of the substance that will have

decayed in 2$ years will be -

(1) 4$1 (2) ($1 (3) ;(.; 1 (4) 34.41

Q.13 t time t " $) some radioactive !as is in<ected into a sealed vessel. t time T) some more of the same !as is

in<ected into the same vessel.

.hich one of the the followin! !raphs best represents the variation of the lo!arithms of the activity of the

!as with time t 6

(1) (2)

(3)

(4)

CAREER POINT) CP Tower, IPIA, Road No.1, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-3040000 2

Q.14 =ranium ores contain one radium-22; atom for every 2.4 > 1$

;

uranium-234 atoms. ?alculate the half-life of

'2=

234

!iven that the half-life of 448a

22;

is 1;$$ years (448a

22;

is a decay product of '2=

234

) -

(1) 1.7( > 1$

3

years (2) 1;$$ >

'2

234

years (3) 4.( > 1$

'

years (4) 1;$$ >

234

'2

years

Q.15 sample of radioactive material contains 1$

14

atoms. The half-life of the material is 2.$ days@ then the

activity of the sample is -

(1) 3.( > 1$

12

A0 (2) 7 > 1$

11

A0 (3) 7 > 1$

1;

A0 (4) 3.( > 1$

14

A0

Q.16 radioactive sample with half-life 1 hour has 4> 1$

1$

atoms at time t "$. The number of atoms decayin!

between t " 2 hrs and t " 4 hrs is-

(1) 4 > 1$

1$

(2) 1.( > 1$

1$

(3) :ero (4) 2 > 1$

1$

Q.1 &uppose the dau!hter nucleus in a nuclear decay is itself radioactive. If d and m denote the decay constants

of dau!hter and mother nuclei and Nd and Nm the numbers of dau!hter and mother nuclei present at a time)

then the number of dau!hter nuclei becomes constant when -

(1) mNm " dNd (2) mNd " dNm (3) Nm , Nd " m , d (4) Nm# Nd " m # d

ANSWERS $

1.%3&

x

;'3 . $

"

y

1

y * %

&ince)

x

dt

dN

,

" xN

nd

y

dt

dN

,

" yN

y

dt

dN

,

>

x

dt

dN

,

2ecay rate of Y > 2ecay rate of X.

2.%4& Brobability of distinct increases.

3.%1'2'4&

N " N$e

,t

N " Cumber of undecayed nuclei in the

sample at time t.

Total number of undecayed nuclei e0uals (N$ , N)

(N$ , N) " N$ (1 , e

,t

)

.hich is !rowin! e%ponentially with time.

ctivity R " , N "

dt

dN

4.%4& Dn the last day we have 1$$1 decay i.e. on

the ninth day ($1 decay must be there or

($1 must be left.

5.%3& &ince decay is to be re!arded as a statistical

spontaneous process) hence decay can be

re!arded as an diabatic process.

6.%3& &ince nuclear density is independent of mass

of nucleus) hence all possess e0ual density.

.%3&

dt

dN

" n , N

Aecause the population N is simultaneously

increasin! at rate n and decreasin! due to

decay at rate N.

N

N

N n

dN

$

,

"

t

dt

$

1

ln

N n

N n

,

,

$

" t

N "

n

#

n

N ,

$

e

,t

Db<ective Tric9

t t " $) N " N$ which is satisfied by (3) only.

!.%2&

$

N

N

" T T E (

2

1

@

$

N

N

" (

2

1

CAREER POINT) CP Tower, IPIA, Road No.1, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-3040000 3

$

N

N

> 1$$ "

32

1$$

" 3.12(.

!.%1& N1 " C$ 1 E ;

2

1

"

;

$

2

N

!ain) C2 " C$ 2 E ;

2

1

"

3

$

2

N

2ividin!)

2

1

N

N

"

;

3

2

2

"

4

1

Cow) A " N "

T

N ;'3 . $

2

1

A

A

"

2

1

N

N

"

2

1

N

N

1

2

T

T

"

4

1

>

1

2

"

4

1

.

#.%3& If C$ is the initial particles of the radioactive

source) then

initial activity

$

dt

dN

" , C$

where C " C$e

,t

@ t in years.

"

4

2 ln

@ half-life " 4 years.

Cumber of radioactive particles needed for

the treatment is

C "

;$ 24 3;( 4

1$

$

dt

dN

"

;$ 24 3;( 4

1$

$

N

FFF(1)

Two years later) the activity remained is

2

2

N

dt

dN

=

" , C$ e

,2

If minutes is needed for the same treatment) then

C "

;$ 24 3;( 4

2

t

dt

dN

;$ 24 3;( 4

2

$

e N t

FF..(2)

i. e.) t " 1$e

2

"

2 ln

2

1

1$e

"

2 1$

minute

" 14.1 minute

11.%1'4& -rays are electroma!netic waves of which no

deflection is observed when a beam of -rays

is allowed to pass throu!h a ma!netic field.

since the presence of ma!netic field deflects

the path of the radiation) particularly near G)

the radiation must either be -particles or -

particles

12.%4& C"C$e

,t

$

N

N

" e

,t @

N

N

$

" e

,t

@ t " lo!e

N

N

$

@

t "

1

lo!e

N

N

$

@ t lo!e

N

N

$

@ (

lo!e

'$

1$$

2$ H lo!e

N

N

$

2ividin!)

2$

(

"

N

N

$

1$

1$

lo!

'$

1$$

lo!

or lo!1$

'

1$

lo! 4

1$

$

=

N

N

or

4

$

'

1$

=

N

N

or

4

$

1$

'

=

N

N

" $.;(;1

Bercenta!e of substance that decays

" (1,$.;(;1) 1$$ " 34.3'

13.%2& The rate at which the atoms decays from the

radioactive !as is proportional to the umber

of atoms present in the !as by the e0uation

N

dt

dN

=

where is the radioactive decay constant.

Irom which we obtain

C " C$e

,t

where C$ is the initial number of atoms in the

!as at t " $

It is a strai!ht line of ne!ative !radient with

ma!nitude l when ln C is plotted a!ainst t.

Thus) from t " $ to T) the lo!arithmic of

number of atoms lnC decreases uniformly at

the rate of for the time period from t " $ to

t " T. .hen more of the same !as is in<ected

into the vessel) the number of atoms present

increases instantaneously and the decay of

atoms ta9es place at the same rate which is

best represented in !raph (2).

14.%3& N11 " N22

T "

;'3 . $

5ence 2.4 > 1$

(

>

) (

;'3 . $

1

U T

" 1 >

) (

;'3 . $

2

Ra T

T1(U) " 1;$$ > 2.4 > 1$

;

CAREER POINT) CP Tower, IPIA, Road No.1, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-3040000 4

" 4.44 > 1$

'

years J

,

4.( > 1$

'

years

15.%1& N

T

A =

;'3 . $

16.%2& T " 1 5r) C$ " 4 > 1$

1$

atoms

C1 " T E t

$

1

2

C

"

1 E 2

1$

2

1$ 4

"

4

1$ 4

1$

" 2 >

1$

1$

C2 " T E t

$

2

2

C

"

1 E 4

1$

2

1$ 4

"

1;

4

> 1$

1$

" $.( >

1$

1$

C " C1 , C2 " (2 , $.() > 1$

1$

" 1.( > 1$

1$

1.%1& The number of mother nuclei decayin! in a

short time interval dt is " Nmmdt. Aut death

of a mother nucleus implies the birth of a

dauther nucleus.

The number of dau!hter nuclei decayin! in

the same time interval is " Ndddt.

Nmmdt " Ndddt

or Nmm " Ndd

CAREER POINT) CP Tower, IPIA, Road No.1, Kota (Raj.), Ph: 0744-3040000 (

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