Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Dynamic modeling and control of spatial exible manipulators for

trajectory tracking application


Rajesh Kumar Moolam
1
, Francesco Braghin
1
, Federico Vicentini
2
1
Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Campus Bovisa Sud, via La Masa 1, 20156 Milano, Italy
rajeshkumar.moolam@polimi.it,francesco.braghin@polimi.it
2
Instituo di Tecnologie Industriali e Automazione, Via Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
federico.vicentini@itia.cnr.it
Abstract
Flexible manipulators have many advantages over rigid manipulators such as low energy consumption, high payload to
arm weight ratio and high operational speed. Thus, exible manipulators are more desirable over rigid manipulators.
However, these benets come at the cost of low stiffness in the system which makes difcult for modeling and control.
In this paper, the systematic approach for the dynamic modeling and control of spatial exible manipulators for trajectory
tracking applications is presented. The exible manipulators is considered to have exible links and revolute joints. The
exibility of each link is dened using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The dynamic model of exible manipulator is derived
using Lagrangian equation along with nite element method in generalized coordinates. Then the system of equations
in generalized coordinate form is converted into joint coordinate form using a recursive Kinematic formulation. The
dynamic model in joint coordinate form is used to design model based adaptive control to follow desired trajectory and
to suppress vibrations of endeffector. The adaptive controller ensures the stability of the system for unmodeled dynamics.
The numerical simulation results of a spatial 3 link RRR exible manipulator is presented.
Keywords: Spatial Flexible Manipulator, Adaptive control, Recursive kinematic formulation
1 Introduction
Rigid manipulators are used to improve productivity and exibility in operating conditions and to help human in tedious
and health hazard work. These manipulators are built with heavy material and bulky design to maximize stiffness for an
accurate end effector positioning. However, the bulky nature of rigid manipulator requires more power to operate, less
safe to work with humans. There is a need for improvements to meet the variety of demands such as high payload to arm
weight ratio, reduce the cost, high operation speed, easy transportability and to increase the human safety. The research
motivation on exible and light weight manipulators has been increased in recent years to meet these demands. However,
the use of lightweight materials inevitably induce low stiffness to the manipulator link. The low stiffness in manipulators
links leads to vibrations on the end-effector. The stiffness is distributed along the links and requires innite degrees of
freedom to dene the position of endeffector. The control objective in case of exible link manipulators (FLM) is to
move the endeffector along desired trajectory and also to supress vibrations of endeffector. The most challenging problem
in control design of FLM is under actuation and non-minimal phase nature. Under actuation is due to nite number of
actuators to control innite degrees of freedom that arise due to link exibility [1]. Non-minimum phase nature occurs
because of non-collocation of actuators and sensors.
The dynamic modeling is considered as an important step in model based control to achieve accurate trajectory track-
ing and to suppress vibrations of endeffector. The manipulator dynamics can be derived using Newton-Euler method
or Lagrangian method. To simplify the dynamic model, the exible link can be discretized by using assumed mode
method (AMM) or nite element method (FEM). W.J.Book [2] has developed the dynamic model using recursive La-
grangian approach via transformation matrix and dened exibility using AMM. The transformation matrix is 4x4 matrix
includes the joint exibility, which is an extension to classical rigid body transformation matrix. The advantage of this
approach is link deformation represented in the form of transformation matrix and can be easily used in algorithm im-
plementation.A.De.Luca [3] presented a closed from dynamic modeling approach for a planar multilink manipulators.
A Lagrangian method along with AMM is used to dene dynamics of exible manipulator. However, the drawback of
this method is difcult to nd modes for non-regular cross-sections. And the choice of boundary conditions for multilink
manipulator is not unique.
Using Finite element method, the issues related to AMM such as dening boundary conditions and irregular geometry
can be accounted in a simple way. R. J Theodore [4] has done comparison of AMM and FEM to efciently dene link
exibility studied. Lagrangian equation was used to derive closed form dynamic equations of motions. The numerical
results are presented for a spatial RRP manipulator. Mehrdad Farid [5] proposed a redundant Lagrangian FEMformulation
for the dynamic modeling of exible link and joints. The elastic deformation on each link is assumed due to bending and
torsion. The deformation of each link is expressed in tangential local oating frame. The constrained equations due
to connectivity of each link are added to equations of motion by using Lagrangian multiplier. D.S.Bae [6] developed
recursive coordinate formulation for general exible multibody dynamics. This formulation converts the generalized
coordinate form into a minimum set of equations.
Wayne J. Book [7] is the rst published and known work on feedback control of exible manipulator. He worked on
theoretical studies of PD feedback control of two-link two joint robot manipulator. Later stage, B. Siciliano [8], worked
on singular perturbation approach. In this approach, the system dynamics are divided into slow and fast dynamics and a
two stage controller is developed to tackle system vibrations and trajectory tracking. Slow dynamics are mainly to control
the rigid body motion along the predened trajectory along joint space. Fast dynamics are responsible for stability of
vibrations along the joint trajectory. In this approach, the spill over problem in fast dynamics is bounded by a perturbation
parameter. But its accuracy and convergence mainly depend on the perturbation parameter which governs slow and fast
dynamics of the system.
A de Luca [9] and R Seifried [10] proposed stable inversion method, an indirect way of solving zero dynamics to solve
non minimum phase problem. Paper [9] solved the internal dynamics using Iterative learning methods in time, frequency
domain and Nonlinear regulator. Paper [10] has proposed for trajectory tracking of exible manipulator the conversion
of the system into input-output norm form by coordinate transformation. Then, the internal dynamics are solved as a two
sided boundary problem using MATLAB solver bvp5c. These techniques successfully applied for endeffector trajectory
tracking, however this approach to design controller needs prior knowledge of exible coordinates for the reference
endeffector trajectory. Nonlinear Adaptive controller is proposed by J.H. Yang [11] for endeffector tracking of exible
link manipulators and tested on a planar exible link manipulator. But the limitation of this approach is trajectory should
be stationary or asymptotically stationary.
There are number of publication on the different dynamic modeling approaches and control techniques to address
the difculties that exist in exible manipulators due to low stiffness. They are limited to dynamic modeling or control
techniques for planar exible manipulators. This paper, addresses the complete dynamic modeling and adaptive control
procedure for a open loop spatial exible link manipulators. The systematic approach is presented on dynamic modeling
based on Lagranges equation along with nite element method. A recursive kinematic formulation is developed for a
revolute joints that allow the minimum set of equations. Adaptive controller is designed for trajectory tracking and to
suppress vibrations. The simulation results of a spatial RRR link manipulator is presented.
2 Mathematical modeling of exible link manipulator
2.1 Kinematics of exible manipulator
The kinematics of exible link i is dened using oating reference formulation [12]. Floating reference formulation uses
two set of coordinates i.e. q = [q
r
q
f
] to dene conguration of each link. One set of coordinates q
r
represents the
position and orientation of body coordinate system X
i
Y
i
Z
i
which is attached to the link i and another set of coordinates
q
f
represents the deformation of link with respect to body coordinate system X
i
Y
i
Z
i
. The arbitrary point p on exible
link i shown in Figure 1 can be dened as
r
i
p
= R
i
+A
i
(u
r
+u
f
) (1)
where R
i
= [R
x
R
y
R
z
]
T
is position vector of body coordinate system X
i
Y
i
Z
i
and orientation of X
i
Y
i
Z
i
is dened
using euler parameters
i
= [
0

1

2

3
].

0
= cos

2
and [
1

2

3
] = sin

2
(2)
where is unit vector along the axis of rotation. A
i
is the rotation matrix dened using euler parameters as
A
i
=
_
_
1 2
2
2
2
3
2
2(
1

3
) 2(
1

3
+
0

2
)
2(
1

2
+
0

3
) 1 2
1
2
2
3
2
2(
2

1
)
2(
1

2
) 2(
2

3
+
0

1
) 1 2
1
2
2
2
2
_
_
(3)
Figure 1. Representation of an arbitrary point on deformed link
u
r
is position vector of point P in undeformed state with respect to X
i
Y
i
Z
i
and u
f
is the deformation vector at point P.
The deformation vector u
f
at point p is dened as
u
f
= Sq
f
(4)
where S is the shape function matrix and q
f
is elastic coordinates.
2.2 Dynamics of exible manipulator
For the exible link i, the equations of motion is dened using Lagranges equation.
d
dt
_
T
i
q
i
_
T

_
T
i
q
i
_
T
= Q
i
(5)
where T
i
is kinetic energy of link i; q
i
and q
i
are the generalized coordinates and velocitys of link i dened in global
coordinate system XYZ. Q
i
is vector of generalized forces. The exible link i is discretized using nite element method
to approximate the deformation of link. The nite element representation on link i is shown in Figure 2. The kinetic
energy of link i can be obtained by summation of kinetic energy of its elements. The Kinetic energy of element j on link i
Figure 2. Representation of Finite element Coordinates on link i
is obtained using
T
ij
=
1
2
_
V
ij

ij
r
ij
T
r
ij
dV
ij
(6)
where
ij
and V
ij
are respectively, the mass density and volume of element ij. r
ij
is the global velocity vector of arbitrary
point on element ij. The global velocity vector r
ij
can be obtained by differentiating the equation (1) with respect to time
i.e.
r
ij
=

R
ij
+A
i
(
i
u
ij
) +A
i
S
ij
q
i
f
(7)
where
i
is angular velocity vector dened in body coordinate systemX
i
Y
i
Z
i
. The angular velocity
i
is expressed using
euler parameters as

i
= G
i

i
(8)
where
G
i
= 2
_
_

1

0

3

2

2

3

0

1

3

2

1

0
_
_
(9)
Rearranging the equation (7) in matrix form yields
r
ij
=
_
I A
i

u
ij
G
i
A
i
S
ij
_
_
_

R
i

i
q
f
i
_
_
(10)
Substituting the velocity vector r
ij
in equation (6) gives
T
ij
=
1
2
q
i
T
M
ij
q
i
(11)
where q
i
= [R
i

i
q
f
i
]
T
is the generalized coordinates of link i and
M
ij
=
_
V
ij

ij
_

_
I A
i

u
ij
G
i
A
i
S
ij
G
i
T

u
ij
T

u
ij
G
i
G
i
T

u
ij
T
S
ij
symmetric S
ij
T
S
ij
_

_ (12)
The total kinetic energy of link i is dened as summation of kinetic energy of its element i.e.
T
i
=
n
e

j=1
T
ij
=
1
2
q
i
T
_
_
n
e

j=1
M
ij
_
_
q
i
(13)
Substituting total kinetic energy T
i
in Lagranges equation (5) gives
d
dt
_
T
i
q
i
_
T

_
T
i
q
i
_
T
= M
i
q
i
+

M
i
q
i

_

q
i
_
1
2
q
i
T
M
i
q
i
__
T
(14)
In above equation, the coriolis and centrifugal force term is dened as
h
i
=

M
i
q
i

_

q
i
_
1
2
q
i
T
M
i
q
i
__
T
(15)
To derive the generalized forces Q
i
acting on link i, the virtual work of forces is dened as
W
i
= W
i
s
+W
i
e
(16)
where W
i
s
is virtual work of elastic forces due to the deformation of link i and W
i
e
is virtual work of external forces
applied on link i.
W
i
s
=
_
i
V

i
T
dV
i
(17)
where
i
and
i
are stress and strain vectors of link i.

i
= D
i
u
f
= D
i
S
i
q
i
f
(18)
And

i
= E
i

i
= E
i
D
i
S
i
q
i
f
(19)
Substituting equation (18) and equation (19) in equation (17) gives
W
i
s
= q
i
T
f
__
i
V
(D
i
S
i
)
T
E
i
D
i
S
i
dV
i
_
q
i
f
= q
i
T
f
K
i
ff
q
i
f
(20)
where D
i
is differential operator, S
i
shape function matrix and E
i
is elastic coefcients. The virtual work of external
forces is dened as
W
i
e
= Q
i
T
e
q
i
(21)
Substituting W
i
s
and W
i
e
in equation (16) yields
W
i
= Q
T
i
q
i
(22)
where Q
i
is vector of generalized forces. It can be expressed as
Q
i
= K
i
q
i
+Q
i
e
(23)
Substituting Kinetic energy T
i
and generalized forces Q
i
in Lagranges equation (5) gives the equations of motion in
generalized coordinate form
M
i
q
i
+h
i
+K
i
q
i
= Q
i
e
(24)
Equation (24) represents the dynamic model without joint constraints. The joint constraints are imposed using recursive
kinematic formulation.
2.3 Recursive Kinematic Formulation
Using kinematic recursive formulation, the system of equations in generalized coordinates is converted in to independent
coordinate form. Consider two exible link i-1 and i shown in Figure 3 which are connected by a revolute joint j. The
Figure 3. Representation of Relative body Coordinates
joint allows relative rotation along joint axis and has one rigid body coordinates
i
. The following kinematic relationship
for revolute joint holds a relation between generalized coordinates and independent coordinates
R
i
+A
i
u
i
p
R
i1
A
i1
u
i1
p
= 0 (25)

i
=
i1
+
i1
j

i
j
+
i,i1
(26)
where u
i
p
and u
i1
p
are local position vector of joint dened on link i, i-1 respectively.
i
j
and
i1
j
are respectively the
local angular velocity vectors of joint due to elastic deformation on link i, i-1. These vector quantities are dened as

i1
j
= A
i1
S
i1
jr
q
f
i1
(27)

i
j
= A
i
S
i
jr
q
f
i
(28)
In which S
i
jr
and S
i1
jr
are respectively the shape functions of joint rotations due to elastic deformation on link i and i-1.

i,i1
is relative angular velocity vector of link i with respect to link i-1 is expressed as

i,i1
=
i1

i
(29)
where
i1
is rotation axis dened with respect to link i-1 in global coordinate system XYZ.

i1
= A
i1

i1
(30)

i1
is constant vector dened with respect to link i-1 in body coordinate systemX
i1
Y
i1
Z
i1
. Differentiating equation
(25) twice with respect to time and equation (26) once with respect to time yields

R
i
A
i

u
i
p
G
i

i
+A
i
S
i
jt
q
f
i
=

R
i1
A
i1

u
i1
p
G
i1

i1
+A
i1
S
i1
jt
q
f
i1
+
R
(31)

i
=
i1
+A
i1
S
i1
jr
q
f
i1
A
i
S
i
jr
q
f
i
+A
i1

i1

i
+

(32)
where S
i
jt
and S
i1
jt
are respectively the shape functions of joint translations due to elastic deformation on link i and i-1.

R
and

are written as

R
= A
i
_

i
_
2
u
i
p
+A
i1
_

i1
_
2
u
i1
p
2A
i

i
S
i
jt
q
i
f
+ 2A
i1

i1
S
i1
jt
q
i1
f
(33)

= A
i1

i1

i1

i
+A
i1

i1
S
i1
jr
q
i1
f
A
i

i
S
i
jr
q
i
f
(34)
Rearranging the equation (31) and (32) in matrix form gives
_

_
I A
i

u
i
p
G
i
A
i
S
i
jt
0 A
i
G
i
A
i
S
i
jr
0 0 I
_

_
_
_

R
i

i
q
f
i
_
_
=
_

_
I A
i1

u
i1
p
G
i1
A
i1
S
i1
jt
0 A
i1
G
i1
A
i1
S
i1
jr
0 0 0
_

_
_
_

R
i1

i1
q
f
i1
_
_
+
_
A
i1

i1
0
0 I
_ _

i
q
f
i
_
+
_

_
(35)
The equation (35) is written in compact form as
D
i
q
i
= D
i1
q
i1
+H
i
P
i
+
i
(36)
where
D
i
=
_

_
I A
i

u
i
p
G
i
A
i
S
i
jt
0 A
i
G
i
A
i
S
i
jr
0 0 I
_

_ (37)
H
i
=
_
A
i1

i1
0
0 I
_
(38)
P
i
=
_

i
q
i
f
_
T
(39)

i
=
_

T
(40)
The generalization of recursive formulation for a n link manipulator is expressed as
_

_
D
1
0 0
D
1
D
2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 0 D
n1
D
n
_

_
_

_
q
1
q
2
.
.
.
q
n
_

_
=
_

_
H
1
0 0
0 H
1
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 0 0 H
n
_

_
_

P
1

P
2
.
.
.

P
n
_

_
+
_

2
.
.
.

n
_

_
(41)
The generalized accelerations q
i
can be expressed in terms of joint coordinates as
q
i
= B
i

P
i
+
i
(42)
where
B
i
=
_

_
D
1
0 0
D
1
D
2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 0 D
n1
D
n
_

_
1
_

_
H
1
0 0
0 H
1
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 0 0 H
n
_

_
(43)
And

i
=
_

_
D
1
0 0
D
1
D
2
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0 0 D
n1
D
n
_

_
1
_

2
.
.
.

n
_

_
(44)
Substituting the generalized acceleration q
i
in equation (24), gives the dynamic model of exible link manipulator in
joint coordinates form, which can be used to design model based controller.
3 Adaptive Control
In this section, model based adaptive controller design is presented. The Lyapunov function [11] is used to show the
closed loop stability of the system having uncertainty in the model. Consider a nominal model
M(q) q +h(q, q) q +G(q) = B (45)
where M(q) is Inertia matrix, h(q, q) is coriolis and centrifugal term, G(q) contains elastic forces and gravitational forces.
Here q = [q
i
r
q
i
f
] are the independent coordinates. q
i
r
denes rigid body rotations and q
i
f
are elastic deformations. Position
error along the trajectory is dened as
e =
_
e
r
e
f
_
=
_
q
rd
q
r
q
fd
q
f
_
(46)
where q
rd
and q
fd
are the desired rigid and exible coordinates. q
fd
is set to zeros to suppress vibrations.
s = e +e =
_
e
r
+
r
e
r
e
f
+
f
e
f
_
(47)
where
=
_

r
0
0
f
_
(48)
The error dynamics of the system with newly dened signal S
r
and S
f
can be derived as
_
M
rr
M
rf
M
fr
M
ff
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
+
_
h
rr
h
rf
h
fr
h
ff
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
+
_
K
vr
0
0 K
vf
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
=
_

m
+K
vr
s
r

a
_
(49)
where

m
=M
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +M
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +h
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +h
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) (50)

a
=M
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +M
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +h
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +h
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) K
ff
e
f
(51)
The dynamics of the exible manipulator is expressed in term of linear type parametric model as
W
1

1
=M
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +M
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +h
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +h
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) (52)
W
2

2
=M
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +M
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +h
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +h
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) K
ff
e
f
(53)
where W
1
and W
2
are nr
1
, mr
2
are regression matrix for appropriate r
1
, r
2
> 0. And
1
,
2
are unknown constant
parameter.
To design adaptive controller for the error dynamics show in equation (49), the following function is considered

Y =
_
_
_
2(

Y a(t) +b(t)) Y (t) > 0


2b(t) Y (t) = 0 b(t) > 0
Y (t) = 0 b(t) 0
(54)
where
a(t) =
s
r

2
s
r

2
+
(s
T
f
W
1

1
+s
T
f
K
vf
s
f
) (55)
b(t) =

s
r

2
+
(s
T
f
W
2

2
+s
T
f
K
vf
s
f
) (56)
And is a small positive constant. The above function Y (t) 0 for all t 0 . Let k =

Y or k
2
= Y , then k(t) can be
checked to satisfy differential equation

k =
1
k
_
ks
r

s
r

2
+
_
(s
T
f
W
1

1
+s
T
f
K
vf
s
f
), k = 0 (57)
Equation (57) is a differential equation to check the variable Y (t) is always positive and k(t) is dened to be its root. The
control law with parameter estimates is chosen as
= W
1

1
+K
vr
s
r
+
f
(58)
where

f
=
(1 +k)s
r
s
r

2
+
(s
T
f
W
2

2
+s
T
f
K
vf
s
f
) (59)
In which,

1
and

2
are the estimates of
1

2
respectively.
W
1

1
=

M
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +

M
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +

h
rr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +

h
rf
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) (60)
W
2

2
=

M
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +

M
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
) +

h
fr
( q
rd
+
r
e
r
) +

h
ff
( q
fd
+
f
e
f
)

K
ff
e
f
(61)
With this proposed controller the error dynamics of the system is obtained as
_
M
rr
M
rf
M
fr
M
ff
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
+
_
h
rr
h
rf
h
fr
h
ff
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
+
_
K
vr
0
0 K
vf
_ _
s
r
s
f
_
=
_
W
1

f
W
2

2
+K
vf
s
f
_
(62)
where

1
=
1

1
and

2
=
2

2
are the parameter estimation error. The adaptation law is derived as

1
= K
1
W
T
1
s
r
(63)

2
= K
2
W
T
2
s
f
(64)
where K
1
, K
2
are positive denite matrix. The stability of the controller is derived using Lyapunov function
V =
1
2
s
T
M(q)s +
1
2

T
1
K
1
1

1
+
1
2

T
2
K
1
2

2
+
1
2
Y
=
1
2
s
T
M(q)s +
1
2

T
1
K
1
1

1
+
1
2

T
2
K
1
2

2
+
1
2
k
2
(65)
Differentiating equation (65) with respect to time yield

V =
1
2
s
T

M(q)s +s
T

M(q) s +

T
1
K
1
1

1
+

T
2
K
1
2

2
+k

k
= s
T
K
v
s for k > 0
(66)
which is clear

V < 0 whenever K
v
is positive denite and k > 0.
4 Simulation Results
A three Link spatial RRR manipulator shown in Figure 4 is considered to demonstrate the end point trajectory control
using adaptive controller. Each exible link is modeled using two nite element beams with six degrees of freedom on
each node and one degree of freedom for rigid body rotations. Uniform cross-section and material properties are assumed
on each link. The parameters of RRR manipulator is presented in Table 1.
Figure 4. Spatial RRR exible link manipulator.
Table 1. Parameters of Manipulator
Parameter Link 1 Link 2 Link 3
Link Length (L) 1 m 4.0 m 3.5 m
C/s Area(A) 0.028 m
2
0.0020 m
2
0.0008 m
2
Tensile Modulus 206000 MPa
Shear Modulus 79300 MPa
Density () 8253 Kg/m
3
Figure 5. Reference joint trajectory
5 Conclusion
In this paper, the dynamic modeling using Lagranges equation along with nite element method for a spatial exible
manipulators is presented. This method allows generality in the modeling. The recursive kinematic formulation minimizes
the set of equations and eliminates the joint constraint forces based on the topology of manipulator. Thus, this approach
has computational advantage and the dynamic model can be used directly in control design. The model based adaptive
controller is designed and tested on 3 link RRR exible manipulator. The controller has showed stability and accurate
trajectory tracking along the reference trajectory. The endeffector vibrations along trajectory motion is minimized. The
endeffector vibrations in Figure 7 shows a good damping of rst vibration mode. But the second vibration mode has a
very low damping which is evident towards the end of reference trajectory. The vibration damping of higher modes can
be achieved by carefully tuning the gains K
vf
.
Figure 6. Error along joint trajectory
Figure 7. Endeffector displacements along the trajectory
References
[1] A. De. Luca. Control problems in underactuated manipualtors. EEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced
Intelligent Mechatronics, Vol. 2, pp. 855-861, 2001.
[2] W. J. Book. Recursive Lagrangian dynamics of exible manipulator arms via transformation matrices. 1983.
[3] A. De. Luca, B. Siciliano. Closed-form dynamic model of planar multi-link lightweight robots. IEEE Transactions
on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 21, Issue 4, 826-839 ,1991.
[4] R.J.Theodore, and Ashitava Ghosal. Comparison of the assumed modes and nite element models for exible mul-
tilink manipulators. The International journal of robotics research, Vo. 14, Issue 2, 91-111, 1995.
[5] M. Farid, and S. A. Lukasiewicz. Dynamic modeling of spatial manipulators with exible links and joints. Computers
& Structures, Vol. 75, Issue 4, 419-437, 2000.
[6] D.S. Bae, J. M. Han, J. H. Choi and S. M. Yang. A generalized recursive formulation for constrained exible
multibody dynamics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vo.50, Issue 8, 1841-1859,
2001.
[7] W. J. Book. Modeling, design, and control of exible manipulator arms: A tutorial review. IEEE Conference on
Decision and Control, 500-5006, 1990.
[8] B. Siciliano and W.J. Book. Application of Singular Perturbation Theory to the Control of Flexible Link Manipula-
tors. 1986.
[9] A. De. Luca. Trajectory control of exible manipulators. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, Volume
230/1998, 83-104, DOI: 10.1007/BFb0015078.
[10] R. Seifried, M. Burkhardt and A. Held. Trajectory Control of Flexible Manipulators using Model Inversion Multi-
body Dynamics 2011, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 2011.
[11] Jung Hua Yang, Feng Li Lian and Li Chen Fu. Nonlinear adaptive control for exible-link manipulators. IEEE
Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 13, Issue1, Feb 1997.
[12] A. Shabana. Dynamics of Multibody Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.