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Global Piping Solutions


Flat no 210, Bhanu Enclave, ESI, Hyderabad. Phone 91-40-2436728, 9392138722, 9392138721
1 What are the types of compressors?
Ans: Positive Displacement, Centrifugal and Axial, rotary screw, rotary vane, rotary
lobe, dynamic, liquid ring compressors.
2 What are types of compressor drives?
Ans : Electric motor, gas turbine, steam turbine and gas engine.
3 How Centrifugal compressors work ?
Ans : High-speed impellers increase the kinetic energy of the gas, converting this
energy into higher pressures in a divergent outlet passage called a difuser. Large
volume of gas at moderate pressure.
4. What are types of steam turbine and why are they popular?
Ans : Condensing and non-condensing, Popular because can convert large amounts
of heat energy into mechanical work very efciently.
5. Where gas turbine drive is used ?
Ans : Desserts and ofshore platforms where gas is available, for gas transmission,
gas lift, liquid pumping, gas re-injection and process compressors.
6. What are the auxillary equipments of compressor?
Ans : Lube oil consoles, Seal oil consoles, Surface condensers, Condensate pump, Air
blowers, Inlet air flters, Wast heat system, compressor suction drum, knock out pot,
Pulsation dampner, volume bottles, Inter and after coolers.
7. What are the types of seal oil system?
Ans : Gravity and pressurized.
8. What factors to be considered while designing compressor housing?
Ans : Operation, Maintenance, Climate conditions, Safety, Economics.
9. What are the compressor housing design points?
Ans : Floor elevation, building width, building elevation, hook centerline elevation.
10. What are the types of compressor cases?
Ans : Horizontal split case, Vertical split case.
11. What are compressor suction line requirements ?
Ans : Minimum 3D straight pipe between elbow and inlet nozzle, increases based on
inlet piping layout. 4D JITENDRA SURVE PIPING GUIDE 02/05/03 - 2
12. What are necessary parts of inlet line of compressor?
Ans : Block Valve, Strainer, Break out fanges in both inlet and outlet to remove
casing covers, Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough straight piece in inlet line
available, PSV in interstage line and in discharge line before block valve.
13. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping layout?
Ans : High pulsation, simple line as low to grade as possible for supporting, analog
study, all branches close to line support and on top, Isolate line support from
adjacent compressor or building foundations
14. What are the types of compressor shelters?
Ans : On ground with no shelter, Open sided structure with a roof, Curtain wall
structure (Temperate climates), Open elevated installation, Elevated multicompressor
structure. DRUMS
15. What are drum internals?
Ans : Demister pads, Bafes, Vortex breakers, Distribution piping.
16. What are drum elevation requirements?
Ans : NPSH, minimum clearance, common platforming, maintenance, operator
17. What are drum supports?
Ans : Skirt for large drums, legs, lugs, saddles for horizontal drums.

18. What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, vent, manhole, drain, overfow, agitator, temperature element,
level instrument, and steamout connection.
19. What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel?
Ans : Inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level guage, pressure
gauge, temperature element, vent and for steamout.

20. What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles?
Ans : Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle, although the vessel is
provided with a vortex breaker, instrument should be set in the quiet zone of the
vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or bafe or near the vapor outlet
. 21. What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum?
Ans : Minimum from the tangent line. JITENDRA SURVE PIPING GUIDE 02/05/03
22. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum?
Ans : At the end opposite to the maintenance access
23. What is preferred location for vent ?
Ans : AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out connecton.
24. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum?
Ans : Must be anywhere in the vapor space, preferable at the top section of drum
25. What is preferred location for temperature instrument?
Ans : Must be in liquid space, preferably on the bottom section of drum. 26. What is
preferred location for drain? Ans : Must be located at the bottom section of drum.
1. What is NPSH ?
Ans : It is measure of the pressure drop of the liquid as it moves form the inlet of the
pump to the eye of the impeller, determined by testing and expressed in feet of water
by pump manufacturer.
2. What is cavitation ?
Ans : Cavitation is a rapid collapse of vapor pressure that can produce noise, result
in loss of head and capacity and create a severe erosion of the impeller and casing
surface in the adjacent inlet areas.
3. What is velocity head?
Ans : The head loss caused by the consumed power to accelerate stationary fuid to
suction line velocity during pump startup. Its about 1 ft.
4. What is standard for petroleum pumps?
Ans : API 610 is the standard for centrifugal pumps in petroleum industry.
5. Where positive displacement pumps are used ?
Ans : Used to move viscous liquids, injects chemicals or additives into a system, or
pump quantities too small for centrifugal pumps.
6. What are types of rotary pumps ?
Ans : External Gear, Cam and piston, two lobe, three lobw, single screw, Two screw.
7. Where rotary pumps are used ?
Ans : For viscous liquids that are free of hard and abrasive fuids
8. Where should boiler feed water pumps be located ?
Ans : They take water from a deaerator and generally operate close to the vapor
pressure of the liquid, hence they must be located as close to the deaerator as

9. Tell something about vertical pumps ?
Ans : Used where low available NPSH is not sufcient, for surface condenser, for
waste material in concrete pit, screen at the bottom.
10. Where centrifugal pumps in vacuum service be located ?
Ans : directly below tower, may be on spring supports.
11. How to support discharge line of centrifugal pump ?
Ans : Discharge line should be supported as close to the top elbow as possible and
should be within fve diameters of that elbow, using spring support.
12. How suction line is supported?
Ans : Commonly supported under the elbow adjacent to the pump nozzle.
13. How the suction line reducer should be placed ?
Ans : It should be placed top fat.
14. What are suction line requirements?
Ans : To fat reducer, strainer, block valve, no pockets, as short as possible with
consideration to stress, min straight length of 3D.
15. What are the requirements of discharge piping?
Ans : Reducer, Pressure indicator, check valve, block valve, min. stress, support at top
16. What is accepted distance between pumps?
Ans : 1200 MM / 4 feet.
17. What is special requirement for discharge line of positive displacement pump?
Ans : Relief valve whose discharge is connected in suction line between the isolating
valve and the pump. REACTOR
18. Tell about reactor?
Ans : Heart, mixing, chemical reaction, heat generated-absorbed, agitation, jacket,
heating coils, cooling. FURNACES
19. Where furnaces shall be located ?
Ans : Furnaces shall be located upwind or side wind of process units to blow any
combustible leaks away from the open fame, Min 90M away from tanks and 30M
away from control room.
20. What should be stack height?
Ans : Stack height shall be minimum 6M above working platform in the vicinity of
21. Where spiral heat exchangers are used?
Ans : Generally in chemical plants
22. How piping is positioned for spiral heat exchanters ?
Ans : Piping positioned to allow opening of covers and the removal plates. SHELL
23. What are the types of tube arrangments?
Ans : U-tube, Fixed tube, kettle arrangement.
24. What is full form of TEMA?
Ans : Tubular exchangers manufacturers Association.
25. Which fuids to be sent through tubes?
Ans : Fouling and/or corrosive fuids (Easy cleaning and cheaper to replace tubes
than shell), hotter fuid : To reduce heat loss to the surroundings except steam.,
refrigerant, cooling fuid.
26. What should be clearance between fanges of exchangers?
27. Where plate exchangers are used ?
Ans : Low pressure, low temperature applications. DOUBLE PIPE OR FIN TUBE
28. Where used ?
Ans : Used when liquid has a greater resistance to heat fow than another or when
GUIDE 02/05/03
29. Where used ?
Ans : To cool tower overhead vapors. LPG STORAGE
30. How to group LPG Vessels ?
Ans : Max 6 Vessels, total capacity 15,000 cum, curb wall, distance between vessels of
diferent groups
30M, separate dedicated manifold for each group.
31. Where to located LPG Storage ?
Ans : Downwind of process units, important buildings and facilities, not in same
dyke where other fammable liquid HCs stored, single row in case of spheres and
bullets, not one above the other, bullet head not toward other vessel, no dip ditch to
avoid LPG Settling.
32. How to operate LPG Cylinders ?
Ans : Separate area for empty and flled cylinders, Cylinders vertical, not near other
gase cylinders, never below grade, smooth trucking trafc.
1.What are instrument categories?
Ans : General, fow, temperature, pressure, level, density etc.
2.Which instruments are handled by piping department ?
Ans : fame arrestor, breather valve.
3.What are basic functions of instruments?
Ans : To sense, transmit, indicate, read and control.
4. Why block valve is used at the root of an instrument like pressure
Ans : They are needed to isolate gages for maintenance during plant
operation and during hydrostatic testing of piping system. They are called
root valve.
5.Where diaphragm assembly is used ?
Ans : For corrosive, abrasive, viscous fuids. Neutral fuid like glycol is used
on instrument side of diaphragm.
6. Where and why bleed valve is used in instruments ?
Ans : If the conveyed fuid is hazardous or under high pressure, a branch
ftted with a bleed valve is inserted between the gage and its isolating valve,
to relieve pressure and /or drain the liquid before servicing the gage. It can
also be used to sample or for adding a comparison gage.
7. Why control valves are usually fanged?
Ans : For ease of installation and removal during maintenance.
8. Where ball control valve is used?
Ans : Suitable where nature of fuid is slurry form or handling two phase
fow having particle in suspension, for non-critical and critical fuids having a
fuid temperature to suit the soft seat material and where relatively low
pressure drop is required across control valve. They have side mounted
9. Where butterfy control valve is used ?
Ans : Used for large size piping network handling clean fuid for low
pressure drop across control valve and soft seated control valve. Metal seated
valves used for higher temperatures.
10. How control valve block valves should be located ?
Ans : They should be as close to control valve as possible, considering drain
requirement and handwheel clearance. At least one of the block valve should
be placed in vertical so that spool can be removed allowing the control valve
to be removed.
11. How TSO valve should be installed ?
Ans : Tight shut of (TSO) valve or reduced port ball control valve should be
installed in vertical for gas service and horizontal ok for liquid service.
12. How bypass valve in control station should be located?
Ans : Near inlet branch point, not above control valve, with 200mm clearance
between actuator and valve.
13. How control station should be supported ?
Ans : It should be supported such that control station piping is self
supporting even if the control valve is removed. Normally, on exit side
elbows of bottom run of control valve.
14. Why and where drain should be located in control valve assembly ?
Ans : Drain is used to drain the piping between two block valves on two
sides of control valve before removing control valve for maintenance. It must
be located at lowest point of bottom run. One drain is used if control valve is
fails open, and two drain used if control valve fails close, as both sides are
blocked in this case. For one drain, it should be upstream side of control
15. Where reducer shall be located in control valve assembly ?
Ans : As close as possible to control valve, preferably directly welded control
valve fanges.
16. How breakup fanges for control valve should be located ?
Ans : One vertical and one horizontal which is achieved by having one block
valve in vertical leg of control valve inlet. Do not place support on inlet
17. What are the types of fow measuring devices?
Ans : Orifce plate, Variable area fow meter i.e. rota meter, magnetic fow
meter, turbine fow meter, positive displacement meter.
18. What is piping and instrument scope of supply for orifce meter ?
Ans : Piping provided gaskets and bolts and tapping from orifce plate to
two block valves. Instrument provides orifce plate and fange assembly and
connection down stream of block valves.
19. How orifce fange taps should be oriented ?
Ans : For liquid and steam, it should be horizontal or 45 degree down from
horizontal on both sides. For gas and vapor lines, it should be vertical or 45 to
vertical on both sides. Taps are 0.5 inch.
20. What are straight run requirements of orifce plate ?
Ans : Inlet straight run requirement can be 15D to 20D and outlet straight
run requirement 5D min. It depends on piping confguration and d/D ration
i.e. ration of inside dia of orifce plate and pipe. It is to be confrmed with
instrument engineer in instrument specifcation of project.
21. What are straight run requirements for vortex meters?
Ans : 5D upstream.
22. Where restriction orifce plates are used ?
Ans : For efective distribution of fuid in piping network.
23. What are types of level measurement?
Ans : Direct and inferential
24. What are direct methods of level measurement?
Ans : Gauge glasses, refex or transparent, calibrated tapes or dip sticks
placed in vessel and calibrated directly in level or volume.
25. What are inferential methods of level measurement?
Ans : Hydrostatic head, buoyancy, conductance, radiation, foat.
26. What is hydrostatic head type level transmitter.?
Ans : Installed directly on nozzle, uses pressure sensing assembly to get the
level. Diaphragm type used for liquids with solids.
27. What are pressure instruments used in chemical industries?
Ans : Manometers, bourden tubes, bellows and diaphragms.
28. What are manometers?
Ans : Single or U type glass tube with mercury or other fuid. Inclined tube
for very low pressure measurement used.
29. What are types of bourdon tubes?
Ans : C, the spiral and helical, most widely used since 100 years.
30. What are temperature measuring instruments?
Ans : Thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors, flled system,
bimetallic thermometer, thermo wells.
31. What thermocouple metals normally used?
Ans : Iron + Constantine, Chromel + Alumel etc.
32. How resistance thermocouples work ?
Ans : Electrical resistance of a conductor changes with temperature.
33. How flled system temperature element work ?
Ans : Bourdon tube, flled with liquid, liquid expands, bourdoun tube
indicates on scale temperature.
34. How bimetallic thermocouple work ?
Ans : Diferent expansion of diferent metals bends the bimetallic strip to
indicate temperature. Invar and Nickel pair used.
35. What is minimum pipe size required for thermo well installation?
Ans : 3 RACK
36. What are design considerations for pipe rack ?
Ans : Rack width, no of levels and elevations, bent spacing, pipe fexibility,
Access and maintenance of each item in pipe rack.
37. What are steps in rack design?
Ans : Generate line routine diagram, Calculate bent spacing, set width of
rack, decide elevations and levels.
38. What is pipe bent?
Ans : Pipe bent consists of a vertical column or columns and a horizontal
structural member or members that carry piping systems, usually above the
39. What factors afect pipe span?
Ans : Size, Schedule, liquid or vapor, insulated or bare pipe.
40. What are spandrels?
Ans : Horizontal structural members located along the longitudinal
centerline that are used for structural stability, pipe support or intermediate
pipe bents.
41. Which lines placed where in rack ?
Ans : Process lines on lower level, utility lines on top level, instrument and
cable trays on utility level or separate topmost level, Heavy lines near
columns, Flare line outside rack on cantilever beams or inside rack above top
level , steam lines with expansion loops on one side of rack, line s with orifce
runs on one side of rack beside columns for maintenance using portable
42. How much extra space required for rack ?
Ans : 20 % extra for future lines.
43. How to route steam lines on rack ?
Ans : Steam headers on top level or rack, determine growth by multiplying
coefcient (From nomograph) of expansion by length of line. Try anchor in
middle, determine growth of each branch and see weather the have enough
fexibility, if not anchor at th distance on both sides, determine amount of
expansion leg from nomograph, and decide loop size. Line that require
largest expansion leg should be located on the outside of the loop.
44. What insulating materials are used ?
Ans : Asbestos, calcium silicate, cellular glass, cellular silica, diatomaceous
silica plus asbestos, Mineral fbre, mineral wool, magnesia, polyeurothene
1. What are the steps in selection of valve?
Ans: What to handle, liquid, gas or powder, fuid nature, function, construction
material, disc type, stem type, how to operate, bonnet type, body ends, delivery time,
cost, warranty.
2. What are functions of valves?
Ans : Isolation, regulation, non-return and special purposes.
3. What are isolating valves?
Ans : Gate, ball, plug, piston, diaphragm, butterfy, pinch.
4. What are regulation valves?
Ans : Globe, needle, butterfy, diaphragm, piston, pinch.
5. What are non-return valves?
Ans : check valve,
6. What are special valves?
Ans : multi-port, fush bottom, foat, foot, pressure relief, breather.
7. What materials are used for construction of valves?
Ans : Cast iron, bronze, gun metal, carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy carbon steel,
polypropylene and other plastics, special alloys.
8. What is trim?
Ans : Trim is composed of stem, seat surfaces, back seat bushing and other small
internal parts that normally contact the surface fuid.
9. Which standard specifes trim numbers for valve ?
Ans : API 600.
10. What are wetted parts of valve?
Ans : All parts that come in contact with surface fuid are called wetted parts.
11. What is wire drawing?
Ans : This term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by
excessive velocity between seat and seat disc, when valve is not closed tightly.
12. What is straight through valve?
Ans : Valve in which the closing operation of valve is achieved by 90degrees turn of
the closing element.
13. What pressure tests are carried out on valves?
Ans : Shell-hydrostatic, seat-hydrostatic, seat-pneumatic
14. What are available valve operators?
Ans : Hand lever, handwheel, chain operator, gear operator, powered operator likes
electric motor, solenoid, pneumatic and hydraulic operators, Quick acting operators
for non-rotary valves (handle lift).
15. What are two types of ball valve?
Ans : Full port design and regular port design, according to type of seat, soft seat and
metal seat.
16. What are ball valve body types?
Ans : Single piece, double piece, three piece, the short pattern, long pattern, sand
witch and fush bottom design.
17. Why ball valves are normally fanged?
Ans : Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding.
18. What are butterfy valve types?
Ans : Double fange type, wafer lug type and wafer type.
19. What are types of check valve?
Ans : Lift check valves and swing check valves.
20. What are non-slam check valves?
Ans : Swing check valve, conventional check valve, wafer check valve, tilting disc
check valve, piston check valve, stop check valve, ball check valve.
21. Where stop check valve is used ?
Ans : In stem generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted between each
boiler and the main steam header. It can be optionally closed automatically or
22. Where diaphragm valves are used ?
Ans : Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut of valves.
23. What is Bar stock Valve?
Ans: Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (bar stock). Usually needle
or globe type.
24. What is BIBB Valve?
Ans: A small valve with turned down end, like a faucet.
25. What is Bleed Valve?
Ans: Small valve provided for drawing of liquid.
26. What is Blow Down Valve?
Ans Refers to a plug type disc globe valve used for removing sludge and sedimentary
matter from the bottom of boiler drums, vessels, driplegs etc.
27. What is Breather Valve?
Ans: A special self acting valve installed on storage tanks etc. to release vapor or gas
on slight increase of internal pressure ( in the region of to 3 ounces per square
28. What is Drip Valve?
Ans: A drain valve ftted to the bottom of a driplet to permit blowdown.
29. What is Flap Valve?
Ans: A non return valve having a hinged disc or rubber or leather fap used for low
pressure lines.
30. What is Hose Valve?
Ans: A gate or globe valve having one of its ends externally threaded to one of the
hose thread standards in use in the USA. These valves are used for vehicular and
frewater connections.
31. What is Paper-Stock Valve?
Ans: A single disc single seat gate valve (Slide gate) with knife edged or notched disc
used to regulate fow of paper slurry or other fbrous slurry.
32. What is Root Valve?
Ans: A valve used to isolate a pressure element or instrument from a line or vessel, or
a valve placed at the beginning of a branch form the header.
33. What is Slurry valve?
Ans: A knife edge valve used to control fow of non-abrasive slurries.
34. What is Spiral sock valve?
Ans: A valve used to control fow of powders by means of a twistable fabric tube or
35. What is Throttling valve? Ans: Any valve used to closely regulate fow in the just-
open position.
36. What is Vacuum breaker?
Ans: A special self-acting valve or nay valve suitable for vacuum service, operated
manually or automatically, installed to admit gas (usually atmospheric air) into a
vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are installed on high points of piping or
vessels to permit draining and sometimes to prevent siphoning.
37. What is Quick acting valve ?
Ans: Any on/of valve rapidly operable, either by manual lever, spring or by piston,
solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing a weight which in falling operates
the valve. Quick acting valves are desirable in lines conveying fammable liquids.
Unsuitable for water or for liquid service in general without a cushioning device to
protect piping from shock.
38. What is diverting valve ?
Ans : This valve switch fow from one main line to two diferent outlets. WYE type
and pneumatic control type with no moving part.
39. What is sampling valve?
Ans : Usually of needle or globe pattern, placed in branch line for the purpose of
drawing all samples of process material thru the branch.
40. What are blow of valve?
Ans : It is a variety of globe valve confrming with boiler code requirements and
specially designed for boiler blowof service. WYE pattern and angle type, used to
remove air and other gases from boilers etc.
41. What is relief valve?
Ans : Valve to relieve excess pressure in liquids in situations where full fow
discharge is not required, when release of small volume of liquid would rapidly
lower pressure.
42. What is safety valve?
Ans : Rapid opening(popping action) full fow valve for air and other gases.
43. What is foot valve?
Ans : Valve used to maintain a head ofwater on the suction side of sump pump,
basically a lift check valve with integrated strainer.
44. What is foat valve?
Ans : Used to control liquid level in tanks, operated by foat, which rises with liquid
level and opens the valve to control water level. It can also remove air from system, in
which case, air fows out of system in valve open condition, but when water reaches
valve, foat inside valve raises to close the valve and stop fow of water. Used in drip
45. What are fush bottom valves?
Ans : Special type of valves used to drain out the piping, reactors and vessels,
attached on pad type nozzles.
46. What are types of fush bottom valves?
Ans : Valves with discs opening into the tank and valves with disks into the valve
47. What are the uses of three-way valve?
Ans : Alternate connection of the two supply lines to a common delivery vise versa,
isolating one safety valve, division of fow with isolation facility.
48. What are uses of four way valve?
Ans : Reversal of pump suction and delivery, By pass of strainer or meter, reversal of
fow through flter, heat exchanger or dryer.
49. What is metal seated lubricated plug valve?
Ans : A plug valve with no plastic material, where grease is applied to contacting
surfaces for easy operation.
50. What are three patterns of plug valve design?
Ans : Regular pattern, short pattern and ventury pattern
51. What is regular pattern plug valve?
Ans : Rectangular port, area almost equal to pipe bore, smooth transition from round
body to rectangular port, for minimum pressure loss.
52. What are short pattern plug valve?
Ans : Valves with face to face dimension of gate valve, as a alternative to gate valve.
53. What are ventury pattern plug valve?
Ans : Change of section through the body throat so graded to have ventury efect,
minimum pressure loss.
54. What are inverted plug design valve?
Ans : Plug valve with taper portion up of plug. For 8 and higher size.
55. What is pressure balanced plug valve?
Ans : With holes in port top and bottom connecting two chambers on top and bottom
of plug, to reduce turning efort.
56. What are Tefon sleeved plug valve?
Ans : PTFE sleeve between plug and body of valve, low turning efort, minimum
friction, temperature limitation, anti static design possible.
57. What are permasil plug valve?
Ans : Plug valves with Tefon seat instead of sleeves, for on of applications, can
handle clean viscous and corrosive liqiuids, Graphie seat for high temperature
applications. Drip tight shut of not possible.
58. What are eccentric plug valve?
Ans : Of center plug, corrosive and abrasive service, on of action, moves into and
away from seat eliminating abrasive wear.
59. What is dimensional standard for plug valve?
Ans : API 599.
60. What is pinch valve?
Ans : Similar to diaphragm valve, with sleeves of rubber or PTFE, which get sqeezed
to control or stop the fow, Cast iron body, for very low service pressures like
isolation of hose connections, manufacture standard.
61. What is needle valve?
Ans :Full pyramid disc, same design as globe valve, smaller sizes, sw or threaded,
fow control, disc can be integral with stem, inside screw, borged or bar stock body
and bonnet, manufacturers standard.
62. How to install a globe valve ?
Ans : Globe valve should be installed such that the fow is from the underside of the
disk, Usually fow direction is marked on the globe valve.
63. What are globe valve port types?
Ans : Full port: More than 85% of bore size, Reducer port: One size less than the
connected pipe.
64. What are globe valve disk types?
Ans :Flat faced type for positive shutof, loose plug type for plug renewal or needle
type for fner control
65. What are characteristics of globe valve stem?
Ans : Always rising design, with disk nut at the lower end and hand wheel at upper
66. What are types of globe valve?
Ans : Angle globe valve, plug type disc globe valve, wye-body globe valve.,
composite disc globe valve, double disc globe valve.
67. What is angle globe valve?
Ans : Ends at 90 degree to save elbow, higher pressure drop. 68. Where plug type
disc globe valve is used?
Ans : For severe regulating service with gritty liquids such as boiler feed water and
for blow of service.
69. Where WYE body globe valve is used ?
Ans : In line ports with stem emerging at 45 degree, for erosive fuids due to
smoother fow pattern.
70. What is double disc globe valve ?
Ans : Has two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart, on a single shaft, for low
torque, used for control valves.
71. What are port types for gate valves?
Ans : Full port and reduced port. Default is reduced bore. Full port has to be
specifed in bom.
72. How to close a gate valve ?
Ans: Turn the handwheel in clockwise direction.

73. What is lantern ring?
Ans : Its a collection point to drain of any hazardous seepages or as a point where
lubricant can be injected, it is in the middle of packing rings.
74. What are types of gate valves?
Ans : Solid plane wedge, solid fexible wedge, split wedge, double disc paralles seats,
double disc wedge, single disc single seat gate or slide, single disc parallel seats, plug
gate valve.

75. What are the types of bonnets?
Ans : Bolted bonnet, bellow sealed bonnet, screwed on bonnet, union bonnets, A U-
bolt and clamp type bonnet, breechlock bonnet, pressure seal bonnet.