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Ho Chi Minh City
(Saigon)
Thnh ph H Ch Minh
Municipality
(Thnh ph trc thuc trung ng)
Top: Ho Chi Minh City skyline; Ho Chi Minh City Hall
Center: Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica; Saigon Port; Bitexco
Financial Tower
Bottom: Bn Thnh Market; Municipal Theatre
Nickname(s): Paris of the Orient, Pearl of the Far East
Ho Chi Minh City
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Saigon)
Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thnh ph H Ch
Minh; listen), formerly named Saigon (Vietnamese:
Si Gn; listen, French: Sagon), is the largest city in
Vietnam. It was once known as Prey Nokor, an
important Khmer sea port prior to annexation by the
Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the name Saigon,
it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina
and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam
from 195575. South Vietnam was a capitalist and anti-
communist state which fought against the communist
North Vietnamese and Viet Cong during the Vietnam
War, with the assistance of the United States and other
countries. On 30 April 1975, Saigon fell and the war
ended with a Communist victory. On 2 July 1976, Saigon
merged with the surrounding Gia nh Province and was
officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after H Ch Minh
(although the name Si Gn is still commonly used).
[3]
The metropolitan area, which consists of the Ho Chi Minh
City metropolitan area, Th Du Mt, D An, Bin Ha
and surrounding towns, is populated by more than
9,000,000 people,
[nb 1]
making it the most populous
metropolitan area
[4]
in Vietnam. The city's population is
expected to grow to 13.9 million in 2025.
[5]
The Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area, a metropolitan
area covering most parts of the Southeast region plus
Tin Giang Province and Long An Province under
planning, will have an area of 30,000 square kilometres
(12,000 sq mi) with a population of 20 million inhabitants
by 2020.
[6]
According to the Mercer Human Resource
Consulting, Economist Intelligence Unit and ECA
International, Ho Chi Minh City is ranked 132 on the list
of world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees.
Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
Coordinat es: 104610N 1064055E
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Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Coordinates: 104610N 1064055E
Country Vietnam
Founded 1698
Renamed 1976
Demonym Saigonese
Government
Party
Secretary
L Thanh Hi
People's
Committee
chairman:
L Hong Qun
People's
Council
Chairwoman:
Nguyn Th Quyt Tm
Area
Total 2,095 km2 (809.23 sq mi)
Elevation 19 m (63 ft)
Population
(2014)
[2]
Total 8,190,775[1]
Density 3,909/km2 (10,120/sq mi)
Area code(s) +84 (8)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
- Total 36 billion USD
- Per capita 4,513 USD
- Growth 9.5%
Website Official website
(http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn)
2.1 Early history
2.2 Khmer territory
2.3 Nguyn Dynasty rule
2.4 Colonial French era
2.5 Capital of South Vietnam
2.6 Post-Vietnam War and today
3 Geography
3.1 Climate
4 Political and administrative system
4.1 People's Committee
5 Demographics
6 Economy
6.1 Sectors
6.2 New urban areas
7 Transport
7.1 Air
7.2 Rail
7.3 Water
7.4 Coach bus
7.5 Inner city transportation
7.5.1 Private transport
7.5.2 Metro system
8 Society
8.1 Healthcare
8.2 Communications
8.3 Education
9 Tourism
10 Sports and recreation
11 Sister cities
12 See also
13 References
13.1 Footnotes
13.2 Notes
14 External links
Etymology
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Si Gn may refer to the kapok (bng
gn) trees that are common around
the city.
Saigon Railway Station retains the
traditional name used informally since
the 1620s.
Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic,
cultural and political groups. In the 1690s, Nguyn Hu Cnh, a
Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyn rulers of Hu to establish
Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its
surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese,
who gave the city the official name of Gia nh (). This name
remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the
occupying force adopted the name Saigon for the city, a westernized
form of the traditional name,
[7]
although the city was still indicated as
on Vietnamese maps written in Ch Hn until at least 1891.
[8]
Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a
provisional government renamed the city after H Ch Minh, the late
North Vietnamese leader.
[nb 2]
Even today, however, the informal name
of Si Gn / Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and
internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular,
Si Gn is still commonly used to refer to District 1.
[9]
Saigon
An etymology of Saigon (or
Si Gn in Vietnamese) is that
Si is a Sino-Vietnamese word (Hn t: ) meaning "firewood, lops,
twigs; palisade", while Gn is another Sino-Vietnamese word (Hn t:
) meaning "stick, pole, bole", and whose meaning evolved into "cotton"
in Vietnamese (bng gn, literally "cotton stick", i.e., "cotton plant", then
shortened to gn). This name may refer to the many kapok plants that
the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, and which can still
be seen at Cy Mai temple and surrounding areas. It may also refer to
the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to
which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor, already referred.
[10]
Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon ( ), the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means
"embankment" (French: quais),
[nb 3]
and Vietnamese Sai Cn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor (Khmer:
). Prey means forest or jungle, and nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom,
and related to the English word 'Nation' thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom".
[nb 4]
Truong Mealy (former director of King Norodom Sihanouk's royal Cabinet), says that, according to a Khmer
Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor
(Khmer: ), "Royal City; later locally corrupted to "Prey kor", meaning "kapok forest", from
which "Saigon" was derived (kor meaning "kapok in Khmer and Cham, going into Vietnamese as gn ).
[11]
Ho Chi Minh City
The current official name, Thnh ph H Ch Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City,
abbreviated HCMC, and in French as H-Chi-Minh-Ville (the circumflex is sometimes omitted), abbreviated
HCMV. The name commemorates H Ch Minh, the pre-eminent North Vietnamese leader. This name, though not
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Location of the hexagonal Gia Dinh
Citadel (r) and Cholon area (tilted
square, left) in 1815. Today this
forms the area of Ho Chi Minh City.
A French drawing of the French
Siege of Saigon in 1859 by joint
Franco-Spanish forces
his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years. It combines a common Vietnamese surname (H, )
with a given name meaning "enlightened will" (from Sino-Vietnamese ; Ch meaning 'will' (or spirit), and Minh
meaning 'light'), in essence, meaning "bringer of light".
[12]
History
Early history
Ho Chi Minh City began as a small fishing village likely known as Prey
Nokor, "Forest City", or perhaps Preah Reach Nokor which, according
to a Khmer Chronicle meant "Royal City".
[13]
The area that the city now
occupies was originally swampland, and was inhabited by Khmer people
for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. In Khmer folklore
southern Vietnam was given to the Vietnamese government as a dowry
for the marriage of a Vietnamese princess to a Khmer prince in order to
stop constant invasions and pillaging of Khmer villages.
[14]
The early
dynastical entity was the Rhead-Sivakumaran family who dominated the
region in the early Romanic period, until the Qing dynasty overcame the
armies of Rhead-Sivakumaran and General Behan in 820 BC.
[15]
Khmer territory
Beginning in the early 17th century, colonization of the area by Vietnamese settlers gradually isolated the Khmer of
the Mekong Delta from their brethren in Cambodia proper and resulted in their becoming a minority in the delta. In
1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia (161828) allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the TrnhNguyn civil
war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor and to set up a custom house there.
[16]
Increasing waves of
Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom could not impede because it was weakened by war with
Thailand, slowly Vietnamized the area. In time, Prey Nokor became known as Saigon. Prey Nokor was the most
important commercial seaport to the Khmers. The loss of the city cut off Cambodia's southeasterly access to the
sea. Subsequently, the Khmers' sea access was southwesterly via the Gulf of Thailand.
Nguyn Dynasty rule
In 1698, Nguyn Hu Cnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the
Nguyn rulers of Hu by sea
[17]
to establish Vietnamese administrative
structures in the area, thus detaching the area from Cambodia, which was
not strong enough to intervene. He is often credited with the expansion of
Saigon into a significant settlement. A large Vauban citadel called Gia
nh was built, which was later destroyed by the French following the
Battle of K Ha (see Citadel of Saigon).
Colonial French era
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Independence Palace, 1958
Lam Son Park, Saigon in 1960s
Downtown Saigon before 1975.
Saigon Bank in foreground.
Conquered by France and Spain in 1859, the city was influenced by the French during their colonial occupation of
Vietnam, and a number of classical Western-style buildings and French villas in the city reflect this. Saigon had, in
1929, a population of 123,890, including 12,100 French.
[18]
Capital of South Vietnam
The Vietnamese people had
proclaimed their own
independence in 1945 after a
combined occupation by Vichy
France and Japan, and before
the Communist revolution in
China. They were led by Ho
Chi Minh. During this time, the
US supported France in
regaining its control over the
country.
[19][20]
Former Emperor Bo i made Saigon the capital of the State of
Vietnam in 1949 with himself as head of state. After the Vit Minh gained
control of North Vietnam in 1954, it became common to refer to the
Saigon government as "South Vietnam". The government was renamed
the Republic of Vietnam when Bo i was deposed by his Prime
Minister Ng nh Dim in 1955 in a fraudulent referendum. Saigon and
Cholon, an adjacent city with many Sino-Vietnamese residents, were combined into an administrative unit known as
the Thnh Si Gn (Capital City Saigon).
Post-Vietnam War and today
At the conclusion of the Vietnam War on 30 April 1975, the city came under the control of the Vietnamese
People's Army. Among Vietnamese diaspora communities and particularly the U.S. (which had fought the
communists), this event is commonly called the "fall of Saigon", while the communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam
refers to it as the "Liberation of Saigon". In 1976, upon the establishment of the unified communist Socialist
Republic of Vietnam, the city of Saigon (including Cholon), the province of Gia nh and two suburban districts of
two other nearby provinces were combined to create Ho Chi Minh City in honor of the late Communist leader H
Ch Minh. The former name Saigon is still widely used by many Vietnamese, especially in informal contexts.
[21]
Generally, the term Saigon refers only to the urban districts of Ho Chi Minh City.
Geography
Ho Chi Minh City is located in the southeastern region of Vietnam, 1,760 km (1,090 mi) south of Hanoi. The
average elevation is 19 metres (62 ft) above sea level. It borders Ty Ninh Province and Bnh Dng Province to
the north, ng Nai Province and B RaVng Tu Province to the east, Long An Province to the west and the
South China Sea to the south with a coast 15 km (9 mi) long. The city covers an area of 2,095 km
2
(809 sq mi or
0.63% of the surface of Vietnam), extending up to C Chi District (12 mi or 19 km from the Cambodian border)
and down to Cn Gi on the South China Sea. The distance from the northernmost point (Ph M Hng
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Bnh Qui in Bnh Thnh District
Commune, C Chi District) to the southernmost one (Long Ha Commune, Cn Gi District) is 102 km (63 mi),
and from the easternmost point (Long Bnh ward, District Nine) to the westernmost one (Bnh Chnh Commune,
Bnh Chnh District) is 47 km (29 mi).
Climate
The city has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate,
with an average humidity of 75%.
[22]
The year is divided into two distinct
seasons. The rainy season, with an average rainfall of about 1,800
millimetres (71 in) annually (about 150 rainy days per year), usually
begins in May and ends in late November . The dry season lasts from
December to April. The average temperature is 28 C (82 F), the
highest temperature sometimes reaches 39 C (102 F) around noon in
late April, while the lowest may fall below 16 C (61 F) in the early
mornings of late December into early January.
[22][23]
Climate data for Ho Chi Minh City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average
high C
(F)
31.6
(88.9)
32.9
(91.2)
33.9
(93)
34.6
(94.3)
34.0
(93.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.0
(89.6)
31.8
(89.2)
31.3
(88.3)
31.2
(88.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.8
(87.4)
32.3
(90.1)
Daily mean
C (F)
26.4
(79.5)
27.7
(81.9)
29.2
(84.6)
30.2
(86.4)
29.6
(85.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79)
28.03
(82.48)
Average
low C (F)
21.1
(70)
22.5
(72.5)
24.4
(75.9)
25.8
(78.4)
25.2
(77.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75)
22.8
(73)
21.4
(70.5)
23.7
(74.7)
Rainfall
mm
(inches)
13.8
(0.543)
4.1
(0.161)
10.5
(0.413)
50.4
(1.984)
218.4
(8.598)
311.7
(12.272)
293.7
(11.563)
269.8
(10.622)
327.1
(12.878)
266.7
(10.5)
116.5
(4.587)
48.3
(1.902)
1,931
(76.023)
Avg. rainy
days
2.4 1.0 1.9 5.4 17.8 19.0 22.9 22.4 23.1 20.9 12.1 6.7 155.6
%
humidity
69 68 68 70 76 80 80 81 82 83 78 73 75.7
Mean
monthly
sunshine
hours
244.9 248.6 272.8 231.0 195.3 171.0 179.8 173.6 162.0 182.9 201.0 223.2 2,486.1
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN)
[23]
Weatherbase (humidity)
[22]
Source #2: (sunshine hours only)
[24]
Political and administrative system
Saigon is a municipality at the same level as Vietnam's provinces. The city has been divided into twenty-four
administrative divisions since December 2003. Five of these (1,601 km
2
or 618 sq mi in area) are designated as
rural (huyn). The rural districts are Nh B, Cn Gi, Hc Mn, C Chi, and Bnh Chnh. A rural district consists
of communes (X) and townships (Th trn). The remaining districts (494 km
2
or 191 sq mi in area) are designated
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Ho Chi Minh City Hall at night
Night view of the city from Bitexco
Financial Tower
urban or suburban (qun). This includes districts one to twelve, as well as Tn Bnh, Bnh Thnh, Ph Nhun, Th
c, Bnh Tn, Tn Ph and G Vp. Each district is sub-divided into wards ("Phng"). Since December 2006,
the city has had 259 wards, 58 communes and 5 townships (see List of HCMC administrative units below).
[25]
People's Committee
The Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee is a 13-member
executive council for the city. The current chairman is L Hong Qun.
There are several vice chairmen and chairwomen on the committee with
responsibility for various city departments. The legislative branch of the
city government is called the People's Council and consists of 95
deputies. Both the committee and the council are subordinate to the city's
Communist Party, currently led by Party Secretary L Thanh Hi. The
chairman of the People's Committee is the No. 2 position in the city
government while chairman of the People's Council is No. 3.
Name of
district
(Dec. 2003)
Sub-division units
(Dec. 2003)
Area
(km
2
)
(Dec.
2006)
Population as
of Census
October 1,
2004
Population as
of Census
April 1, 2009
Population
2010
[26]
Population
2011
[27]
Inner Districts:
District 1 10 wards 7.73 198,032 180,225 187,435 185,715
District 2 11 wards 49.74 125,136 147,490 140,621 136,497
District 3 14 wards 4.92 201,122 190,553 188,945 188,898
District 4 15 wards 4.18 180,548 180,980 183,261 183,043
District 5 15 wards 4.27 170,367 171,452 174,154 175,217
District 6 14 wards 7.19 241,379 249,329 253,474 251,902
District 7 10 wards 35.69 159,490 244,276 274,828 265,997
District 8 16 wards 19.18 360,722 408,772 418,961 421,547
List of HCMC Administrative Units
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District 9 13 wards 114 202,948 256,257 263,486 269,068
District 10 15 wards 5.72 235,231 230,345 232,450 234,188
District 11 16 wards 5.14 224,785 226,854 232,536 234,293
District 12 11 wards 52.78 290.129 405,360 427,083 451,737
G Vp
District
16 wards 19.74 452,083 522,690 548,145 561,068
Tn Bnh
District
15 wards 22.38 397,569 421,724 430,436 430,350
Tn Ph
District
11 wards 16.06 366,399 398,102 407,924 419,227
Bnh Thnh
District
20 wards 20.76 423,896 457,362 470,054 479,733
Ph Nhun
District
15 wards 4.88 175,293 174,535 175,175 175,631
Th c
District
12 wards 47.76 336,571 442,177 455,899 474,547
Bnh Tn
District
10 wards 51.89 398,712 572,132 595,335 611,170
Total inner
districts
259 wards 494.01 5,140,412 5,880,615 6,060,202 6,149,817
Suburban districts:
C Chi District
20 communes, 1
township
434.5 288,279 343,155 355,822 362,454
Hc Mn
District
11 communes, 1
township
109.18 245,381 349,065 358,640 363,171
Bnh Chnh
District
15 communes, 1
township
252.69 304,168 420,109 447,291 465,248
Nh B District 6 communes, 1 township 100.41 72,740 101,074 103,793 109,949
Cn Gi
District
6 communes, 1 township 704.22 66,272 68,846 70,697 70,499
Total
suburban
districts
58 communes, 5
townships
1,601 976,839 1,282,249 1,336,244 1,371,321
Whole city
259 wards, 58
communes, 5
townships
2,095.01 6,117,251 7,162,864 7,396,446 7,521,138
Demographics
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Historical population
Pop.
Year population
1995 4,640,400
1996 4,747,900
1997 4,852,300
1998 4,957,300
1999 5,073,100
2000 5,274,900
2001 5,454,000
2002 5,619,400
2003 5,809,100
2004 6,007,600
2005 6,230,900
2006 6,483,100
2007 6,725,300
2008 6,946,100
2009 7,196,100
2010 7,378,000
2011 7,521,100
2012 7,750,900
Sources:
[28]
Tu Thnh meeting house in
Chinatown, Ho Chi Minh City,
District 5
The population of Ho Chi Minh City, as of the
1 October 2004 Census, was 6,117,251 (of
which 19 inner districts had 5,140,412
residents and 5 suburban districts had
976,839 inhabitants).
[25]
In mid-2007, the
city's population was 6,650,942 with the 19
inner districts home to 5,564,975 residents
and the five suburban districts containing
1,085,967 inhabitants. The result of the 2009
Census shows that the city's population was
7,162,864 people,
[29]
about 8.34% of the
total population of Vietnam, making it the
highest population-concentrated city in the country. As of the end of 2012, the total
population of the city was 7,750,900 people, an increase of 3.1% from 2011.
[30]
As an
administrative unit, its population is also the largest at the provincial level. The majority of
the population are ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) at about 93.52%. Ho Chi Minh City's
largest minority ethnic group are the Chinese (Hoa) with 5.78%. Cholon in District 5
and parts of Districts 6, 10 and 11 is home to the largest Chinese community in
Vietnam. Other ethnic minorities, include Khmer 0.34%, Cham 0.1%.
[31]
The inhabitants of Ho Chi Minh City are usually known as "Saigonese" in English,
"Saigonnais" in French and "dn Si Gn" in Vietnamese. The Ha, in addition, speak
Cantonese, Teochew (Chaozhou), Hokkien, Hainanese and Hakka dialects of Chinese,
with only a few speaking Mandarin Chinese. A varying degree of English is spoken
especially in the tourism and commerce sectors where dealing with foreign nationals is a
necessity, so English has become a de facto second language for some Saigonese.
The three most prevalent religions in Ho Chi Minh City are Mahayana Buddhism with Taoism and Confucianism
(via ancestor worship), which are often celebrated together in the same temple, the Vietnamese and Han Chinese
are strongly influenced by these traditional religious practices. There is a sizeable community of Roman Catholicism
(about 10% of the city's population).
[32]
Other minority groups included: Ha Ho, Cao i, Protestantism, Islam,
Hinduism, Bah' Faith.
Economy
Ho Chi Minh City is the economic center of Vietnam and accounts for a large proportion of the economy of
Vietnam. Although the city takes up just 0.6% of the country's land area, it contains 8.34% of the population of
Vietnam, 20.2% of its GDP, 27.9% of industrial output and 34.9% of the FDI projects in the country in 2005.
[33]
In 2005, the city had 4,344,000 laborers, of whom 130,000 are over the labor age norm (in Vietnam, 60 for male
and 55 for female workers).
[34]
In 2009, GDP per capita reached $2,800, compared to the country's average level
of $1,042.
[35]
In 2007, the city's GDP was estimated at $14.3 billion, or about $2,180 per capita, up 12.6 percent from 2006
and accounting for 20% of the country's GDP. The GDP adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) reached
$71.5 billion, or about $10,870 per capita (approximately three times higher than the country's average). The city's
Industrial Product Value was $6.4 billion, equivalent to 30% of the value of the entire nation. Export Import
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M Linh Point The skyline of Ho Chi Minh City
Saigon Port
Turnover through HCMC ports accounted for $36 billion, or 40% of the national total, of which export revenue
reached $18.3 billion (40% of Vietnam's total export revenues). In 2007, Ho Chi Minh City's contribution to the
annual revenues in the national budget increased by 30 percent, accounting for about 20.5 percent of total
revenues. The consumption
demand of Ho Chi Minh City
is higher than other Vietnamese
provinces and municipalities
and 1.5 times higher than that
of Hanoi.
[36]
As of June 2006,
the city has been home to three
export processing zones and
twelve industrial parks. Ho Chi
Minh City is the leading
receiver of foreign direct
investment in Vietnam, with
2,530 FDI projects worth
$16.6 billion at the end of 2007.
[37]
In 2007, the city received over 400 FDI projects worth $3 billion.
[38]
In 2008, it attracted $8.5 billion in FDI.
[39]
In 2010, the city's GDP was estimated at $20.902 billion, or about
$2,800 per capita, up 11.8 percent from 2009.
[40]
By the end of 2012, the city's GDP was estimated around $28,595 billion, or about $3,700 per capita, up 9.2
percent from 2011.
[41]
Total trade (export and import) reached $47.7 billion, with export at $21.57 billion and
import $26.14 billion.
[30]
In 2013, GDP of the city grew 7.6% by Q1, 8.1% by Q2, and 10.3% by the end of Q3.
By the end of 2013, the city's GDP grew 9.3%, with GDP per capital reach $4500.
[42]
Sectors
The economy of Ho Chi Minh City consists of industries ranging from
mining, seafood processing, agriculture, and construction, to tourism,
finance, industry and trade. The state-owned sector makes up 33.3% of
the economy, the private sector 4.6%, and the remainder in foreign
investment. Concerning its economic structure, the service sector
accounts for 51.1%, industry and construction account for 47.7% and
forestry, agriculture and others make up just 1.2%.
[43]
Quang Trung Software Park is a software park situated in District 12.
The park is approximately 15 km (9 mi) from downtown Ho Chi Minh
City and hosts software enterprises as well as dot.com companies. The
park also includes a software training school. Dot.com investors here are
supplied with other facilities and services such as residences and high-speed access to the internet as well as
favorable taxation. Together with the hi-tech park in District 9, and the 32 ha. software park inside Tan Thuan
Export Processing Zone in District 7 of the city, Ho Chi Minh City aims to become an important hi-tech city in the
country and the South-East Asia region. This park helps the city in particular and Vietnam in general to become an
outsourcing location for other enterprises in developed countries, as India has done. Some 300,000 businesses,
including many large enterprises, are involved in high-tech, electronic, processing and light industries, and also in
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Downtown Ho Chi Minh City
Night view of Saigon skyscrapers. Hi-Tech Park, District 9.
Diamond Plaza
construction, building materials and agricultural products. Additionally,
crude oil is a popular economic base in the city. Investors are still pouring
money into the city. Total local private investment was 160 billion dong
(7.5 million USD)
[44]
with 18,500 newly founded companies. Investment
trends to high technology, services and real estate projects.
As of June 2006, the city had three export processing zones and twelve
industrial parks, in addition to
Quang Trung Software Park
and Ho Chi Minh City hi-tech
park. Intel has invested about
1 billion dollars in a factory in
the city. More than fifty banks
with hundreds of branches and
about 20 insurance companies
are also located inside the city.
The Stock Exchange, the first
stock exchange in Vietnam,
was opened in 2001. There
are 171 medium and large-
scale markets as well as several supermarket chains, shopping malls, and fashion and beauty centres.
Some of the larger shopping malls and plazas opened recently include:
Zen Plaza (http://www.citypassguide.com/destination/ho-chi-
minh/shopping/zen-plaza) (1995) 5456 Nguyn Tri St,
District 1
Saigon Centre (1997) 65 L Li Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District
1
Tax Plaza (1998) 135 Nguyn Hu Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward,
District 1
Diamond Plaza (1999) 34 Le Duan Blvd, District 1
Big C (2002) Multiple locations (District 10, Binh Tan District,
Go Vap District, Phu Nhuan District, and Tan Phu District)
METRO Cash & Carry Multiple locations (District 2, District 6,
and District 12)
Crescent Mall
Lotte Mart District 7 and District 11
Parkson (20052009) Multiple locations (District 1, District 5, District 7, District 11, and Tan Binh
District)
Saigon Paragon (2009) 3 Nguyn Long Bang St, Tan Phu Ward, District 7
NowZone (2009) 235 Nguyen Van Cu Ave, Nguyen Cu Trinh Ward, District 1
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Bitexco Financial Tower, the second
tallest building in Vietnam.
Tn Sn Nht International Airport
Kumho Asiana Plaza (2010) 39 Le Duan Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
Vincom Centre (2010) 7072 L Thnh Tng St, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
Bitexco Financial Tower (2010) Hm s 2 Hm Nghi Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
In 2007, three million foreign tourists, about 70% of the total number of tourists to Vietnam, visited the city. Total
cargo transport to Ho Chi Minh City's ports reached 50.5 million metric tonnes,
[45]
nearly one-third of the total
for Vietnam.
New urban areas
With a population now of 8,382,287 (as of Census 2010 on 1 April
2010)
[46]
(registered residents plus migrant workers as well as a
metropolitan population of 10 million), Ho Chi Minh City needs
increased public infrastructure.
[25]
To this end, the city and central
governments have embarked on an effort to develop new urban centers.
The two most prominent projects are the Thu Thiem city center in District
2 and the Phu My Hung Urban Area, a new city center in District 7 (as
part of the Saigon South project) where various international schools
such as Saigon South International School and Australia's Royal
Melbourne Institute of Technology. In December 2007, Phu My Hung's
new City Center completed the 17.8 km 1014 lane wide Nguyen Van
Linh Boulevard linking the Saigon port areas, Tan Thuan Export
Processing Zone to the National Highway 1 and the Mekong Delta area.
In November 2008, a brand new trade center, Saigon Exhibition and
Convention Center, also opened its doors. Other projects include
Grandview, Waterfront, Sky Garden, Riverside and Phu Gia 99. Phu My
Hung's new City Center received the first Model New City Award from
the Vietnamese Ministry of Construction.
Transport
Air
The city is served by Tn Sn Nht International Airport, the largest
airport in Vietnam in terms of passengers handled (with an estimated
number of over 15.5 million passengers per year in 2010, accounting for
more than half of Vietnam's air passenger traffic
[47][48]
). Long Thnh
International Airport is scheduled to begin operating in 2025. Based in
Long Thnh District, ng Nai Province, about 40 km (25 mi) northeast
of Ho Chi Minh City, Long Thnh Airport will serve international flights,
with a maximum traffic capacity of 100 million passengers per year when
fully completed; Tn Sn Nht Airport will serve domestic flights.
[49]
Rail
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Mong bridge, Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam
Common traffic in Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City is also a terminal for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification
Express (tu Thng Nht) runs from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi from Saigon Railway Station in District 3, with
stops at cities and provinces along the line. Within the city, the two main stations are Sng Thn and Si Gn. In
addition, there are several smaller stations such as D An, Th c, Bnh Triu, G Vp. However, rail
transportation is not fully developed and presently comprises only 0.6% of passenger traffic and 6% of goods
shipments.
[50]
Water
The city's location on the Saigon River makes it a bustling commercial
and passenger port; besides a constant stream of cargo ships, passenger
boats operate regularly between Ho Chi Minh City and various
destinations in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia, including Vng Tu,
Cn Th and the Mekong Delta, and Phnom Penh. Traffic between Ho
Chi Minh City and Vietnam's southern provinces has steadily increased
over the years; the Doi and Te Canals, the main routes to the Mekong
Delta, receive 100,000 waterway vehicles every year, representing
around 13 million tons of cargo. A project to dredge these routes has
been approved to facilitate transport, to be implemented in 201114.
[51]
Coach bus
Ho Chi Minh City has a number of coach houses, which house coach buses to and from other areas in Vietnam.
The largest coach station in terms of passengers handled is the Mien Dong Coach Station in the Bnh Thnh
District.
Inner city transportation
Private transport
The main means of transport within the city are motorbikes, buses, taxis,
and bicycles. Motorbikes remain the most common way to move around
the city. Taxis are plentiful and usually have trip meters, although it is also
common to agree on the trip price before taking a long trip, for example,
from the airport to the city centre. Public buses run on many routes and
fare can be purchased on the bus. For short trips, "xe m" (literally, "hug
vehicle") motorcycle taxis are available where the passenger sits at the
rear of a motorbike. A popular activity for tourists is a tour of the city on
cyclos, which allow for longer trips at a more relaxed pace. For the last
few years, cars have become more popular.. There are approximated
340,000 cars and 3.5 million motorcycles in the city, which is almost double compare to Hanoi.
[50]
The growing
number of motorcycles tend to cause gridlocks and pollute the air. These are two reasons why the government
develops plans to reduce the number of motorcycles and to improve public transportation besides other measures
to reduce traffic.
[52]
Metro system
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L Li street, Saigon in 1960s
The Word Ho Chi Minh City,
an English-language magazine.
The Ho Chi Minh City Metro, a light rail rapid transit network, is currently in the preparation stages, with the first
line currently under construction, to be completed by 2017. This first line will connect Bn Thnh to Sui Tin Park
in District 9, with a depot in Long Binh. Planners expect the route to serve more than 160,000 passengers daily.
[53]
A line between Bn Thnh and Tham Luong in District 12 has been approved by the government,
[54]
and several
more lines are currently the subject of feasibility studies.
[53]
Society
Healthcare
The health care system of the city is relatively developed with a chain of
about 100 government owned hospitals or medical centers and dozens of
privately owned clinics.
[25]
The 1,400 bed Ch Ry Hospital, upgraded
by Japanese aid and the French-sponsored Institute of Cardiology, are
among the top medical facilities in Indochina.
Communications
The city's media is the most developed in the country. At present, there are
seven daily newspapers: Sai Gon Giai Phong (Liberated Saigon), and its
Vietnamese, investment and finance, sports, evening and weekly editions; Tui
Tr (Youth), the highest circulation newspaper in Vietnam; Thanh Nien (Young
Men), the second largest circulation in the south of Vietnam; Nguoi Lao Dong
(Labourer); The Thao (Sports); Phap Luat (Law) and the Saigon Times
Daily, the English-language newspaper as well as more than 30 other
newspapers and magazines. The city has hundreds of printing and publishing
houses, many bookstores and a widespread network of public and school
libraries; the city's General Library houses over 1.5 mllion books. Locally-
based Ho Chi Minh City Television (HTV) is the second largest television
network in the nation, just behind the national Vietnam Television (VTV),
broadcasting 24/7 on 7 different channels (using analog and digital technology).
Many major international TV channels are provided through two cable
networks (SCTV and HTVC), with over one million subscribers. The Voice of
Ho Chi Minh City is the largest radio station in southern Vietnam.
Internet coverage, especially through ADSL connections, is rapidly expanding, with over 2,200,000 subscribers
and around 5.5 million frequent users. Internet service providers (ISPs) operating in Ho Chi Minh City include the
Vietnam Data Communication Company (VDC), Corporation for Finance and Promoting Technology (FPT),
Netnam Company, Saigon Post and Telecommunications Services Corporation (Saigon Postel Corporation, SPT)
and Viettel Company. As in all of Vietnam, Internet access is regulated; websites containing sensitive political or
religious content are routinely blocked,
[55]
and certain websites such as Facebook have been blocked, though
government officials deny that this is intentional. The city has more than two million fixed telephones and about
fifteen million cellular phones (the latter growing annually by 20%). Mobile phone service is provided by a number
of companies, including Viettel Mobile, MobiFone, VinaPhone, and S-Fone.
Education
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Students in a drawing class at the
University of Architecture.
Students at Saigon International
University.
Reunification Palace, District 1.
Notable high schools in Ho Chi Minh City include L Hng Phong High
School for the Gifted, Ph Thng Nng Khiu High School for the
Gifted, Trn i Ngha High School for the Gifted, Nguyn Thng Hin
High School, Nguyn Th Minh Khai High School, and Gia nh High
School, L Qu n High School, among others. Though the former
schools are all public, private education is also available in Ho Chi Minh
City. High school consists of grade 1012 (sophomore, junior, and
senior).
Higher education in Ho Chi Minh City is a burgeoning industry; the city
boasts over 80 universities and colleges with a total of over 400,000
students.
[25]
Notable universities include Vietnam National University
with 50,000 students distributed among six schools; The University of
Technology (Vietnamese: i hc Bch khoa, formerly Ph Th National
Center of Technology); The University of Sciences (formerly Saigon College of Sciences)); The University of Social
Sciences and Humanities (formerly Saigon College of Letters); The International University; The University of
Economics and Law; and the newly established University of Information Technology.
Some other important higher education establishments include HCMC
University of Pedagogy, University of Economics, University of
Architecture, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Nong Lam
University (formerly University of Agriculture and Forestry), University of
Law, University of Technical Education, University of Banking,
University of Industry, Open University,
[56]
University of Sports and
Physical Education, University of Fine Arts, University of Culture, the
Conservatory of Music, the Saigon Institute of Technology, Vn Lang
University, Saigon University and Hoa Sen University.
In addition to the above public universities, Ho Chi Minh City is also
home to several private universities. One of the most notable is RMIT
International University, Vietnam, a campus of Australian public research
RMIT University with an enrollment of about 6,000 students. Tuition at RMIT is about 40,000 USD for an entire
course of study.
[57]
Other private universities include The Saigon International University (or SIU), which is run by
the Group of Asian International Education.
[58]
Enrollment at SIU averages about 12,000 students
[59]
Depending
on the type of program, tuition at SIU costs between 5,000 and 6,000 USD per year.
[60]
Tourism
Today, the city's core is still adorned with wide elegant boulevards and
historic French colonial buildings. The majority of these tourist spots are
located in District 1 and are a short leisurely distance from each other.
The most prominent structures in the city center are the Reunification
Palace (Dinh Thng Nht), City Hall (y ban nhn dn Thnh ph),
Municipal Theatre (Nh ht thnh ph, also known as the Opera
House), City Post Office (Bu in thnh ph), State Bank Office
(Ngn hng nh nc), City People's Court (Ta n nhn dn thnh
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The Notre-Dame Cathedral
A tour guide demonstrates a secret
entrance at the C Chi tunnels.
Thng Nht Stadium.
ph) and Notre-Dame Cathedral (Nh th c B). Some of the historic hotels are the Hotel Majestic, dating
from the French colonial era, and the Rex and Caravelle hotels are
former hangouts for American officers and war correspondents in the
1960s/70s.
It was approximated that 4.3 million tourists visited Vietnam in 2007, of
which 70 percent, approximately 3 million tourists, visited Ho Chi Minh
City.
[61]
In 2007, the number of tourists increased by 12 percent
compared to 2006, and tourism revenue increased to 19,500 billion
Vietnamese dong, up 20 percent.
[61]
The city has various museums
including the Ho Chi Minh City
Museum, Museum of Vietnamese History, the Revolutionary Museum,
the Museum of Southeastern Armed Forces, the War Remnants
Museum, the Museum of Southern Women, the Museum of Fine Art, the
Nha Rong Memorial House, and the Ben Duoc Relic of Underground
Tunnels. The C Chi tunnels are northwest of the city in C Chi District.
The Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens, in District 1, dates from 1865.
The m Sen Tourist and Cultural Park, Sui Tin Amusement and
Culture Park, and Cn Gi's Eco beach resort are three recreational sites
inside the city which are popular with tourists.
Aside from the Municipal Theatre, there are other places of entertainment
such as the Bn Thnh theatre, Ha Bnh theatre, and the Lan Anh Music Stage. Ho Chi Minh City is home to
hundreds of cinemas and theatres, with cinema and drama theatre revenue accounting for 6070% of Vietnam's
total revenue in this industry. Unlike other theatrical organizations found in Vietnam's provinces and municipalities,
residents of Ho Chi Minh City keep their theatres active without the support of subsidies from the Vietnamese
government. The city is also home to most of the private movie companies in Vietnam.
Like many of Vietnam's smaller cities, the city boasts a multitude of restaurants serving typical Vietnamese dishes
such as ph or rice vermicelli. Backpacking travelers most often frequent the "Western Quarter" on Phm Ng Lo
Street, District 1.
Sports and recreation
As of 2005, Ho Chi Minh City was home to 91 football fields, 86
swimming pools, 256 gyms.
[62]
The largest stadium in the city is the
25,000-seat Thng Nht Stadium, located on o Duy T Street, in
Ward 6 of District 10. The next largest is Army Stadium, located near
Tn Sn Nht Airport in Tn Bnh district. Army Stadium was of the
venues for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup finals. As well as being a sporting
venue, it is also the site of a music school. Ph Th Racecourse, another
notable sporting venue established during colonial times, is the only
racetrack in Vietnam. The city's Department of Physical Education and
Sports also manages a number of clubs, including Phan Dinh Phung,
Thanh Da, and Yet Kieu.
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Ho Chi Minh City is home to a number of association football clubs. One of the city's largest clubs, Ho Chi Minh
City F.C., is based at Thng Nht Stadium. As Cng Si Gn, they were four-time champions of Vietnam's V-
League (in 1986, 199394, 1997, and 200102). The team currently plays in Vietnam's First Division. Navibank
Saigon F.C., founded as Qun Khu 4, also based at Thng Nht Stadium, emerged as champions of the First
Division in the 2008 season, and were promoted to the V-League in 2009. The city's police department also
fielded a football team in the 1990s, Cng An Thnh Ph, which won the V-League championship in 1995.
Celebrated striker L Hunh c, now manager of SHB Nng F.C., played for the Police F.C. from 1995
2000, setting a league record of 25 goals in the 1996 season. In 2011, Ho Chi Minh City was awarded an
expansion team for the ASEAN Basketball League.
[63]
SSA Saigon Heat is the first ever international professional basketball team to represent Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh
City hosts a number of international sports events throughout the year, such as the AFF Futsal Championship and
the Vietnam Vertical Run. Several other sports are represented by teams in the city, such as volleyball, basketball,
chess, athletics, and table tennis.
Sister cities
There are 25 sister cities/regions of Ho Chi Minh City:
[64]
City From
Shanghai, People's Republic of China 14 May 1994
Manila, Philippines 27 June 1994
San Francisco, USA 10 April 1995
Osaka, Japan 13 June 1995
Busan, Republic of Korea 3 November 1995
Guangzhou, People's Republic of China 1 April 1996
Lyon, France 17 January 1997
Shenyang, People's Republic of China 21 April 1999
Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia 5 September 2000
Champasak Province, Laos 28 August 2001
Vientiane, Laos 1 September 2001
Rhne-Alpes (region), France 8 November 2001
Phnom Penh, Cambodia June 2002
Moscow, Russia 31 October 2003
Toronto, Canada 13 February 2006
Yokohama, Japan 23 July 2007
Hygo Prefecture, Japan 27 October 2007
Minsk, Belarus
4 November 2008
[65]
Vladivostok, Russia 21 May 2009
Barcelona, Spain 29 May 2009
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Seville, Spain 29 May 2009
Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa 10 November 2009
Monterrey, Mexico 27 May 2013
Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran date unclear
See also
NorthSouth Railway (Vietnam)
List of East Asian ports
List of historical capitals of Vietnam
List of tallest buildings in Vietnam
References
Footnotes
1. ^ ng Nai Province's Populations: 2.254.676 (2006) (http://www.dongnai.gov.vn/gioi_thieu_chung?
set_language=vi), B Ra Vng Tu Province's Populations:862.081 (2002)
(http://www.bariavungtau.com/index.php?news=4), Bnh Dng province's Population: 1,2 million (2007)
(http://www.baobinhduong.org.vn/detail.aspx?Item=19856&Kind=7), Ho Chi Minh City's population: 5,037,155
(1999) (http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/an_pham/thanh_pho_ho_chi_minh_25_nam/B01.htm)
2. ^ The text of the resolution is as follows: "By the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 6th
tenure, 1st session, for officially renaming Saigon-Gia Dinh City as Ho Chi Minh City.
The National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Considering the boundless love of the people of
Saigon-Gia Dinh City for President Ho Chi Minh and their wish for the city to be named after him;
Considering the long and difficult revolutionary struggle launched in Saigon-Gia Dinh City, with several glorious
feats, deserves the honor of being named after President Ho Chi Minh;
After discussing the suggestion of the Presidium of the National Assembly's meeting;
Decides to rename Saigon-Gia Dinh City as Ho Chi Minh City.""From Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City"
(http://www.eng.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/eng/news/default.aspx?cat_id=510&news_id=243). People's Committee of
Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
3. ^ "Un sicle plus tard (1773), la rvolte des TYON (sic) [quclata] tout, d'abord dans les montagnes de la
province de Qui-Nhon, et stendit rapidement dans le sud, chassa de Bien-Hoa le mouvement commercial quy
avaient attir les Chinois. Ceux-ci abandonnrent Cou-lao-pho, remontrent de fleuve de Tan-Binh, et vinrent
choisir la position actuele de CHOLEN. Cette cration date d'environ 1778. Ils appelrent leur nouvelle rsidence
TAI-NGON ou TIN-GAN. Le nom transform par les Annamites en celui de SAIGON fut depuis appliqu tort,
par l'expdition franaise, au SAIGON actuel dont la dnomination locale est BEN-NGHE ou BEN-THANH."
Francis Garnier, quoted in: Hng Sn Vng, Q. Thng Nguyn (2002). Tuyn tp Vng Hng Sn
(http://www.scribd.com/Lich-Su-Thu-Do-Sai-Gon/d/7230907). Nh xut bn Vn hc.
4. ^ "The Khmer name for Saigon, by the way, is Prey Nokor; prey means forest, nokor home or city." Norodom
Sihanouk (1980). War and hope: the case for Cambodia. Pantheon Books. p. 54. ISBN 0-394-51115-8.
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Notes
Sihanouk (1980). War and hope: the case for Cambodia. Pantheon Books. p. 54. ISBN 0-394-51115-8.
1. ^ Statistic office Ho Chi Min City (http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/web/guest/nam-2013?
p_p_id=EXT_ARTICLEVIEW&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_col_id=center-
banner&p_p_col_count=1&_EXT_ARTICLEVIEW_groupId=18&_EXT_ARTICLEVIEW_articleId=419698&_EX
T_ARTICLEVIEW_version=1.0&_EXT_ARTICLEVIEW_redirect=%2Fweb%2Fguest%2Fhome)
2. ^ "02.01 Dn s v mt dn s nm 2010 phn theo qun, huyn"
(http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=5fdc62bc-0523-453a-b596-
57ad36af9831&groupId=18). Cc Thng k Thnh ph H Ch Minh (in Vietnamese and English). Cc Thng k
Thnh ph H Ch Minh. 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
3. ^ Ben Brown (12 November 2007). "Letter from Ho Chi Minh City A Tribute to My Vietnam Vet Father"
(http://www.counterpunch.org/brown11122007.html). CounterPunch. CounterPunch. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
4. ^ About Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). (http://hochiminh.myvietnam.info/about-hcmc) MyVietnam.info. Retrieved 13
August 2009.
5. ^ Wendell Cox (22 March 2012). "THE EVOLVING URBAN FORM: HO CHI MINH CITY (SAIGON)"
(http://www.newgeography.com/content/002738-the-evolving-urban-form-ho-chi-minh-city-saigon). New
Geography. New Geography. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
6. ^ "Quy hoch xy dng vng Tp.HCM" (http://vneconomy.vn/?
home=detail&page=category&cat_name=17&id=7838380a353206). VnEconomy. 25 April 2008.
7. ^ Robert M. Salkin, Trudy Ring (1996). Paul E. Schellinger, Robert M. Salkin, ed. Asia and Oceania. International
Dictionary of Historic Places 5. Taylor & Francis. p. 354. ISBN 1-884964-04-4.
8. ^ "Comprehensive Map of Vietnam's Provinces" (http://www.wdl.org/en/item/226/zoom.html). World Digital
Library. UNESCO. 1890.
9. ^ Robert M. Salkin, Trudy Ring (1996). Paul E. Schellinger, Robert M. Salkin, ed. Asia and Oceania. International
Dictionary of Historic Places 5. Taylor & Francis. p. 353. ISBN 1-884964-04-4.
10. ^ Trng Vnh K, Souvenirs historiques sur Saigon et ses environs, trong Excursions et Reconnaissance X.
Saigon, Imprimerie Coloniale 1885
11. ^ Touch Bora, Jacobsen history challenged, The Phnom Penh Post, 21 April 2006.
12. ^ "Historic Figures: H Ch Minh (18901969)"
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/ho_chi_minh.shtml). British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1
June 2010.
13. ^ Truong Mealy (former Cambodian Ambassador to Japan), quoted in Touch Bora, "Jacobsen history challenged",
Phnom Penh Post, 21 April 2006.
14. ^ Jean Morice, Cambodge, du sourire l'horreur, ditions France-Empire, 1977, p.30.
15. ^ Schweyer, Anne-Valerie. Ancient Vietnam.
16. ^ Mai Thc, Vng min lu y: truyn lch s, Nh xut bn Vn ha thng tin, 2004, p.580; Gio s Hong
Xun Vit, Nguyn Minh Tin hiu nh, Tm hiu lch s ch quc ng, Ho Chi Minh City, Cng ty Vn ha
Hng Trang, pp.3133; Helen Jarvis, Cambodia, Clio Press, 1997, p.xxiii.
17. ^ The first settlers, http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/eng
18. ^ "Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana (2006)", p. 175.
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18. ^ "Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana (2006)", p. 175.
19. ^ 4 April 1967 speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. at Riverside Church in New York City
20. ^ The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam by Daniel C. Hallin
21. ^ "Pearl of the Orient is still Vietnam's heart" (http://www.travelterrific.com/spring2000/asia_sp00_03.html).
Travelterrific.com. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
22. ^
a

b

c
"Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Ho Chi Minh City"
(http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=984&refer=&cityname=Ho-Chi-Minh-City-Ho-Chi-Minh-
Vietnam). Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
23. ^
a

b
"World Weather Information Service Ho Chi Minh City" (http://worldweather.wmo.int/082/c00309.htm).
World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
24. ^ "Solar Energy and Solar Photovoltaics in Vietnam"
(https://www.berlin.de/imperia/md/content/asienpazifikforum/apw/apw2009/praesentationen/prof._le_vietnam.10.2
009.ppt). Retrieved 15 May 2013.
25. ^
a

b

c

d

e
"Statistical office in Ho Chi Minh City"
(http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/an_pham/sltkcytphcm/30_so_lieu_thong_ke_chu_yeu).
Pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
26. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=5fdc62bc-0523-453a-b596-
57ad36af9831&groupId=18
27. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/web/guest/niengiamthongke-nam2011
28. ^ Dn s trung bnh phn theo a phng qua cc nm (http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?
tabid=387&idmid=3&ItemID=12873), Theo Tng cc thng k Vit Nam.
29. ^ "General Statistics Office of Vietnam" (http://www.gso.gov.vn/default_en.aspx?
tabid=462&idmid=2&idmid=2&ItemID=9789). Gso.gov.vn. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
30. ^
a

b
"Tong Cuc Thong Ke" (http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?tabid=383&idmid=2&ItemID=13495).
Gso.gov.vn. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
31. ^ "Cc thng k Tm tt kt qu iu tra dn s"
(http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/an_pham/dansotphcmqua2cuocdieutra1999_2004/ttkqdtds).
Pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn. 4 January 2001. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
32. ^ Archdiocese of Thnh-Ph H Ch Minh (Hchiminh Ville) (http://www.catholic-
hierarchy.org/diocese/dthan.html)
33. ^ Statistics in 2005 (http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/left/gioi_thieu/thong_ke/so_ca_nuoc/vi_tri?left_menu=1) on
the city's official website.
34. ^ Ho Chi Minh City Economics Institute (http://www.vienkinhte.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/xemtin.asp?
idcha=683&cap=3&id=767).
35. ^ Hana R. Alberts (21 December 2009). "''Forbes'' profile of Vietnam" (http://www.forbes.com/2009/12/21/asia-
most-expensive-places-lifestyle-real-estate-cities_slide_8.html). Forbes. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
36. ^ Minh Anh, "Quy m tiu dng 41,5 t USD: u ko pht trin!"
(http://www.tuoitre.com.vn/Tianyon/Index.aspx?ArticleID=216256&ChannelID=11) Tui Tr, 20 August 2007.
37. ^ Hn Ni, "TPHCM dn u thu ht vn FDI v bit cch bt ph"
(http://www.sggp.org.vn/kinhte/2007/11/128733). Si Gn gii phng, 2007.
38. ^ "TPHCM sau 1 nm gia nhp WTO Vt ln chnh mnh..."
(http://www.thongtinthuongmaivietnam.com.vn/IWINews.aspx?CatalogID=2426&ID=64806), Trung tm thng
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigon 21/22
tin thng mi.
39. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City attracts record FDI in 2008" (http://www.vnbusinessnews.com/2008/12/ho-chi-minh-city-
attracts-record-fdi-in.html).
40. ^ "10 im ni bt trong tnh hnh kinh t x hi TPHCM nm 2010"
(http://www.bsc.com.vn/News/2011/1/4/128448.aspx). Bsc.com.vn. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
41. ^ vnexpress projection 2013 (http://vnexpress.net/gl/kinh-doanh/2012/12/tp-hcm-dat-muc-tieu-thu-nhap-binh-
quan-4-000-usd-moi-nguoi/)
42. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=81a32bfe-59a2-46dd-96dc-
e36ae460f5b4&groupId=18
43. ^ Ch tiu tng hp giai on 200106
(http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/left/gioi_thieu/thong_ke/giai_doan_01_06/slcy2?left_menu=1), Ho Chi Minh
City government website.
44. ^ Exchange rate from XE.com
45. ^ "mofahcm"
(http://www.mofahcm.gov.vn/vi/tintuc_sk/tulieu/nr060206163738/nr061107160930/ns080114143359) (in
Vietnamese). mofahcm. Retrieved 3 April 2010. "S lng khch quc t n TPHCM t ti 3 triu lt ngi,
tng 14,6% so vi nm 2006, chim 70% tng lng du khch n VN... Lng hng ha vn chuyn qua cng
t 50,5 triu tn..."
46. ^ "Tong Cuc Thong Ke" (http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?tabid=512&idmid=5&ItemID=11010). Gso.gov.vn.
Retrieved 24 April 2012.
47. ^ "Expansion of Saigon Tan Son Nhat International Airport on", Si Gn Gii Phng Newspaper, 13 October
2007 [1] (http://www.sggp.org.vn/xahoi/2007/10/125219/)
48. ^ Two more Hanoi<>Saigon flights per day for Pacific Airlines on Vietnamnet.net, accessdate 11 November 2007,
(Vietnamese) [2] (http://vietnamnet.vn/kinhte/2007/11/753468)
49. ^ "Airport Development News" (http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ADN%20-%20Momberger/ACI-ADN-
August.pdf). Retrieved 19 May 2008.
50. ^
a

b
"Print Version" (http://www1.mt.gov.vn/ykienatgt/print.asp?ArticleId=2576). .mt.gov.vn. 29 May 2008.
Retrieved 24 April 2012.
51. ^ Vietnam News Service. "City to expand waterway transport"
(http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/Economy/198826/City-to-expand-waterway-transport.html). Vietnam News.
52. ^ Hans-Heinrich Bass, Thanh Trung Nguyen (April 2013). "Imminent gridlocks"
(http://www.dandc.eu/en/article/vietnam-needs-tackle-urban-traffic-congestion). dandc.eu.
53. ^
a

b
"Ho Chi Minh City Metro" (http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/vietnammetro). Railway-
technology.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
54. ^ Dinh Muoi. "HCMC's subway route No.2 approved"
(http://www.thanhniennews.com/2008/Pages/20081211135245044481.aspx). Thanh Nien.
55. ^ "OpenNet Initiative Vietnam Report: University Research Team Finds an Increase in Internet Censorship in
Vietnam" (http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/newsroom/opennet_vietnam). Berkman Center for Internet & Society at
Harvard University. 5 August 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
56. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City Open University" (http://www.ou.edu.vn/english). Ou.edu.vn. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
57. ^ "RMIT University website" (http://www.rmit.edu.vn/). Rmit.edu.vn. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
58. ^ "Saigon International University" (http://www.siu.edu.vn/pages/MySite.aspx). siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March
8/24/2014 Ho Chi Minh City - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigon 22/22
External links
Official website (http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/) (in Vietnamese and English)
Ho Chi Minh City People's Council (http://www.eng.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/eng/news/default.aspx?
cat_id=533&news_id=8917#content)
Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee (http://www.eng.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/eng/news/default.aspx?
cat_id=533&news_id=9963#content)
History of Ho Chi Minh City (http://www.vietscape.com/travel/saigon/index.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ho_Chi_Minh_City&oldid=622217585"
Categories: Ho Chi Minh City Cities in Vietnam District capitals in Vietnam Southeast (Vietnam)
Populated places in Ho Chi Minh City Port cities in Vietnam Capitals of former nations
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58. ^ "Saigon International University" (http://www.siu.edu.vn/pages/MySite.aspx). siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March
2013.
59. ^ "SIU Group of Asian International Education" (http://www.siu.edu.vn/pages/ViewDocument.aspx?
Type=3&ID=3943). siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
60. ^ "Schedule of Course Fees" (http://www.siu.edu.vn/pages/ViewDocument.aspx?ID=18301&Type=3). siu.edu.vn.
Retrieved 2 March 2013.
61. ^
a

b
[3] (http://www.thongtinthuongmaivietnam.com.vn/IWINews.aspx?CatalogID=2426&ID=64806)
62. ^ Exercise and sports
(http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/so_lieu_ktxh/2005/Van_hoa_giao_duc_y_te/0921.htm). PSO Ho Chi Minh
City.
63. ^ "ASEAN Basketball League website" (http://www.aseanbasketballleague.com/news/detail/6527/ssa-saigon-heat-
joins-the-airasia-asean-basketball-league). Aseanbasketballleague.com. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
64. ^ "CC A PHNG NC NGOI THIT LP QUAN H HU NGH HP TC VI TPHCM"
(http://www.mofahcm.gov.vn/vi/hoptac_qt/nr041014110554/#2O2JGVsVDHhB). mofahcm.gov.vn. 9 October
2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
65. ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]"
(http://web.archive.org/web/20130502075333/http://minsk.gov.by/ru/city/) (in Russian). The department of
protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original
(http://minsk.gov.by/ru/city/) on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.