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LESSON 3: THE DAWN OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM


TOPICS:
1. Unification of the Philippines Under Spanish Rule
2. Resistance to Spanish Rule
3. The Emergence of the Filipino Sense of Nationhood


Unification of the Philippines under Spanish Rule and Resistance to Spanish Rule

PRE-COLONIAL
PHILIPPINES
UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES UNDER
SPANISH RULE
CAUSES OF NATIVES
DISCONTENTMENT
NATIVES RESPONSE TO
THE CAUSES OF
DISCONTENTMENT
OUTCOME OF THE NATIVES
STRUGGLES
1. Philippines
was
independent
and have
self-
governing
barangays,
peopled by
diverse
tribes.
1. Spain gave the country its identity;
2. The natives were pacified with the
use of the cross;
3. The reduccion plan was
implemented, which required the
natives to live in the area near the
church;
4. The Spanish rule transformed the
Filipinos to become law-abiding
citizens;
5. The independence of the
barangays was lost as a
consequence of the relocation of
the natives under the influence of
the Church.
6. The Spains political system was
introduced and so the natives
came to be politically unified
under the Spanish crown.
1. Implementati
on of taxation
without
representatio
n;
2. Polo Y
Servicio;
3. Galleon Trade;
4. Indulto de
Commercio;
5. Government
Monopolies.

1. The natives
revolted against
the Spaniards due
to following
reasons:
a. They want to
regain their
lost freedom;
b. Resistance to
Spanish-
imposed
institutions;
c. Agrarian
unrest;
d. Desire to
revert to their
native
religion.


1. Many revolts failed
because of the
following reasons:
a. Sectional
jealousies;
b. Lack of
communication;
c. Absence of
national
leaderships;
d. The people were
not united;
e. Revolts were
fragmented,
disorganized, and
sporadic;
f. The Spaniards
used the divide
and rule policy to
rule the natives.



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The Emergence of the Filipino Sense of Nationhood
The emergence of the Filipino sense of nationhood took place only during the last years of Spanish rule in the 1890s. The development of
Filipino nationalism could be attributed to following factors:
1. The opening of the Philippines to World Commerce
The opening of the Philippines to world commerce ended its economic isolation. The most significant effect of this development was the
influx of liberal idea into the country. Many Filipinos came to know the ideas of John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and other political
philosophers. Because of this, Filipino intellectuals started to wonder at the deplorable conditions of the country. They began to discuss
issues on politics and started clamoring for reforms from the government.

2. The rise of Clase Media
The rise of Middle Class or Clase Media paved the way for the rise of Filipino propagandists clamoring for change in the Philippines.

3. Liberal regime of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre
Under this Governor-General, democracy and liberal philosophy was allowed in the country. He encouraged the aspirations of the
reformists and abolished censorship of the press. He allowed freedom of speech and of the press as guaranteed by the Spanish Constitution.

4. Racial Discrimination
The Spaniards considered the Filipinos an inferior race and sarcastically called them indios. Discrimination was prevalent in the
universities and colleges, government offices, church, court of justice. This kind of attach against the Filipino race intensified the enmity between
the Filipinos and Spaniards, especially the friars. Racial discrimination had led them to realize that the Spaniards and the Filipinos were two
separate, distinct peoples.

5. Secularization Controversy
Secularization of parishes was the transfer of the ministries established by the regular Spanish clergy to the Filipino seculars. The
secularization controversy began as a religious issue on the right of the regular and secular priests to administer the parishes. This issue later
became a racial controversy between the friars and the Filipino secular clergy, as the friars started demanding that the latter were not qualified
to administer the parishes. The secularization controversy led to the unification of the Filipino clergy, which in effect, strengthened their sense of
identity.

6. Cavite Mutiny of 1872
This mutiny was brought about by Izquierdos abolition of the exemption from tribute and forced labor, previously enjoyed by the
soldiers and workers. The Spanish authorities took advantage of the situation by arresting liberal-minded Filipinos. Moreover, the Spaniards
used to situation to implicate the three priests, Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora, and Mariano Gomez who were all executed through garrote.

References:
Rizal and the Development of Filipino Nationalism: A Textbook on the Life, Works, and Writings of our National hero
By Carlito D. Garcia, et al. (Copyright 2011) pages 41 - 47