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Project Improves Hatchery for Marine Finfish


30 July 2008
INDONESIA - Indonesia was recently host to a meeting on a project aiming to improve hatchery
and grow-out technology for marine finfish aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region.
The meeting was organised by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
and the Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture (RICA) Maros.

The innovative project aims to improve hatchery production technology for high-value marine finfish
addressing larval nutrition and digestion, verification of intensive and semi-intensive hatchery
techniques, live prey selection, production of SS-strain rotifers, use of ultra-small copepod nauplii as
first feed prey, reducing cannibalism and feed development for late larvae and juveniles.

In conjunstion with these improvements they hope to develop cost-effective grow-out diets, including
through improved ingredient digestibility, lower cost-feeds, investigation of nutrient requirements,
development of low-polluting feeds, commercial testing of feeds and investigation of feed on product
quality.

The project is also developing methoods to facilitate technology adoption, by identifying constraints
and solutions to technology uptake, extension, training, communication and networking.

The project is one of a broader, inter-connected series funded by ACIAR that aims to develop better
management practices for marine finfish aquaculture.

Other related projects include:
Land capability assessment and classification for sustainable pond-based aquaculture systems
(FIS/2002/076).
Planning tools for environmentally sustainable tropical finfish cage culture in Indonesia and
northern Australia (FIS/2003/027).
Improved hatchery and grow-out technology for marine finfish aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific
region (FIS/2002/077).
The backyard grouper hatchery technology development facilitated through these ACIAR projects has
been widely adopted in Indonesia. In 1999, only five hatcheries in Indonesia produced grouper
fingerlings and by 2004 the number had increased to 147. Hatcheries are no longer confined to Bali but
have spread across to Lampung, East Java, and new investments in hatchery production are also in
development in Riau. The technology was first successful in producing Cromileptes altivelis in 1998,
followed by Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in 2001. Since then this technology has been applied to other
marine finfish including grouper species such as estuary grouper E. coioides, E. polyphekadion, E.
corallicola, coral trout Plectropomus leopardus, and the golden trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus.

The expansion of hatchery production in northern Bali has generated a range of associated employment
opportunities for input suppliers. One example is the provision of small mysid shrimp which are
harvested from ponds (tambak) in East Java, and transported live in oxygen-filled plastic bags to
northern Bali by motor cycle. Project staff report that every morning, a number (less than 10) of motor
cycles transport live mysid shrimp to the Bali hatcheries to provide feed for juvenile groupers.

The simplicity, flexibility and economic viability of the hatchery technology are key factors that have
facilitated its uptake and spread within Indonesia. Increasingly, the technology has also been applied in
other countries, in part through the Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network grouper hatchery
production training course conducted annually in Indonesia since 2002. A total of 101 participants
from 22 countries have been trained since the course began. The technology is simple and not
mechanically complicated so a technician or owner who runs a hatchery does not necessarily need to be
highly educated or technically skilled. The flexibility of the technology also enables the hatchery
systems to switch between fish species or between fish and shrimp. The low investment and operating
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costs required enable fishermen or other small players with limited finances to participate in the
hatchery business either in the form of employment or by running their own.

The project workshop was followed by a one-day symposium in Bahasa Indonesia to extend the
projects research findings to farmers and the private sector, universities and local government officers,
and to promote interaction between them. The symposium was attended by a total of 61 people.
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Grouper (kerapu fish) business in Bali is increasingly on the increase. This condition can be seen from
the trend of increasing production from year to year. Surprisingly, the increase in production of grouper
takes place when most other aquaculture commodities have decreased in production, making Bali's
temporary amount of aquaculture production until the third quarter of only reach 117,953 tons.
According to Data of Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), the grouper on this island,
in 2010 the production reached 60 tons, in 2011 135.9 tons, and up to May 2012 3.712 million fish.
The grouper is mostly from Buleleng, North Bali.
The good prospect of grouper culture using a floating net system inevitably has a good impact on
grouper hatchery business. Because the production keeps increasing, the need for quality fry also
increases. Since grouper production center is located in Gerokgak sub-district, the prospect of grouper
hatchery business there is quite potential. Data from the local Marine and Fisheries agency also
indicated that fry production figure was 326.000 fish per production cycle.
Right now, the type of hybrid grouper, which is the result of a cross, is in demand in the market.
Research Center for Breeding Gondol Gerokgak is currently developing cantang grouper and cantik
grouper. Cantang grouper is a hybrid of the type of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and
kertang (Epinephelus lanceolatus), while cantik is the result of a cross between a tiger grouper
(Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and batik grouper (Epinephelus Microdon).
The fry price for Cantik grouper at farmer level is Rp 1.500 per fish and for Cantang grouper Rp 1.000.
"Right now, the two types are in high demand. And here (Center for research and breeding of Gondol),
the two types of grouper are being developed in addition to sunu grouper and batik grouper," said Kete,
technician of grouper larvae in Gondol Research Institute, Gerokgak, Buleleng regency.















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Improved hatchery and grow-out technology for marine finfish
Posted on 29/7/2008 | 4864 reads | Tags: Marine Finfish

Makassar, Indonesia, was host to the annual meeting of the project Improved
hatchery and grow-out technology for marine finfish aquaculture in the Asia-
Pacific region, 22-25 July 2008, organised by the Australian Centre for
International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and the Research Institute for
Coastal Aquaculture (RICA) Maros. The meeting was officially opened by the new
Director of the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Mr Gelwyn Yusuf and
introduced by the new Director for Seed Production in the Directorate-General of
Aquaculture, Prof. Ketut Sugama. The objectives of the project are to:
Improve hatchery production technology for high-value marine finfish
addressing larval nutrition and digestion, verification of intensive and
semi-intensive hatchery techniques, live prey selection, production of SS-
strain rotifers, use of ultra-small copepod nauplii as first feed prey,
reducing cannibalism and feed development for late larvae and juveniles.

Develop cost-effective grow-out diets, including through improved
ingredient digestibility, lower cost-feeds, investigation of nutrient
requirements, development of low-polluting feeds, commercial testing of
feeds and investigation of feed on product quality.

Facilitate technology adoption, through by identifying constraints and
solutions to technology uptake, extension, training, communication and
networking.

The project is one of a broader, inter-connected series funded by ACIAR that
aims to develop better management practices for marine finfish aquaculture.
Other related projects include:
Land capability assessment and classification for sustainable pond-based
aquaculture systems (FIS/2002/076).

Planning tools for environmentally sustainable tropical finfish cage
culture in Indonesia and northern Australia (FIS/2003/027).
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Improved hatchery and grow-out technology for marine finfish
aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region (FIS/2002/077).

The backyard grouper hatchery technology development facilitated through
these ACIAR projects has been widely adopted in Indonesia. In 1999, only five
hatcheries in Indonesia produced grouper fingerlings and by 2004 the number
had increased to 147. Hatcheries are no longer confined to Bali but have spread
across to Lampung, East Java, and new investments in hatchery production are
also in development in Riau. The technology was first successful in producing
Cromileptes altivelis in 1998, followed by Epinephelus fuscoguttatus in 2001.
Since then this technology has been applied to other marine finfish including
grouper species such as estuary grouper E. coioides, E. polyphekadion, E.
corallicola, coral trout Plectropomus leopardus, and the golden trevally,
Gnathanodon speciosus.

The expansion of hatchery production in northern Bali has generated a range of
associated employment opportunities for input suppliers. One example is the
provision of small mysid shrimp which are harvested from ponds (tambak) in
East Java, and transported live in oxygen-filled plastic bags to northern Bali by
motor cycle. Project staff report that every morning, a number (<10) of motor
cycles transport live mysid shrimp to the Bali hatcheries to provide feed for
juvenile groupers.

The simplicity, flexibility and economic viability of the hatchery technology are
key factors that have facilitated its uptake and spread within Indonesia.
Increasingly, the technology has also been applied in other countries, in part
through the Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network grouper hatchery
production training course conducted annually in Indonesia since 2002. A total
of 101 participants from 22 countries have been trained since the course began.
The technology is simple and not mechanically complicated so a technician or
owner who runs a hatchery does not necessarily need to be highly educated or
technically skilled. The flexibility of the technology also enables the hatchery
systems to switch between fish species or between fish and shrimp. The low
investment and operating costs required enable fishermen or other small players
with limited finances to participate in the hatchery business either in the form of
employment or by running their own.

The project workshop was followed by a one-day symposium in Bahasa
Indonesia to extend the projects research findings to farmers and the private
sector, universities and local government officers, and to promote interaction
between them. The symposium was attended by a total of 61 people.