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INTELLIGENT ENERGY SAVING SYSTEM

MINI PROJECT REPORT


Submitted by
ARJUN B (ECU102/11)
GARGI V PILLAI (ECU102/28)
LINCY GRACE ALEXANDER (ECU102/37)
NITHIN ELDHO ABRAHAM (ECU102/44)
SOJA SASI (ECU102/56)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of
Bachelor of Technology
in
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
of
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
MODEL ENGINEERING COLLEGE
COCHIN 682 021
MARCH 2013

MODEL ENGINEERING COLLEGE
THRIKKAKARA, KOCHI-21
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
BONAFI DE CERTI FI CATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Submitted by
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
is a bonafide account of the work done by him/her under our supervision


Dr.Jayasree V.K. Mrs. Anjana Devi Mrs. Shaija P J Mr. Nidhin Varghese
Head of Department Project Coordinator Project Guide Project Guide

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We thank the Lord Almighty for the blessing He has bestowed on us for the
successful completion of our mini project with full output.
We are grateful to Dr. Prof. V.P.Devassia, Principal, Govt. Model
Engineering College, Thrikkakara for providing us with the best facilities
and atmosphere for our project development and realization. We express
our heartfelt thanks to Mrs. J ayasree V K, HOD, Department of Electronics
and Communication. She has offered us infallible support and timely advice
and was pivotal in the completion of our mini project.
We wholeheartedly thank our staff advisor Mrs. Anjana Devi for guiding
us through each step of our project and for enabling us to realize our full
potential by this project. We are profoundly indebted to our project
coordinators Mr. Nidhin Varghese and Mrs. Shaija P.J . for their
innumerable acts of timely advice, encouragement and help. We wish to
express our deep sense of gratitude for their able guidance and useful
suggestions, which helped us in the timely completion of our project. We
are also greatly indebted to all our project lab staff who helped us make this
project a grand success.
Finally yet importantly, we would like to express our heartfelt thanks to our
seniors and friends who were ready with a positive comment all the time,
whether it was an off-hand comment to encourage us or a constructive piece
of criticism.

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ABSTRACT

In this era, energy is the need of the hour and our project is a measure to
increase the energy efficiency in our lives. Our project is specifically
applicable to libraries and office cubicles where lighting and cooling
mechanisms like fan, A/Cs are employed for the comfortable reading or
working environment respectively. In our project we have taken a library
for demonstration. Here we monitor for human activity around each
reading table; we also monitor the amount of sunlight entering the room
and based on the above conditions we decide to turn on/off lights. We also
regulate the fan speed based on the temperature conditions in the room.
Another highlight of our project is the counter that increments or
decrements according to the number of people entering or leaving the room
respectively. As a result, if there is no one in the room all lights and fans
will be turned off automatically. A very practical application of the counter
would be at our homes itself. We are all busy people and in the run to
office/schools/colleges we tend to forget about switching off lights and fans
before we leave. By this system such tensions can be avoided while
reducing your electricity bill by a grand amount.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF SYMBOLS viii
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Principle of Operation 1
1.2 Block Diagram 2
2. HARDWARE SECTION
2.1 PIR 4
2.2 Light Dependent Resistor 5
2.3 Optocoupler 6
2.3.1 Features of Optocoupler 7
2.3.2 Applications 7
2.4 Triac Driver 8
2.4.1 Applications 8
2.4.2 Features 9
2.5 Temperature Sensor 9
2.5.1 Features 9
2.6 Loads 9
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2.7 Microcontrollers 10
2.7.1 PIC 16F887 10
2.7.1.1 Features 10
2.7.2 PIC 16F877 12
3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND EXPLANATIONS
3.1 Power Supply 14
3.1.1 Step down transformer 14
3.1.2 Rectifier Unit 15
3.1.3 Design 15
3.1.4 Input Filter 17
3.1.5 Regulator unit 17
3.2 Zero Crossing Detector 18
3.2.1 Design 19
3.3 Light Dependent Resistor 20
3.3.1 Features 21
3.3.2 Applications 21
3.3.3 Design conditions 21
3.4 Triac Section 22
3.5 MonostableMultivibrator 23
3.6 Full Circuits 24

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4. SOLDERING AND PCB LAYOUTS
4.1 Soldering 26
4.1.1 Solder 26
4.1.2 Soldering flux 26
4.1.3 Soldering tools 27
4.1.3.1 Soldering Iron 27
4.1.3.2 Soldering Station 27
4.1.4 Preparing the soldering iron 27
4.1.5 Making soldering join 27
4.2 Desoldering 28
4.2.1 Using desoldering pump 28
4.2.2 Using solder remover wick (copper braid) 28
5. SOFTWARE
5.1 Flowchart for transmitter receiver section 29
5.2 Flowchart for zcd section 30
6. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Future Scope 31
6.2 References and Links
6.3 Textbooks referred
APPENDIX
A1: PCB LAYOUTS
A2: DATASHEETS
A3: COST OF COMPONENTS
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LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1.1: Block diagram for the lighting section 2
Fig 1.2: Block diagram for temperature regulated fan section 3
Fig 2.1: Working of the PIR 5
Fig 2.2: Diagram of LDR 6
Fig 2.3: Pin diagram of Optocoupler 8
Fig 2.4:Pin diagram of PIC16F887 10
Fig 2.5:Pin diagram of PIC16F877 13
Fig 3.1: Power supply circuit 14
Fig 3.2: Basic 50/60Hz Zero Crossing Detector 18
Fig 3.3: Waveform of zcd circuit 19
Fig 3.4: Light Dependent Resistor 20
Fig 3.5: Dimmer circuit 22
Fig 3.6 MonostableMultivibrator 23
Fig 3.7 Full Circuit 1 25
Fig 3.7 Full Circuit 2 26
Fig 5.1 Flow chart for transmitter receiver section 29
Fig 5.2 Flow chart for zcd section 30
Fig A1.1 PCB layout for the PIR-transmitter section
Fig A1.2 PCB layout for the fan regulation section
Fig A1.3 PCB layout for power supply section

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Parameters of PIC16F877 12
Table 3.1 Regulator pins 15

LIST OF SYMBOLS
IC-Integrated Circuit
PCB-Printed Circuit Board
R: Resistor
C: Capacitor
D: Diode
GND: Ground
Vcc: Supply Voltage
V: Voltage
Hz: Hertz
: Ohms
F: Micro Farad
pF: Pico Farad

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
The aim of the project is to save energy or power, used in places like libraries where
lighting is very important for the people who come to read books. So, the libraries
will be well illuminated with many lamps.
At the same time when people are not present at a particular reading place the lighting
can be made off by using Dimmer and when people come to that area, according to
the LDR lighting, can be made sufficiently brighter. By using this system, we can
also adjust the speed of the Fan according to the room temperature using Thermostat
and Dimmer.
1.1Principle of Operation
Consider a particular table in the library, which is connected with our experimental
kit. When a person enters the library the counter implemented by the transmitter-
receiver section increments and the LDR-PIR section becomes active. Only if the
counter value is greater than one will the lights/fan be switched ON.
The PIR sensor absorbs the black body radiation emitted by that person and activates
it. After some time delay the light will glow for some time by using the Dimmer
circuit and with the help of LDR sensor it checks the room lightening; it takes on the
condition that when the light is sufficient the lamp will be in OFF state and when
light is insufficient the lamp will be in ON state that is if there is enough sunlight in
the room then the light will not be switched on else they will be turned on.
With the help of Thermostat sensor the room temperature is measured and the speed
of the Fan is regulated according to the temperature of Thermostat. The input from
the mains is given to a zero crossing detector circuit which gives the instants at which
the signal crosses zero point. This is given to the PIC which gives the output to the
triac section and in this way the fan speed is regulated.
When a person leaves our particular area of concern, the PIR sensor will activate
again and firstly the Fan will be switched OFF and after some time delay the lamp
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also will be turned OFF. When the counter value is equal to zero the supply to the
entire room is cut off.
1.2 Block Diagrams
The whole circuitry is divided into 3 units:
1. Counter using IR Transmitter and Receiver
2. Light sensitive and Human Presence sensitive Lighting circuit
3. Temperature Regulated Fan




Fig 1.1: Block diagram for the lighting section


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Fig 1.2: Block diagram for temperature regulated fan section










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Chapter 2
HARDWARE SECTION

2.1 PIR Sensor
A PIR detector is a motion detector that senses the heat emitted by a living body.
These are often fitted to security lights so that they will switch on automatically if
approached. They are very effective in enhancing home security systems. The sensor
is passive because, instead of emitting a beam of light or microwave energy that must
be interrupted by a passing person in order to sense that person, the PIR is simply
sensitive to the infrared energy emitted by every living thing. When an intruder walks
into the detectors field of vision, the detector sees a sharp increase in infrared
energy.
A PIR sensor light is designed to turn on when a person approaches, but will not react
to a person standing still. The lights are designed this way. A moving person exhibits
a sudden change in infrared energy, but a slower change is emitted by a motionless
body. Slower changes are also caused by gradual fluctuations in the temperature of
the environment. If the light were sensitive to these slower changes, it would react to
the sidewalk cooling off at night, instead of the motion of a burglar.
The PIR device can be thought of as a kind of infrared camera, which remembers
the amount of infrared energy focused on its surface. Once power is applied to the
PIR the electronics in the PIR shortly settle into a quiescent state and energize a small
relay. This relay controls a set of electrical contacts, which are usually connected to
the detection input of an alarm control panel. If the amount of infrared energy focused
on the sensor changes within a configured time period, the device will switch the state
of the alarm output relay. The alarm output relay is typically a "normally closed
(NC)" relay; also know as a "Form B" relay.
A person entering the monitored area is detected when the infrared energy emitted
from the intruder's body is focused by a Fresnel lens or a mirror segment and overlaps
a section on the chip, which had previously been looking at some much cooler part of
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the protected area. That portion of the chip is now much warmer than when the
intruder wasn't there. As the intruder moves, so does the hot spot on the surface of the
chip. This moving hot spot causes the electronics connected to the chip to de-energize
the relay, operating its contacts, thereby activating the detection input on the alarm
control panel.

Fig 2.1: Working of the PI R

2.2 Light DependentResistor
LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor
circuits. These help in automatically switching ON /OFF the street lights and etc.
Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as very high as 1000000
ohms, but when they are illuminated with light, resistance drops dramatically.
Electronic opto sensors are the devices that alter their electrical characteristics, in the
presence of visible or invisible light. The best-known devices of these types are the
light dependent resistor (LDR), the photo diode and the phototransistors.
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LDRs are sensitive, inexpensive, and readily available devices. They have good
power and voltage handling capabilities, similar to those of aconventional resistor.
Theironly significant defect is that they are fairly low acting, taking tens or hundreds
of LDR include light and dark-activated switches and alarms, light beam alarms and
reflective smoke alarms etc. A LDR may be connected either way round and no
special precautions are required when soldering.
The LDR is a variable resistor whose resistance decreases with the increase in light
intensity. Two cadmium sulphide (cds) photoconductive cells with spectral response
similar to that of the human eye are used here. The cell resistance falls with
increasing light intensity.

Fig 2.2: Diagram of LDR
2.3 Optocoupler
Opto coupler is a device that uses a short optical transmission path to transfer a signal
between elements of a circuit, typically a transmitter and a receiver, while keeping
them electrically isolated since the signal goes from an electrical signal to an
optical signal back to an electrical signal, electrical contact along the path is broken.
A common implementation involves a LED and a phototransistor, separated so that
light may travel across a barrier but electrical current may not.
When an electrical signal is applied to the input of the opto-isolator, its LED lights,
its light sensor then activates,and a corresponding electrical signal is generated at the
output. Unlike a transformer, the opto-isolator allows for DC coupling and generally
provides significant protection from serious overvoltage conditions in one circuit
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affecting the other. With a photodiode as the detector, the output current is
proportional to the amount of incident light supplied by the emitter.
The diode can be used in a photovoltaic mode or a photoconductive mode. In
photovoltaic mode, the diode acts like a current source in parallel with a forward-
biased diode. The optical path may be air or a dielectric waveguide. The transmitting
and receiving elements of an optical isolator may be contained within a single
compact module, for mounting, for example, on a circuit board; in this case, the
module is often called an optoisolator. The photosensor may be a photocell,
phototransistor, or an optically triggered SCR or Triac.

2.3.1 Features of Optocoupler
Interfaces with common logic families
Input-output coupling capacitance <0.5 Pf
Industry Standard Dual-in line 6-pin package
5300 VRMS isolation test voltage
2.3.2 Applications
AC mains detection
Reed relay driving
Switch mode power supply feedback
Telephone ring detection
Logic ground isolation
Logic coupling with high frequency noise rejection

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Fig 2.3:Pin diagram of Optocoupler


2.4 Triac Driver
These devices consist of aAlGaAs infrared emitting diode optically coupled to a
monolithic silicon detector performing the function of a zero voltage crossing
bilateral triac driver. They are designed for use with a triac in the interface of logic
systems to equipment powered from 230 VAC lines, such as teletypewriters, CRTs,
solid-state relays, industrial controls, printers, motors, solenoids and consumer
appliances, etc.

2.4.1 Applications
Solenoid/valve controls
Lighting controls
Static power switches
AC motor drives
Temperature controls
E.M. contactors
AC motor starters
Solid-state relays

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2.4.2 Features
Simplifies logic control of 230 VAC power
Zero voltage crossing

2.5 Temperature sensor
In this project we are making use DS 1820 temperature sensor, its a non-contact
digital type temperature transducer suitable for measuring room temperature. The
word thermistor is an acronym for thermal resistor, i.e., a temperature sensitive
resistor. It is used to detect very small changes in temperature. The variation in
temperature is reflected through appreciable variation of the resistance of the device.
2.5.1 Features

Temperature measurements require no external components
Measures temperatures from -55C to +125C in 0.5C increments.
Temperature is read as a 9-bit value (2-byte transfer)
Wide power supply range (2.7V to 5.5V)
Converts temperature to digital word in less than 1 second
Thermostatic settings are user definable and nonvolatile
Data is read from/written via a 2-wire serial interface (open drain I/O lines)
Applications include thermostatic controls, industrial systems, consumer
products, Thermometers, or any thermal sensitive system
8-pin DIP or SO package (150mil and 208mil)

2.6 Loads
In this intelligent energy saving system we are using two loads, lamp and Fan.
According to the light intensity of the particular room or cabin the LDR will senses,
depending on the LDR output the lamp will be ON/OFF. This system is only
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applicable for lamps and not applicable for tube lights, because the starting voltage of
the tube lights is high compared to lamps.
By using Thermostat and Dimmer we can adjust the speed of the Fan according to the
changes of the room temperature.

2.7 Microcontrollers
Here two microcontrollers have been used- PIC16F887 and PIC16F877. For the zero
crossing detector that is for regulating fan we use 16F877and the other mc for the
transmitter section. These have been chosen based on the number of ports. Two PICs
have been used as one PIC would not be able to control and check conditions
continuously for both light and fan.
2.7.1 PIC 16F887

Fig 2.4:Pin diagram of PI C16F887
2.7.1.1 Features
RISC architecture
o Only 35 instructions to learn
o All single-cycle instructions except branches

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Operating frequency 0-20 MHz

Precision internal oscillator
o Factory calibrated
o Software selectable frequency range of 8MHz to 31KHz

Power supply voltage 2.0-5.5V
o Consumption: 220uA (2.0V, 4MHz), 11uA (2.0 V, 32 KHz) 50nA (stand-by
mode)

Power-Saving Sleep Mode

Brown-out Reset (BOR) with software control option
35 input/output pins

o High current source/sink for direct LED drive
o software and individually programmable pull-up resistor
o Interrupt-on-Change pin

8K ROM memory in FLASH technology
o Chip can be reprogrammed up to 100.000 times

In-Circuit Serial Programming Option
o Chip can be programmed even embedded in the target device

256 bytes EEPROM memory
o Data can be written more than 1.000.000 times

368 bytes RAM memory

A/D converter:
o 14-channels
o 10-bit resolution

3 independent timers/counters

Watch-dog timer

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Analogue comparator module with
o Two analogue comparators
o Fixed voltage reference (0.6V)
o Programmable on-chip voltage reference

PWM output steering control

Enhanced USART module
o Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN2.0
o Auto-Baud Detect

Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP)
o supports SPI and I2C mode

2.7.2 PIC 16F877
Parameter Name Value
Program Memory Type Flash
Program Memory (KB) 14
CPU Speed (MIPS) 5
RAM Bytes 368
Data EEPROM (bytes) 256
Digital Communication
Peripherals
1-A/E/USART, 1-
MSSP(SPI/I2C)
Capture/Compare/PWM
Peripherals
2 CCP
Timers 2 x 8-bit, 1 x 16-bit
ADC 8 ch, 10-bit
Temperature Range (C) -40 to 85
Operating Voltage Range (V) 2 to 5.5
Pin Count 40

Table 2.1: Parameters of PI C16F877

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Fig 2.5:Pin diagram of PI C16F877



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Chapter 3
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS AND EXPLANATIONS
3.1 Power Supply
3.1.1 Step down transformer:
The step-down transformer is used to step down the supply voltage of 230v ac from
mains to lower values, as the various ICs used in this project require reduced
voltages. The transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. To reduce or step
down the voltage, the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its
secondary core. The outputs from the secondary coil which is center tapped are the
ac values of 0v, 12v and 12v. The conversion of these ac values to dc values to dc
values is done using the full wave rectifier unit.

Fig 3.1: Power supply circuit


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Table 3.1 Regulator pins
3.1.2 Rectifier Unit:
A diode bridge is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit. That
provides the polarity of output voltage of any polarity of the input voltage. When
used in its most common application, for conversion of alternating current (A.C)
input into direct current (D.C) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier. The diagram
describes a diode-bridge design known as a full wave rectifier. This design can be
used to rectify single phase A.C. when no transformer center tap is available. A
bridge rectifier makesuse of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full wave
rectification. This is widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as
shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.
For both positive and negative swings of the transformer, there is a forward path
through the diode bridge. Both conduction paths cause current to flow in the same
direction through the load resister, accomplishing full-wave rectification. While one
set of diodes is forward biased, the other set is reverse biased and effectively
eliminated from the circuit.
3.1.3 Design

Voltage requirement: 5V, 12V
7805 V REGULATOR
SPECIFICATION Pin
No
Function Name
1 Input voltage (5V-18V) Input
2 Ground (0V) Ground
3 Regulated output; 5V
(4.8V-5.2V)
Output
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Current requirement: 500mA
Transformer selection: Select 230V/1A:24V transformer ( bridge)
Primary winding/secondary winding : N1/N2=V1/V2
N1/N2=230/24=115/12
ie: turn ratio =115/12
Design of capacitors

The converted dc is not pure dc due to the presence of some ac ripples.So in order to
avoid it we use the filters. The first capacitor is used for filtering the output of the
rectifier. C1 should be high enough to get minimum ripple voltage.

Ripple voltage =Idc/2fc ;Idc=50mA,f=100Hz
Ripple voltage is taken as 48
Therefore C1=470uF

The 470f capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input
voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. The two
rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the
line voltage, and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in
between charging pulses.

The 0.1f capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant
when load conditions change. The electrolytic capacitor smoothes out any long-term
or low frequency variations.

Selection of regulator IC

Here se use LM7805 IC to get regulated output of 5V. It delivers upto 1.5A of
current. The internal current-limiting and thermal-shutdown features of these
regulators essentially make them immune to overload.



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3.1.4Input Filter: -
Capacitors are used as filters. The ripples from the dc voltages are removed and pure
dc voltage is obtained. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and
discharging. It charges in positive half cycle of the ac voltage and it will discharge in
negative half cycle. So it allows only ac voltage and does not allow the dc voltage.
This filter is fixed before the regulator. Capacitors used here are of the value
1000uF.

3.1.5Regulator unit: -
Regulator regulates the output voltage to a specific value. The output voltage is
maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input dc voltage. Whenever there
are any ac voltage fluctuations, the dc voltage also changes, and to avoid this
regulators are used.Regulators used in this application are7805 which provides 5v dc
and 7812 which provides 12v dc.





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3.2 Zero Crosssing Detector

Fig 3.2: Basic 50Hz Zero Crossing Detector

A zero crossing detector literally detects the transition of a signal waveform from
positive and negative, ideally providing a narrow pulse that coincides exactly with the
zero voltage condition. At first glance, this would appear to be an easy enough task,
but in fact it is quite complex, especially where high frequencies are involved. In this
instance, even 1 kHz starts to present a real challenge if extreme accuracy is needed.
The not so humble comparator plays a vital role - without it, most precision zero
crossing detectors would not work, and we'd be without digital audio, PWM and a
multitude of other applications taken for granted.
The zero crossing detector as used for the dimmer ramp generator. The comparator
function is handled by transistorQ1 - very basic, but adequate for the job. The circuit
is also sensitive to level, and for acceptable performance the AC waveform needs to
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be of reasonably high amplitude. 12-15V AC is typical. If the voltage is too low, the
pulse width will increase. R1 is there to ensure that the voltage falls to zero - stray
capacitance is sufficient to stop the circuit from working without it.

Fig 3.3: Waveform of zcd circuit
3.2.1 Design
Vcc-IcRc-Vce-LEDdrop=0
12-10mA*Rc-0.9-0.7=0
10.4=10Rc
R3~1k
Vcc get splited as 8V and 4V
Vcc-IbRb-Vbe=0
7.3=0.5mA*Rb
R2=Rb~10k

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3.3 Light Dependent Resistor
We exploit the following two features of the LDR in this circuit.
Darkness: Maximum resistance, about 1Mohm.
Very bright light: Minimum resistance, about 100 ohm.


Fig 3.4: Light Dependent Resistor
The LDR circuit was designed by keeping in mind the above concept. The value of
the LDR when exposed to light and in darkness were measured and based on that a
reference value was taken. Based on these voltage levels a voltage divider section was
designed.
When there is enough reading light in the room, the resistance of the LDR will be
minimum and the voltage across 10k resistor will be increased causing the output of
comparator to be Vsat. The transistor will not conduct and thereby the light will not
be turned on. On the other hand when it is dark in the room, the resistance is very
high and +Vsat will be the output of the comparator. This causes the transistor to
conduct and we get full 5 V across the ldr output which is given to PIC
microcontroller.

3.3.1 Features:
High reliability
Light weight
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Wide spectral response
Wide ambient temperature range

3.3.2 Applications:
Smoke detection
Automatic lighting control
Burglar alarm systems
Camera (electronic shutter)
Strobe (color temperature reading)

3.3.3 Design conditions
V(-)=12R/(R+RL)
Assume R=10k ohm
At 10 lux(poorly illuminated) Rl = 10M ohm, V(-)~ 0V
At 1000 lux(sunlight) Rl = 400 ohm, V(-)= 11.5V
At 300 lux(normal effect) Rl = 5K ohm, V(-)= 8V~ 6V
500 lux Rl = 1K, V(-)=11V
V(+)can vary from about 8V ~ 11.5 V.
Using a voltage divider network assume R1=R2.
Using a potentiometer at minimum resistance position, Vp=6V
At maximum resistance position, Vp=11.5V
V(Rp+R2)/(R1+R2+R3)=Vp
Assume R1=R2
Vp=V(Rp+R1)/(2R1+Rp)
Use Rp 10k pot,
R1=470 ohm
Maximum output current of 741C op amp=20m A
Minimum dc current gain=110
Minimum base current for transistor BC107=2micro A.
R=20mA/2microA
=10 k ohms

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3.4 Triac Section

Fig 3.5: Dimmer circuit
Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. By decreasing or
increasing the RMS voltage and hence the mean power to the lamp it is possible to
vary the intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are used for
various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to control
lighting.
Modern dimmers are built from silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) instead of
potentiometers or variable resistors because they have higher efficiency. A variable
resistor would dissipate power by heat (efficiency as low as 0.5). By switching on and
off, theoretically a dimmer does not heat up (efficiency close to 1.0).
Thyristor (and briefly, thyratrom) dimmers were introduced to solve some of these
problems. Because they use switching techniques instead of potential division there is
almost no wasted power, dimming can be almost instantaneous and is easily
controlled by remote electronics.


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3.5 MonostableMultivibrator

Fig 3.6 MonostableMultivibrator

The monostablemultivibrator is used to increase the hold time for our output. During
the time after the first condition is tested and the time till next condition is checked
there is a time delay. During this time delay the output will not be high and we will
get a blinking output. To hold this value constant we use this
monostablemultivibrator. It is designed for the discharging section of the capacitor.
Initially the capacitor will charge up to Vcc and then it will discharge. However we
are so designing for the capacitor such that the by the time the capacitor reaches half
way discharging the next input will arrive. In this way we get a high output till the
next input arrives.

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3.6 FULL CIRCUITS


Fig 3.7 Full Circuit 1

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Fig 3.8 Full Circuit 2



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Chapter 4
SOLDERING AND PCB LAYOUTS

4.1 Soldering
Soldering is the process of joining two or more dissimilar metals by melting another
metal having low melting points.

4.1.1 Solder
Solder is an alloy of tin and lead, typically 60% tin and 40% lead. It melts at a
temperature of about . Coating a surface with solder is called tinning because of the
tin content of solder. Lead is poisonous and you should always wash your hand after
using solder.
Solder for electronics use contains tiny cores of flux inside the main flux. The flux is
corrosive and it cleans the metal surfaces as the solder melts. This is why we melt
solder on the joint , not on iron tip. The best size of solder for electronics circuit
boards is 22SWG.For plugs, component holders and other larger joints you may
prefer to use 18 SWG solder.

4.1.2 Soldering flux
In order to make the surface accept the solder readily the components terminal should
be free from oxides and other obstructing films. Soldering flux cleans the oxides from
the surface of the metal. The leads should be cleaned chemically or by scrapping
using a blade or knife. Small amount of lead should be coated on the portion of the
lead and the bit of the soldering iron. This process is known as TINNING. Zinc
Chloride, Ammonium Chloride, Rosin are the most commonly used fluxes. These are
available in petroleum jelly as paste flux. The residue which remains after the
soldering may be washed out with more water accompanied by brushing.

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4.1.3 Soldering tools

4.1.3.1 Soldering Iron:
It is a tool used to melt the solder and apply at the joints in the circuit. It operates in
230V main supply. The normal power ratings of the soldering iron are 10W, 25W,
35W, 65W, and 125W.The iron bit at the top of it gets heated up within a few
minutes.10W and 25W soldering irons are sufficient for light duty works.

4.1.3.2 Soldering Station:
The soldering station consists of a handheld hot air blow gun and the base station
comprising of air flow and temperature controls to the hot air blow gun. Tip
temperature is maintained by feedback control loops. Soldering guns usually have a
trigger switch which controls the AC power.

4.1.4 Preparing the soldering iron
Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in. The iron will take a few minutes to
reach its operating temperature of about 673K.
Dampen the sponge in the stand. The best way to do it is to lift it out the stand and
hold it under a cold tap for a moment, then squeeze to remove excess water. It should
be damp, not dripping wet.
Wait a few minutes for the iron to warm up. Check if it is ready by trying to melt a
little solder on the tip.
Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge. This will clean the tip.
Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron. This is called tinning and it will help the heat
to flow from irons tip to the joint. It only needs to be done when you plug in the iron,
and occasionally while soldering if you need to wipe the dip clean on the sponge.

4.1.5 Making soldering joints
Hold the soldering iron like a pen, near the base of the handle. Remember to never
touch the hot element or tip.
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Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made. Make sure it touches both the
component leads and the track. Hold the tip there for a few seconds.
Feed a little solder on the joint. It should flow smoothly on the lead and track to form
a volcano shape.
Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still. Allow the joint a few
seconds to cool before you move the circuit board.
Inspect the joint carefully. It should look shiny and have a volcano shape. If not, you
will have to reheat it and feed in a little solder. This time ensure that both the lead and
track are heated fully before applying solder.

4.2 Desoldering
It is the removal of the solder from previously soldered joint. There are two ways to
remove the joint:

4.2.1 Using desoldering pump
De-solder pump is a commonly used device for this purpose. When the solder melts
by the action of the soldering iron, the trigger on the de-solder pump should be
activated to create a vacuum. This vacuum pulls the solder into the tube.

4.2.2 Using solder remover wick (copper braid)
The end of the wick and the tip of soldering iron are joint together. As the solder
melts, most of it flows onto the wick, away from the joint. Remove the wick and then
the soldering iron.






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Chapter 5
SOFTWARE

Fig 5.1 Flow chart for transmitter receiver section


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Fig 5.2 Flow chart for zcd section

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Chapter 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Intelligent Energy Saving System is not limited for any particular application, it can
be used anywhere like in process industries with little modifications in software
coding according to the requirements. This concept not only ensures that our work
will be usable in the future but also provides the flexibility to adapt and extend, as
needs change.
In our project we have catered this exclusively for libraries but it can be extended to
office cubicles and homes to make it more energy efficient. The best part is that no
longer will your forgetfulness to turn off the light/fan etc be a headache because of
the counter section monitoring the condition whether a human is there or not within
the room.

6.1 Future Scope

In our project we connected all the sensors to micro controller through wires. This
can be developed wireless such that we can place different sensors in different places.
This sensor will activate the micro controller with the signals instead ofwires.
We can also use the counter section to control the flow of people in and out and to
prevent the place from being crowded we can close the doors after count has reached
a certain number or maybe a alert bell to the security to allow people only to leave
and not enter.
Also this is very much applicable at homes and other places. If human presence is not
detected the power will not be given to that section and a handsome amount can be
saved on the electricity bills.

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REFERENCES AND LINKS

[1] The Circuits Today website. http://www.circuitstoday.com
[2] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available:http://www.ieee.org/
[3] The Mikroelectronika Website. http://www.mikroe.com
[4] Electronicsforu magazine website http:// www.electronicsforu.com
[5] The Wikipedia Foundation website http://www.wikipedia.com
[6] Proteus Tutorials http://allaboutlearningandearning.blogspot.in/2011/07/proteus-
tutorial.html
[7] Eagle tutorials http://dmi.uib.es/~jguerrero/labSistemes/eagle_tut.pdf
[8] Datasheets http://www.microchip.com

Textbooks referred

[1] Banett Cox & OCull , Embedded C and the Microchip PIC , Thomson Learning, I
edition 1979
[2] Applied Electronics , Khanna Publications , C K Mithal , 10th edition














APPENDIX


APPENDIX A1
PCB LAYOUTS
The circuit diagrams were initially drawn in Proteus and output was obtained. Then the
PCB layout was drawn in Eagle for the various boards. The 3 boards include a board to
control the lights, another to regulate the fan speed and the third is the power supply
board.


Fig: A1.1 PCB layout for the PI R-transmitter section








Fig:A1.2 PCB layout for the fan regulation section


Fig: A1.3 PCB layout for power supply section




PHOTOS


APPENDIX A2
DATASHEETS





































APPENDIX A3
COST OF COMPONENTS


Components Quantity Unit Price Total cost

7805 2 7 14
7812 2 7 14
Transformer 2 50 100
LEDs 10 .50 5
Capacitors 12 .50 6
Resistors 20 .50 10
1N4007 diodes 5 .50 2.50
4N35 optocoupler 2 10 20
BC549 transistor 2 1.50 3
BC107 transistor 1 1.50 1.50
LDR 3 5 15
LM741C IC 1 3 3
10k pot. 1 3 3
Switches and plugs 4 25 100
BT136 triac 2 5 10
MOC3021 triac
driver
2 12 24
lamps 1 80 80
CD40106 IC 1 10 10
PIR sensor 2 250 500
PCB Manufacturing 1 750 1050
Casing 1 1120 1120
PIC16F887 1 200 200
PIC16F877 1 150 150
Documentation and
printing charges
978 978
Misc charges 500 500
Total 4919