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Thinking different, thinking management!

© Nick Gonashvili
Content
 Warm up exercise - photos
 Concept
 An experimental demonstration (a case)
 History in brief
 Application of framing in Politics
 Cases

© Nick Gonashvili
This Dr. Lightman & his team from TV series
“Lie To Me”
They work on identifying whether people say
truth or lie.

So, let’s do little warm-up before we move to


the very content of this presentation
© Nick Gonashvili
What emotion do you (click only after you decide)
see?

Emotion: Happiness

Definition: a state of well-


being and contentment

Ways to detect:
Crow's feet wrinkles
Cheeks are pushed up
Muscle that orbits the eye
shows movement

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Fear

Definition: an unpleasant often


strong emotion caused by
anticipation or awareness of
danger

Ways to detect:
Eyebrows are raised and pulled
together
Upper eyelids are raised
Lower eyelids are tensed
Lips are slightly stretched
horizontally back to ears

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Sadness

Definition: affected with or


expressive of grief or
unhappiness

Ways to detect:
Drooping upper eyelids
Eyes appear to be losing focus
Lip corners are slightly pulled
down

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Contempt

Definition: the act of


despising : the state of mind of
one who despise

Ways to detect:
A corner of the lip is tightened
and raised on one side of the
face

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Disgust

Definition: marked aversion


aroused by something highly
distasteful

Ways to detect:
Nose is wrinkled
Upper lip is raised

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Anger

Definition: a strong feeling of


displeasure and usually of
antagonism

Ways to detect:
Eyebrows are down and close
together
Eyes have a glare
Lips are narrow

© Nick Gonashvili
Emotion: Surprise

Definition: a coming upon


unexpectedly; detecting in the
act; taking unawares.

Ways to detect:
Eyebrows are raised
Eyes are widened
Mouth is open

Now that we are ready, let’s move to a


more serious part
© Nick Gonashvili
Social forces

© Nick Gonashvili
is
social construction of a social
phenomenon
by
mass media sources or specific
political or social movements or
organizations

© Nick Gonashvili
Is influenced by:
• Context
• Personal experience
• Social factors
• etc.
Can influence
result
(Experimen
Amost)Tversky and Daniel Kahneman (1981) demonstrated
systematic reversals of preference when the same problem is
presented in different ways, for example in the Asian disease
problem.

Participants were asked to "imagine that the U.S. is preparing


for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is
expected to kill 600 people
The first group of participants were presented with a choice
between two programs:
Program A: "200 people will be saved"
Program B: "there is a one-third probability that 600 people will be
saved, and a two-thirds probability that no people will be saved“

Result: 72 percent of participants preferred program A (the


remainder, 28 percent, opting for program B).

The second group of participants were presented with the choice


between:
Program C: "400 people will die"
Program D: "there is a one-third probability that nobody will die,
and a two-third probability that 600 people will die“

Result: 78 percent preferred program D, with the remaining 22


percent opting for program C.
Programs A and C are effectively identical, as are programs
B and D. The change in the decision frame between the two
groups of participants produced a preference reversal, with
the first group preferring program A/C and the second
group preferring B/D

© Nick Gonashvili
The concept of framing is mostly attributed to the work of Erving
Goffman and point especially to his 1974 book, Frame analysis:
An essay on the organization of experience.

Goffman used the idea of frames to


label "schemata of interpretation"
that allow individuals or groups "to
locate, perceive, identify, and label"
events and occurrences, thus
rendering meaning, organizing
experiences, and guiding actions

Goffman's framing concept evolved out of his 1959 work,


The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, a commentary on
the management of impressions.
© Nick Gonashvili
 Framing a political issue, a political
party or a political opponent is
strategic goal in politics,
particularly in the USA

© Nick Gonashvili
"I've been told that you assassinated President
Lincoln. Can you confirm that this is a simple
misunderstanding?“
The accusation is nested in a seemingly reasonable request for a
denial, but the request itself gives the framer a chance to spread
the accusation.

When this occurs, the damage is already done.

Although it's tempting to say nothing at all, remember that


silence can be interpreted in many ways. A response is
required, but if it's anything more than a simple, straight
and serious denial, you risk making the problem worse.

© Nick Gonashvili
- Is it true that there is serious
misunderstanding and separation between
the opposition leaders?
- No, It’s not
true..................................................................
........
What Irakli Alasania did, was rejecting the
idea of the Georgian opposition being
separated.. And explaining and proving that
they have unity.
But he did it more than it was necessary... In
such cases no exaggeration is needed;
simple denial and explanation is the best
way out

© Nick Gonashvili
Opposition questions:

- You killed 5 people


- Do you recognize that you killed 5
people?
- Is it true that people died during protest
on this day?
Position answer:
-‘No, It’s not true, it’s a false accusation.’
- ‘No, it’s not true, only 2 people died and it was
by
- It chance.’
was totally determined by the situation and
circumstance that a few people died that day

Over all, there was a lot of accusation and a


lot of denial, though the gov. representative
did much better than opposition leaders
© Nick Gonashvili
For instance, the framer might make an accusation
directly to the target, having already prepared the
audience by making that same charge — and more
— in a more private venue, excluding the target.
Targets, believing that they know the full scope of the
problem, then address the charges they know about.
The framer is then free to fall back on already-prepared
ground, leaving the target's carefully prepared defense
unanswered and effectively deflected.
As a target, it's wise to assume that the framer has had more communication with
others than you know, and that some of those others are convinced that you've done
and said what the framer claims. When you hear of new charges, try to draw out more,
to get everything on the table before trying to turn things around. To avoid further
spreading falsehoods, privacy is best, butGonashvili
© Nick not always possible.
- Kennedy is someone who needs to be a
president, but George Bush is someone who
wants to be a president

Actors: UN, EU, USA, GB, etc. CNN, BBC, The


Economist, etc.

“North Korea refuses to cooperate on the issue


of peace”
“North Korea presents a threat to the world
security”
“UN imposes ©sanction on North Korea”
Nick Gonashvili
© Nick Gonashvili
Thinking different, thinking management!