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LTE Roaming: Making it Work,

Making it Reality
William Dudley, Group Director, Product Management, SAP Mobile Services
March 27, 2013
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TODAYS SPEAKER
William Dudley
Group Director,
Product Management
SAP Mobile
Services
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AGENDA
An Overview of the LTE Landscape through Q1 2013
A Quick IPX Primer
LTE Roaming Basics
LTE Roaming Details
But theres more than just roaming to consider
LTE Roaming: Making it Work, Making it Reality
An Overview of the LTE Landscape for Q1 2013
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Global LTE Data The Latest Stats
At the beginning of 2013, there were 63.33 million LTE subscribers
North America: 55%
APAC: 40%
Europe: 4.4%
Rest of World: 0.6%

Overall Mobile Data traffic doubled between Q3 2011 and Q3 2012 and is
expected to grow 12x by 2018 from 2012
LTE subscriptions are predicted to reach 1.6 billion by 2018





Source of data: Informa Telecoms and Media
March 11, 2013 through GSA
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0
50
100
150
200
250
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2
17
47
144
LTE Deployments in MNOs
97 new commercial LTE
networks were launched in
2012
104 new network
commitments were
confirmed
VoLTE services first
launched commercially
1800 MHz emerged as the
dominant global LTE
network band
Majority of launches use
LTE-FDD mode (13 LTE
TDD systems worldwide)

234
by end of
2013
Source: Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA)
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4G / LTE impacts data usage growth
A crucial factor promoting the increase in mobile
speeds is the increasing proportion of 4G mobile
connections. The impact of 4G connections on
traffic is significant, because 4G connections,
which include mobile WiMAX and Long-Term
Evolution (LTE), generate a disproportionate
amount of mobile data traffic.
Cisco found in a report released in February that in
2012 only 1 percent of global connections were 4G
but that 1 percent drove 14 percent of all global
mobile data traffic.
By 2017, 4G connections will represent 10 percent
of global connections but will generate 45 percent
of the data traffic, Cisco predicted..
A 4G connection generates 28 times more traffic
than a non-4G connection

ABI Research notes that LTE Traffic will grow by over
200% in 2013
Verizon Wireless indicated that 50% of its data usage is now LTE
Smartphone app downloads in 2012 were 36.2 billion in 2012, up 88%
from 2011.
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The Global LTE Market Summary Start of Q1 2013
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Device Support
Virtually all major, high-
end devices are
supporting a variety of
LTE Frequency Bands,
today.
Most roaming friendly
might be the CDMA
version iPhone 5 (can
even use a GSM SIM)
Blackberry Z10 (Global
version) is also very
roaming friendly.
LTE Band 3 (1800 MHz) is
the most common
Device Market / Model Information LTE Band Freq Band (Mhz) Additional Information
17 700 US 700 MHZ Lower Block
5 850
4 1700 AWS
25 1900
US Verizon 13 700 US 700 MHz Upper Block
20 800
8 900
3 1800
7 2600
20 800
3 1800
7 2600
8 900
3 1800
5 850
1 2100
South Korea 3 3 800
17 700 US 700 MHz Lower Block
4 1700 AWS
1 2100
US Verizon 13 700 US 700 MHz Upper Block
US Sprint 2 1900
12 700
4 1700 AWS
1 2100
20 800
8 900
25 1900
7 2600
17 700 US 700 MHz Lower Block
4 1700 AWS
1 2100
17 700 US 700 MHz Lower Block
4 1700 AWS
13 700 US 700 MHz Upper Block
5 850
3 1800
25 1900
1 2100
5 850
3 1800
1 2100
US AT&T, Canada
Model RM-2820 (US AT&T, Canada)
Apple iPhone 5 Model A1428 (GSM - US AT&T)
Model A1429 (CDMA - US VzW, Sprint)
Model A1429 (GSM)
Blackberry Z10
Samsung Galaxy S III
Nokia Lumina 920
Global
South Korea 1
South Korea 2
US AT&T, Canada
US Cricket, US Cell, metroPCS
Model RM-281 (Global)
Global (Europe, Asia-Pac)
LTE Roaming: Making it Work, Making it Reality
A Quick IPX Primer
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Whats an IPX anyway?
Standard definition of an IPX:
A global, private, managed, very high-quality IP network
Used to interconnect multiple networks
Providing guaranteed End-to-End Quality of Service mandated by SLAs
Intended to enable deliver of:
Voice, data, video and other content between connected networks, across multiple
implementations and standards
IPX networks are intended to deliver multiple services across a single connection
but one that can dedicate bandwidth to specific services
IPX networks should meet or exceed GSMA/i3Forum QoS specifications
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LTE and IPX
The overall objective for LTE (Long Term Evolution) is to provide extremely high performance
and speed on mobile broadband.
LTE requires a full Internet Protocol (IP) network architecture and is designed to support voice
in the packet domain
IPX represents the answer to LTEs secure, scalable and reliable architecture requirement



3GPP Family Technology Evolution

GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS HSPA HSPA+ LTE LTE-Advanced
1990 2000 2010 2011 2014 2011
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IPX Benefit Perception is High
The main benefits of an IPX platform








Source: Questex Asia
Enables mobile operators to
consolidate multiple connections
into a single, managed, IP
connection
23%
Its a private, managed,
secure and service aware IP
network 24%


Support for different
commercial and
operational models
19%


It helps cut
interconnection and
operational costs
21%


Allows for
commercial
transparency
9%


Other
1%


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The LTE Connection
When will IPX platforms become essential to next-generation networks?








LTE is and will continue to be a driver for IPX services, accelerating in 2013.

1.5% Other
4% Never
22.5% 4-5 years
63% 1-3 years
9% This year
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Mobile Operators See the Need for Speed
Really, they see the need for IPX especially when it comes to LTE Roaming.
Operators noted that lack of a common standard for Diameter as well as
Diameter variants to Diameter Interoperability problems as major drivers
to moving their LTE Roaming to an IPX
Another operator noted that IPX was essential for VoLTE they did not wish
to ultimately manage interoperability issues across hundreds of
interconnections.
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LTE roaming: Meeting Service Demands
How can we meet MNO Service Demands in an LTE Roaming Environment ?

Utilize a hosted Diameter Hub on an IPX network
Only one connection needs to be configured
Greatly reducing testing time per destination
An IPX, by definition can support LTE-standard high QoS
Speeding up time-to-market / global enablement of LTE roaming, driving
revenues
Reducing efforts - minimizing resources involved in service roll-out, saving
costs
LTE Hubbing can mediate differing Diameter implementations

LTE Roaming: Making it Work, Making it Reality
LTE Roaming Basics
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LTE and Roaming: Diameter protocol
A first step in mobile roaming is to get access to the Visited network
Procedure for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
In 2G and 3G networks, the signaling traffic associated with this
procedure is handled by SS7 networks
We as a messaging hub provider know this type of traffic because it
enables SMS as well
In LTE networks, the protocol for this signaling traffic is called
Diameter
IP native IPX is its natural home for interconnects
Not just roaming; additional applications are being standardized
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Diameter protocol
Not new: based on well-known Radius protocol
Works on the principle of Transactions: a pair of
1x CER: Capabilities-Exchange-Request sent
1x CEA: Capabilities-Exchange-Answer received
A Diameter Session is a series of Diameter transactions with the same
Session ID usually a request and response (or answer).
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LTE Roaming Via IPX
Multiple LTE Networks connect to the IPX through an Edge Agent

Edge
Agent
Edge
Agent
LTE Operator A
LTE Operator B
LTE Operator C
Secondary
Diameter
Relay Agent
Primary
Diameter
Relay Agent
Edge
Agent
IPX
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The Edge Agent can be HOSTED by the IPX Provider
IPX
HSS
MME
PCRF
(H or V)
DEA
DEA
HSS
MME
PCRF
(H or V)
DRA
DEA
DEA
DRA
S6a / S6d
S6a / S6d
Mobile Service Provider A Mobile Service Provider B
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Diameter Interfaces in Roaming: S6a S6d
S6a is the most important interface or reference point lies between Home
Subscriber Server (HSS) and Mobile Management Entity (MME)
Transport of subscriber related data and location information
Authorizing a user to grant access to visited network
Transport of authentication information
S6d will only be used in some cases to transfer subscriber information
between the SGSN and the HSS
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SCENARIO 1: LTE ROAMING ARCHITECTURE
UE is connected to Visited Network Home Routed Traffic
SGSN
HSS
MME
PDN GW
SGW
PCRF
GPRS Core (e.g. 2.5-3-3.5G)
Internet
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
E-UTRAN
eNodeB
eNodeB
eNodeB
GERAND (2/2.5G)
UTRAN (3G)
Operator IP Services
(IMS, PSS, etc)
Rx
S12
S4
S3
Gx
Gb
lu
S10
S1-U
S1-MME
X1
X1
X1
SGi
S6a
S11
SGSN
HSS
MME
PDN
GW
SGW
PCRF
GPRS Core (e.g. 2.5-3-3.5G)
Internet
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
E-UTRAN
eNodeB
eNodeB
eNodeB
GERAND (2/2.5G)
UTRAN (3G)
Operator IP Services
(IMS, PSS, etc)
Rx
S12
S4
S3
Gx
Gb
lu
S10
S1-U
S1-MME
X1
X1
X1
LTE-Uu
UE
SGi
S6a
S11
Visited Network (vPLMN)
Home Network (hPLMN)
S8
Diameter
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SCENARIO 2: LTE ROAMING ARCHITECTURE
UE is connected to Visited Network Local Breakout
SGS
N
HSS
MME
PDN
GW
SGW
PCRF
GPRS Core (e.g. 2.5-3-3.5G)
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
E-UTRAN
eNodeB
eNodeB
eNodeB
GERAND (2/2.5G)
UTRAN (3G)
Operator IP Services
(IMS, PSS, etc)
Rx
S12
S4
S3
Gx
Gb
lu
S10
S1-U
S1-MME
X1
X1
X1
SGi
S6a
S11
SGSN
HSS
MME
PDN
GW
SGW
PCRF
GPRS Core (e.g. 2.5-3-3.5G)
Internet
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
E-UTRAN
eNodeB
eNodeB
eNodeB
GERAND (2/2.5G)
UTRAN (3G)
Operator IP Services
(IMS, PSS, etc)
Rx
S12
S4
S3
Gx
Gb
lu
S10
S1-U
S1-MME
X1
X1
X1
LTE-Uu
UE
SGi
S6a
S11
Visited Network (vPLMN)
Home Network (hPLMN)
S9
Internet
Diameter
LTE Roaming: Making it Work, Making it Reality
LTE Roaming Details
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Diameter Details S6a
IPX
Home Network
Visited Network
MME HSS DRA
Authorization
ULR/ULA
AIR/AIA AIR/AIA
ULR/ULA
AIR/AIA Authentication-Information-Request/Answer
ULR/ULA Update-Location-Request/Answer
IDR/IDA Insert-Subscriber-Data-Request/Answer
PUR/PUA Purge-UE-Request/Answer
(See 3GPP 22.272; Section 7.3 over 150 information elements)
IDR/IDA IDR/IDA
S6a interface
(3GPP 29.272)
Not shown: Basic Diameter set-up (e.g. CER/CEA)
PUR/PUA PUR/PUA
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The S9 Interface and Local Break-out
Standard in 2G/3G roaming: traffic routed to the home network
This is also what we see in LTE roaming today
New in LTE: Visited Access a.k.a. local break-out
Uses Diameter over S9 interface
Lies between the H-PCRF and the V-PCRF (Policy Charging and Rules
Function)
These functions use Diameter to exchange information about the quality of
service a roaming customer should get as well as charging information once
Local Breakout has begun.
The benefits of local break-out are:-
Lower latency experienced by the roaming device
Lower GRX bandwidth requirement between Home network and Visited network
Not happening yet !

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Diameter Details: S9
IPX
Home Network
Visited Network
PCRF PCRF DRA
CCR/CCA CC-Request/Answer
RAR/RAA Re-Auth-Request/Answer
CCR/CCA CCR/CCA S9 interface
(3GPP 29.215)
Not shown: Basic Diameter set-up (e.g. CER/CEA)
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Diameter MAP Interworking Functionality
In this scenario, the Visited PLMN has not
implemented LTE and/or IMS.
A likely and common scenario
The IPX hosted DSC provides Interworking
Function (IWF) between the MAP-based
protocol (Gr) and Diameter-based protocol
(S6a/S6d).
The IPX hosted DEA provides mapping to the
GR functionality. This makes the LTE network
appear like a GPRS network to the VPLMN

For more information see: GSMA IR.88 and 3GPP TS 29.305
IWF
hPLMN (LTE)
IPX
vPLMN (3G)
HSS
PDN
PGW
SGSN
(R7 or R8)
GERAN UTRAN
Diameter S6d
MAP Gr
SGi
Gp
Iu
Gb
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Challenges
We have met some interesting challenges along the way:
IMSI based routing instead of realm based routing
Header re-writes ( 3gpp standardisation )
Non specification compliance
New technologies
GRX routing issues

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Real World Challenges they dont tell you about
Non-standard realms / Interoperability
The customer in this case did not wish to use the 3GPP standard
realm format, instead wanting to use a local realm between us and
customer.

We updated the relevant AVPs so that the realm was standardised
for all attached customers, thus hiding the local realm that the
customer wished to use

epc.mnc###.mcc###.3gppnetwork.org converts prop.proprietary.abc
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Things to look out for
Working with an IPX provider with Diameter hubbing (and hosted Diameter Edge
Agents) can provide a unique perspective - they can see both sides of the end-to-end
scenario.
Understanding Diameter Result_Codes:
Result_Code = 2001 Success! This is what you look for.
Result_Code = 3002 DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO DELIVER
Commonly seen when one party is not properly connected
Result_Code = 5001 DIAMETER_ERROR_USER_UNKNOWN
Seen when the user is not identified by the HSS over S6a/S6d
Result_Code = 5003 DIAMETER_AUTHORIZIATION_REJECTED
For S6a/S6d, that there are no suitable cells in the tracking area.
Result_Code = blank
Per 3GPP 29.272 (Section 7.4.3), some specific responses are provided in the Experimental-Result AVP
3GPP*5420 Means that there is no EPS (e.g. LTE) subscription for the IMSI (e.g. subscribers device)
3GPP*5004 Means that the subscriber is not allowed to roam on that visited network
3GPP*4181 Means the HSS has suffered some transient failure The requesting node can try again, later.


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A Few Words about Connectivity
Diameter
Strawberry: dedicated VPN on IPX access circuit just for Diameter
Vanilla: Diameter carried in GRX VPN
CoS: AF31 is applicable in particular in the Vanilla case
LTE User traffic
Will be carried by the GRX
No smoothies please
We do not want to mix vanilla and strawberry: no dedicated VPN for
Diameter and LTE user traffic
Too complex to make this work with the community
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Connectivity with Hosted DEAs
Diameter
Diameter traffic carried between Mobile Operator network and hosted
DEA is essentially internal traffic to the operator
Therefore we want to carry the traffic in a dedicated VPN, not shared
with anyone else
We would want to apply CoS AF31

User traffic
Carried by GRX, as usual
2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 36
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Connectivity Review
IPX
Operator A
Operator B
HSS
MME
DEA
DEA
PGW
SGW
Diameter Hub
S8
Subscriber from Operator B, roaming in
Operator A.

Diameter VPN
GRX VPN
Internet
LTE Roaming: Making it Work, Making it Reality
But there is more than just roaming to consider
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Advanced Roaming Support via IPX
Diameter Edge Agent
Secure gateway to
outside world
Interconnected with
Diameter hub

Steering of Roaming
Improve user
experience
Work through trusted
relationships

Policy Control
Secure quality
service for roamers
Local break-out
scenarios and VoLTE
call scenarios

Advanced LTE Roaming Support
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Managing Complexity via Diameter Hubbing
Overall Source: Ulticom
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VoLTE Interworking
VoLTE is becoming reality very
quickly.
The use of an IPX with Diameter
Hubbing will result in:
Fewer connections
Localized configuration
changes
Optimized routing between
multiple MNOs
Interoperability between varying
standards or between
standards compliant and non-
standards compliance
2013 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 41
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Finally, consider Hosted RCS Services
IPX Voice and Video
Voice over
LTE/HSPA/WiFi
Video 1:1/1:N, Video
Cast
Video Messaging

Rich Messaging
IM/Chat
Content share
File Share


Social Presence
Availability status,
location
Capability discovery
Avatar

IPX Hosted Rich Communication Services
Q&A
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RESOURCES
Mobile Operator Guide 2013:
http://www54.sap.com/solutions/tech/mobile/featured/offers/mobile-operator-
guide.html

SAP Mobile Services Community: https://community.sapmobileservices.com/


Thank you for attending!

For more information, please email
sapmobileservices@sap.com
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