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International bodies and their Headquarters

JULY 30, 2014

1. United Nations Organization New York
2. Economic Commission of Europe - -Geneva
3. Economic & Social Commission of Asia - Bangkok
4. Economic Commission of Latin America Santiago, Chile
5. Economic Commission for Africa Addis Ababa ,Ethopia
6. Economic Commission for Western AsiaBaghdad, Iraq
7. UNESCO -Paris
8. Universal Postal Union (UPU) Berne, Switzerland
9. WHO Geneva ( It is nt in Delhi )
10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Geneva
11. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Geneva
12. World Trade Organization (WTO) Geneva,Switzerland
13. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)Geneva
14. International Labour Organization (ILO)- Geneva
15. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Vienna
16. Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) Rome
17. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Rome
18. International Maritime Organization (IMO) London
19. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) -Vienna
20. IBRD (International Bank of Reconstruction & Development) or World Bank -
21. International Development Association Washington
22. International Finance Corporation (IFC) Washington
23. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Washington
24. International Telecommunication Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) Washington
25. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Montreal, Canada
26. UNICEF New York
27. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)- Geneva
28. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) -Geneva
29. United Nations Institute for Training & Research (UNITAR) -Geneva
30. United Nations Relief & Work for Palestine Refugees in the Near East - Gaza City &
Amman ,Jordan
31. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) -New York
32. United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) New York
33. United Nations Development Programme -(UNDP) New York
34. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Nairobi
35. International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) -New York
36. Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons -The Hague,Holland
37. United Nations Drugs Control Program (UNDCP) Vienna
38. United Nations Interregional Crime & Justice Research Institute -Turin, Italy
39. United Nations Fund for International Parterships - New York
40. UN-HABITAT ( United Nations Human Settlement Programme ) -Nairobi
41. United Nations International School (UNIS) -New York
42. World Food Programme (WFP) Rome
43. World Tourism Organization (WTO) Madrid, Spain
44.United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change( UNFCC )- Rome
45. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) -Geneva
46. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)- Geneva
47. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) -Vienna,
48. United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Geneva, Switzerland

First in world Part 2
AUGUST 11, 2014
1. The first space astronaut to go into space seven times till date Jerry Ross (U.S.A.)
2 . The first South African to become the second space tourist Mark Shuttleworth
3. The first woman Prime Minister of South Korea Ms. Chang Sang
4. The first youngest grandmaster of the world in ches Sergey Karjakin (Ukraine)
5. The first adventurer flying successfully across the English Channel without aircraft Felix
Baumgartner (July 2003)
6. Chinas first man in space Yang Liwei
7. The first Muslim woman to receive Nobel Prize Shirin Ebadi (Nobel Peace Prize
8. The woman with the highest individual Test score making a new world record Kiran
Baloch (Pakistani cricketer, scoring 242 runs playing womens cricket test
against West Indies in Karachi in March, 2004)
9. The first woman of the world to climb Mt. Everest four times Lakpa Sherpa (Nepali)
10. The first woman to cross seven important seas of the world by swimming Bula
Chaudhury (India)
11. The first aircraft pilot to round the entire world non-stop by his 2 engine aircraft in 67
hours Steve Fossett (March 2005)
12. The first woman to be appointed as a Governor of a province in Afghanistan Habiba
13.The first woman of the world to swim across five continents Bula Chaudhury (India)
(April 2005)
14. The first woman athlete to touch 5.0 meter mark in pole vault Ms. Yelena Isinbayeva
(Russian, July 2005)
15. The first Hindu Chief Justice of Pakistani Supreme Court Justice Rana Bhagwan Das
Took over on Sept. 2, 2005 as Acting Chief Justice
16. The first duly elected woman President of an African country Allen Johnson
Sirleaf(elected President of Liberia in Nov. 2005)
17. The first woman Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan Shanshad Akhtar
(Appointed in Dec. 2005)
18. The first woman Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel (Took over in Nov. 2005)
19. The first woman President of Chile Dr. Michelle Bachelet
20. The first woman Prime Minister of Jamaica Portia Simpson Miller (Feb. 2006)
21. The first woman foreign Secretary of England Margaret Backett (May 2006)
22. The first double amputee to scale Mt. Everest Mark Inglis (May 15, 2006)
First in World Part I
AUGUST 7, 2014
1. Chairman of Peoples Republic of China -Mao-Tse-Tung
2. President of the Chinese Republic -Dr. Sun Yat Sen
3. President of U.S.A- George Washington
4. Chinese Traveller to India- Fahein
5. Foreign Invader to India -Alexander the Great
6. Person to reach South Pole- Amundsen
7. Person to reach North Pole -Robert Pearey
8. Person in Space -Yuri Gagarin
9. Person on Moon -Neil Armstrong
10. Lady to climb Mount Everest- Junko Taibei
11. European to visit China- Marco Polo
12. Place where atom bomb was dropped -Hiroshima
13. Man to walk in Space -Alexei Leonov
14. Woman cosmonaut in Space- Valentina Tereshkova
15. Woman Prime Minister of a country- Mrs. Srimavo Bhandarnaike
16. Woman President of a country -Maria Estela Peron
17. Woman to Command a Space Mission -Colonel Eileen Collins (U.S.A.)
18. The first residents of International Space station- Bill Shepherd (USA), Yuri
Gidzanko and Sergei Krikalev (Russia)
19. The first blind man to scale Mt. Everest -Erik Weihenmayer (USA, May 25, 2001)
20. The first Muslim woman to become the Secretary General of Amnesty International-
lrine Zubeida Khan
Writs in Indian Constitution
As per the Right to Constitutional Remedies-Articles 32-35, A citizen has right to move to
the courts for securing the fundamental rights. Citizens can go to the Supreme Court or the
high Courts for getting their fundamental rights enforced. It empowers the Courts to issue
directions or orders or writs for this purpose.
Types of Writs:
1. Writ of Habeas Corpus :
(a) Habeas Corpus means you may have the body.
(b) This ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detentionthat is, detention
lacking sufficient cause or evidence.
(c) This right originated in the English legal system, and is now available in many nations.

2. Writ of Quo Warranto :
(a) The meaning of the term Quo Warranto is by what authority.
(b) The writ shall be issued only when the public office is held by a particular person in an
illegal manner.
(c) If a person has usurped a public office, the Court may direct him not to carry out any
activities in the office or may announce the office to be vacant.
3. Writ of Mandamus :
(a) A writ of mandamus is an order issued by a superior court to a lower court or other
entity commanding the lower court, corporation or public authority to perform or not
perform specific acts.
(b) It cannot be issued to compel an authority to do something against statutory provision.
(c) For example, it cannot be used to force a lower court to reject or authorize applications
that have been made, but if the court refuses to rule one way or the other then a mandamus
can be used to order the court to rule on the applications
4. Writ of Certiorari :
(a) It is a writ (order) of a higher court to a lower court to send all the documents in a case
to it so the higher court can review the lower courts decision.
(b) It is a writ seeking judicial review.
(c) The granting of this writ does not necessarily mean that the Supreme Court disagrees
with the decision of the lower court. Granting a writ of certiorari means merely that at least
four of the justices have determined that the circumstances described in the petition are
sufficient to warrant review by the Court.

5. Writ of Prohibition :
(a) A writ of prohibition is issued primarily to prevent an inferior court from exceeding its
jurisdiction, or acting contrary to the rule of natural justice, for example, to restrain a Judge
from hearing a case in which he is personally interested.
(b) These Writs are issued as alternative or peremptory. An alternative Writ directs the
recipient to immediately act, or desist, and Show Cause why the directive should not be
made permanent. A peremptory Writ directs the recipient to immediately act, or desist, and
return the Writ, with certification of its compliance, within a certain time.
(c) The writ can be issued only when the proceedings are pending in a court if the
proceeding has matured into decision, writ will not lie.

States and their taglines
JULY 25, 2014
1. Kerela- Gods owns c0untry.
2. Goa- Go Goa.
3. Punjab- India begins here.
4. Meghalaya half way to heaven.
5. Orissa- the s0ul of India.
6. Karnataka- one state, many worlds.
7. Gujarat-vibrant gujarat.
8. Himachal Pradesh unforgettable himachal.
9. Chattishgarh- full of surprises .
10. Rajasthan- Incredible state of INDIA.
11. Uttar Pradesh- amazing heritage grand experience.
12. Madhya Pradesh- The heart of incredible India.
13. Andhra Pradesh- The essence of incredible India.
14. Arunachal pradesh- The land of dawn-lit m0untains.
15. Bihar- blissful bihar.
16. D & N haveli- d land of natural beauty.
17. Haryana- a pi0neer in highway tourism.
18. J&k- Chalo kashmir.
19. Jharkhand- a new experience.
20. Manipur- jewel of India.
21. Nagaland-land of festivals.
22. Sikkim- small but beautiful.
23. TM-enchanting tamilnadu.
24. Tripura-visit agartala.
25. Uttarakhand-exploring uttara.
26. WB-beautiful bengal.
27. Lakshadweep-99%fun in 1%land.
28. Pondicherry- give time a break.
29. New delhi- dildaar delhi
JULY 23, 2014
The Commonwealth Games 2014 or the XX Commonwealth Games as it is officially known
will be taking place in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom from July 23 to August 3, 2014.
India has been one of the participating nations at the Games were last editions host nation.
Commonwealth Games have been an integral and widely popular sporting event around the
world that sees the participation of Commonwealth of Nations. Lets take a quick look at few
things to know about the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games:
1. 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games, beginning from 23rd July is a 12-day event till
August 3. It will see a participation of 4, 100 athletes from the Commonwealth Nations. In
the 2010 Commonwealth Games held in Delhi, India had a total of 6,081 athletes from 71
Commonwealth Nations.
2. The motto of Commonwealth Games 2014 is People, Place, Passion. Scotland hosts its
largest multi-event sport in the country. The decision over the final decision on the host city
for hosting the 2014 Commonwealth Games was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on November
9, 2007 at the Commonwealth Games Federation General Assembly.

3. There are a total of 17 sports and 261 medal events that will be contested at the 2014
Commonwealth Games. They are:
Diving (10)
Swimming (44)
Athletics (50)
Badminton (6)
Boxing (13)
Cycling Mountain biking (2), Road (4), Track (17)
Gymnastics Artistic gymnastics (14), Rhythmic gymnastics (6)
Hockey (2)
Judo (14)
Lawn Bowls (10)
Netball (1)
Rugby sevens (1)
Shooting (19)
Squash (5)
Table tennis (7)
Triathlon (3)
Weightlifting (19)
Wrestling Freestyle (14)
4. The opening ceremony for the 2014 Commonwealth Games will be held at Celtic Park in
Glasgow, Scotland on Wednesday 23rd July 2014. Indias Olympic silver medallist pistol
shooter, Vijay Kumar will be the flag-bearer for India. The National stadium of football in
Scotland with the capacity of 52, 025, Hampden Park will held the closing ceremony. The
Park has been specially adapted to host the track and field events.
5.The Athletes Village of the Commonwealth Games 2014 is situated within 20 minutes
drive from majority of venues in Dalmarnock. The Athletes Village has been designed by the
Paul Stallan Studio @ RMJM. It can accommodate around 8000 individuals and created
1500 jobs opportunities.
6. The logo of Commonwealth Games 2014 was unveiled during the 19th Edition in the 2010
Commonwealth Games in Delhi. Keeping three factors time, data and measurement in
mind, Marque Creative designed the official logo. The rings in the logo are proportioned to
represent the 20th Commonwealth Games, across 17 sports, over 11 days in 1 city.
7. Clyde, a cheeky wee thistle is the mascot of Commonwealth Games 2014. Inspired by
story from past of a real ship called the SS Cameronia built on the River Clyde. The mascot
has been designed by 12-year-old Beth Gilmour who won a competition. The mascot has
been named after the river as during the event Clyde will move around the host city just like
the river flowed.
Age and Time Limits Defined in Indian Constitution
JULY 10, 2014
Important Age Limits in Indian Constitution
1. Minimum age for election to the post of President/Vice-President/Governor 35 years
2. Minimum age for election as MP (Lok Sabha)/MLA 25 years
3. Minimum age for election as MP (Rajya Sabha)/MLC 30 years
4. Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of Supreme Court, Attorney General,
Comptroller General, member of Public Service
Commission 65 years
5. Upper age limit for appointment as a judge of High court/ Advocate General/member of
State Commission 62 years
6. Minimum age limit for employment in a factory 14 years
7. Age between which education has been made a fundamental right 6 to 14 years
8. Minimum marriageable age for a male 21 years
9. Minimum marriageable age for a female 18 years.
Important Time Limits in Indian Constitution
1. Maximum interval between two sessions of Parliament/State Assembly Six months
2. Maximum life of Presidential Ordinance Six months
3. Maximum period within which an election is to be held to fill a vacancy created by the
death, resignation or removal, or otherwise of
a President Six months
4. Maximum duration for which Presidents rule can be imposed in a state Six months
extendable upto a maximum of three years
5. Time after which money bill passed by Lok Sabha is deemed to have been passed by Rajya
Sabha when no action is taken by it 14 days
6. Maximum duration for which a President/Vice-President/Governor may hold his office
from the date on which he enters his office 5 years
7. Maximum duration for which a Lok Sabha/State Legislature may function from the date
appointed for its first meeting 5 years
8. Maximum period for which the term of a Lok Sabha/State Legislature may be extended
while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation 1 year at a time
9. Maximum duration for which a Union Minister/State Minister may hold his office
without being a member of either of the houses of the Parliament/State Legislature Six
10. Maximum duration for which a member of either House of Parliament may be absent
without permission, before his seat is declared is vacant 60 days
11. Maximum period within which a person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be
produced before the nearest magistrate 24 hours
12. Maximum duration for which a Panchayat/Municipality shall function from the date
appointed for its first meeting 5 years
13. Maximum duration for which a member of a Public Service Commission may hold his
office subject to his not attaining the age of sixty-five years 6 years
14. Maximum duration for which a member of a State Commission may hold his office
subject to his not attaining the age of sixty-two years 6 years
Quick Revision on INDIAN Constitution
JULY 7, 2014
Father Of Indian Constitution Dr B.R Ambedkar
Fundamental Rights
1. Right to Equality
2. Right to Freedom
3. Right against Exploitation
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
5. Cultural and Educational Rights
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies
Goals mentioned in the Preamble
Social Economic and Political justice
Directive Principles and its Objective:
Directive Principles lay down certain guidelines for our Government to achieve our National
These guidelines aim at establishing a welfare state. The directive principles are:
1. High standard of living to the people
2. Ways and means to improve a comfortable living
3. Serving the interests of the poor
4. Preventing the accumulation of wealth in a single individual or place
5. Ensuring the proper use of the countrys wealth for the benefit of all.
Features of Indian Constitution.
1. Written and Detailed Constitution.
2. Democratic governance
3. Federal System: Distribution of powers between Centre and States.
4. Independent Judiciary
5. Secular State
6. Universal Adult Franchise
7. Fundamental rights
Indian Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949
Indian Constitution was adopted by the country on January 26, 1950
The president of the Constituent Assembly Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Chairman of Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Features of Constitution were framed from various Sources
1. UK
Parliamentary form of government
Rule of law
Legislative procedure
Cabinet system etc.
Single citizenship
2. GOI Act 1935
Federal scheme
Public service commissions
Emergency provisions
Office of Governor etc.
3. USA
Fundamental rights
Impeachment of President
Removal of judges
Judicial review
Independent judiciary
Office of vice president
4. Ireland
Directive Principles of State Policy(DPSP)
Method of election of President
Nomination of members to RajyaSabha
5. Canada
Federation with strong centre
Vesting residuary powers with centre
Appointment of Governor by the centre
Advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court
6. Australia
Concurrent list
Joint sitting of two houses of Parliament
(Now Russia)
FundamentalDuties(addedwith42nd amendment in 1976)
Ideal of Justice (Social, Political and Economic) in the preamble
8. Weimer Constitution
Suspension of fundamental rights during emergency
9. French constitution
Republic Idea of liberty,
equality and fraternity in preamble
10. South Africa
Procedure of amendment to the constitution
Election of members of RajyaSabha
11. Japan
Procedure established by law

Books and Authors in Ancient India


Astadhyayi : Panini
Mahabhasya : Patanjli
Nagananda : Harshvardhana
Naishadhacharita : Sri Harsha
Mrichhakatika : Sudraka
Gitagovinda : Jayadev
Navratna : Virsena
Mudrarakshasa : Visakdatta
Rajtarangini : Kalhana
Kathasaritsagar : Somdeva

Kamasutra : Vatsayana
Prashnottarmalika : Amoghavarsha
Swapanvasdattam : Bhasa
Buddha charita : Asvaghosa
Natyashastra : Bharata
Abhigyan Shakuntalam : Kalidasa
Vikramorvashi : Kalidasa
Raghuvansan : Kalidasa
Amarkosa : Amarshmha
Panc hsidhantika and Brihat Samhita : Varharmihara
Surya Sidhanta and Aryabhatta : Aryabhatta
Panch tantra : Vishnu Sharma
Nitisara : Kamandaka
Aihole Prasasti : Ravi Kriti
Indica : Megasthanese
Arthasastra : Kautilya
Charaka Samhita : Charaka
Lilawati : Bhaskara II
Harshacharita and Kadambari : Harsha vardhan
Ratnavali : Harsha vardhan
Gathasaptashati : Hala
Nitisara : Kamandaka

Poets in Ancient India


Ashvaghosa Nagarjuna, Vasumitra : Kanishka
Harisena : Samudragupta II
Amarsimha : Chandra gupta II
kalidasa : Chandragupta II
Banabhatta : Harshavardhana
Ravikirti : Pulkesin II
Bhavabhuti : Yasovarman
Mahaviracharya : Amoghavarsha
Jinsena : Amoghavarsha
Dandin : Narsimhavarman
Rajashekhar : Mahindrapala
Bilhana : Vikramaditya VI
Viknaneshvara : Vikramaditya VI
Kamban : Chola