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Take a 2D function fx of the image
Project it onto a single dimensional line. Let this be PR1.
Obtain a 1 D Fourier transform of the projection. Let this be FT1.
Next take the same 2D function fx
Find the 2D Fourier transform of the function fx. Let this be FT2.
Slice the transform through the origin parallel to the projection line. Let the slice be SL1.
According to the Projection Slice Theorem
The above equation says that the product of the 1D Fourier transform of the function
and the projection of the function is equal to the product of the 2D Fourier transform of
the function and the slice of the transform through the origin.
If f(x, y) is a two-dimensional function, then the projection of f(x) onto the x axis is p(x) where

The Fourier transform of f(x,y) is

The slice is then s(k

*Derivation is taken from introductory reading for DSP course Elec 431 (Rice University).

The basic problem of tomography is given a set of 1-D projections and the angles at which these
projections were taken, how do we reconstruct the 2-D image from which these projections
were taken? The first thing we did was to look at the nature of the projections.

Fig(1) -

Define g(phi,s) as a 1-D projection at an angle . g(phi,s) is the line integral of the image
intensity, f(x,y), along a line l that is distance s from the origin and at angle phi off the x-axis.

All points on this line satisfy the equation:
x*sin(phi) - y*cos(phi) = s
Therefore, the projection function g(phi,s) can be rewritten as

The collection of these g(phi,s) at all phi is called the RADON TRANSFORM of image f(x,y).
To be able to study different reconstruction techniques, we first needed to write a (MATLAB)
program that took projections of a known image. Having the original image along with the
projections gives us some idea of how well our algorithm performs. The projection code is
function PR = projections(IMG, THETA)

% pad the image with zeros so we don't lose anything when we rotate.
[iLength, iWidth] = size(IMG);
iDiag = sqrt(iLength^2 + iWidth^2);
LengthPad = ceil(iDiag - iLength) + 2;
WidthPad = ceil(iDiag - iWidth) + 2;
padIMG = zeros(iLength+LengthPad, iWidth+WidthPad);
padIMG(ceil(LengthPad/2):(ceil(LengthPad/2)+iLength-1), ...
ceil(WidthPad/2):(ceil(WidthPad/2)+iWidth-1)) = IMG;

% loop over the number of angles, rotate 90-theta (because we can easily sum
% if we look at stuff from the top), and then add up. Don't perform any
% interpolation on the rotating.
n = length(THETA);
PR = zeros(size(padIMG,2), n);
for i = 1:n
tmpimg = imrotate(padIMG, 90-THETA(i), 'bilinear', 'crop');
PR(:,i) = (sum(tmpimg))';
A dissection of the MATLAB code and the way the functions work is given below:
An image is taken, rotated and intensities are summed. This can be done in MATLAB using
imrotate and sum functions.
How Imrotate works in MATLAB *
The function rotates the given image. It has the following syntax:
B = imrotate(A,angle) (1)
B = imrotate(A,angle,method) (2)
B = imrotate(A,angle,method,bbox) (3)
B = imrotate(A,angle) rotates image A by angle degrees in a counterclockwise direction around
its center point. To rotate the image clockwise, specify a negative value for angle. imrotate
makes the output image B large enough to contain the entire rotated image. imrotate uses
nearest neighbor interpolation, setting the values of pixels in B that are outside the rotated
image to 0 (zero).
B = imrotate(A,angle,method) rotates image A, using the interpolation method specified by
method. method is a text string that can have one of these values. The default value is enclosed
in braces ({}).

Fig. 2 -

We can show the Fourier Slice Theorem in the following way:

The 1D Fourier Transform of g is given by

Now, we subsitute our expression for g(phi,s) (Eqn. 2) into the
expression above to get

Using the sifting property of the Dirac delta function we get

The definition of the 2D Fourier Transform of f is

We can see that that Eqn 5. is just F(u,v) evaluated at u = w*sin(phi) and v = -w*cos(phi), which
is the line that the projection g(phi,s) was taken on.

Make a change of variable from rectangular to polar coordinates and replace F(phi,w) with G
(phi,w) we get


where |w| is the determinant of the Jacobian of the change of variable from rectangular to
polar coordinates. We now have a relationship between the projection functions and the
image we are trying to recontruct, so we can easily write a program to do the reconstruction.
Notice that we have to multiply our projections by |w| in the Fourier domain. This product

is called the filtered back projection at angle phi. If we look at Fig. 2, we can see that we have a
lot of information at low frequencies (near the origin), and not as much at high frequencies.
The |w|, which is a ramp filter, compensates for this.


With only one back projection, not much information about the original
image is revealed.

With 4 back projections, we can see some of the basic features start
to emerge. The two squares on the left side start to come in, and the
main ellipse looks like a diamond.

At 8 back projections, our image is finally starting to take shape.
We can see the squares and the circles well, and we can make out the
basic shape of the main ellipse.

With 15 back projections, we can see the bounds of the main ellipse very well, and the squares
and cirlces are well defined. The lines in the center of the ellipse appear as blurry triangles.
Also, we have a lot of undesired residuals in the back ground (outside the main ellipse).

At 60 back projections, our reconstructed image looks very nice. We still have some patterns
outside the ellipse, and there are streaks from the edge of the squares all the way out to the
edge of the image. These appear because the edge of the square is such a sharp transition at 0
and 90 degrees, that when we pass the projections through the ramp filter, there are sharp
spikes in the filtered projections. These never quite seem to get smoothed out.