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CHAPTER 8

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

FORM 5

PAPER 1
1. Diagram 1 shows a standard normal distribution graph.
f(z)

0 k
Diagram 1

If P(0 < z < k) = 0.3125, find P(z > k).


2.

3.

[2 marks]

In an examination, 85% of the students passed. If a sample of 12 students is randomly


selected,
find the probability that 10 students from the sample passed the examination. [3 marks]
X is a random variable of a normal distribution with a mean of 12.5 and a variance of 2.25.
Find
(a) the Z score if X= 14.75
(b) P(12.5 X 14.75)
[4 marks]

4. The mass of students in a school has a normal distribution with a mean of 55 kg and a standard
deviation of 10 kg. Find
(a) the mass of the students which give a standard score of 0.5,
(b) the percentage of students with mass greater than 48 kg.
[4 marks]

5. Diagram 2 below shows a standard normal distribution graph.


f(z)
0.3264

Diagram 2
The probability represented by the area of the shaded region is 0.3264 .
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) X is a continuous random variable which is normally distributed with a mean of 180 and a
standard deviation of 5.5.
Find the value of X when z-score is k.
[4 marks]

125

CHAPTER 8

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

FORM 5

X is a continuous random variable of a normal distribution with a mean of 52 and a standard


deviation of 10. Find
(a) the z-score when X = 67
(b) the value of k when P(z < k) = 0.8643
[4 marks]

The masses of a group of students in a school have a normal distribution with a mean of 45 kg
and a standard deviation of 5 kg.
Calculate the probability that a student chosen at random from this group has a mass of
(a) more than 50.6 kg,
(b) between 40.5 and 52.1 kg
[4 marks]
PAPER 2

1. (a) Senior citizens make up 15% of the population of a settlement.


(i) If 8 people are randomly selected from the settlement, find the probability that at least two
of them are senior citizens.
(ii) If the variance of the senior citizens is 165.75, what is the population of the settlement?
[5 marks]
(b) The mass of the workers in a factory is normally distributed with a mean of 65.34 kg and a
variance of 56.25 kg2. 321 of the workers in the factory weigh between 48 kg and 72 kg.
Find the total number of workers in the factory.
[5 marks]
2. (a) A club organizes a practice session for trainees on scoring goals from penalty kicks. Each
trainee takes 6 penalty kicks. The probability that a trainee scores a goal from a penalty kick
is p. After the session, it is found that the mean number of goals for a trainee is 4.5
(i) Find the value of p.
(ii) If a trainee is chosen at random, find the probability that he scores at least one goal.
[5 marks]
(b) A survey on body-mass is done on a group of students. The mass of a student has a normal
distribution with a mean of 65 kg and a standard deviation of 12 kg.
(i) If a student is chosen at random, calculate the probability that his mass is less than 59 kg.
(ii) Given that 15.5% of the students have a mass of more than m kg, find the value of m.
[5 marks]

126

CHAPTER 8

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

FORM 5

3. For this question, give your answer correct to three significant figures.
(a) The result of a study shows that 18% of pupils in a city cycle to school.
If 10 pupils from the city are chosen at random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 of them cycle to school,
(ii) less than 3 of them cycle to school.
[4 marks]
(b) The mass of water-melons produced from an orchard follows a normal distribution with a
mean of 4.8 kg and a standard deviation of 0.6 kg.
Find
(i) the probability that a water-melon chosen randomly from the orchard has a mass of not
more than 5.7 kg,
(ii) the value of m if 80% of the water-melons from the orchard has a mass of more than
m kg.
[6 marks]

4. An orchard produces oranges.


Only oranges with diameter, x greater than k cm are graded and marketed.
Table below shows the grades of the oranges based on their diameters.
Grade
Diameter, x (cm)

A
x > 6.5

B
6.5 x > 4.5

C
4.5 x k

It is given that the diameter of oranges has a normal distribution with a mean of 5.3 cm and a
standard deviation of 0.75 cm.
(a) If an orange is picked at random, calculate the probability that it is of grade A.
[2 marks]
(b) In a basket of 312 oranges, estimate the number of grade B oranges.
[4 marks]
(c) If 78.76% of the oranges is marketed, find the value of k.
[4 marks]
5

(a)

In a survey carried out in a school, it is found that 3 out of 5 students have handphones. If
8 students from the school are chosen at random, calculate the probability that
(i) exactly 2 students have handphones.
(ii) more than 2 students have handphones.
[5 marks]

(b) A group of teachers are given medical check up. The blood pressure of a teacher has a
normal distribution with a mean of 128 mmHg and a standard deviation of 10 mmHg.
Blood pressure that is more than 140 mmHg is classified as high blood pressure.
(i) A teacher is chosen at random from the group.
Find the probability that the teacher has a pressure between 110 mmHg and 140
mmHg.
(ii) It is found that 16 teachers have high blood pressure. Find the total number of
teachers in the group.
[5 marks]

127

CHAPTER 8
6

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

FORM 5

The masses of mangoes from an orchard has a normal distribution with a mean of 285 g and a
standard deviation of 75 g.
(a) Find the probability that a mango chosen randomly from this orchard has a mass of more
than 191.25 g.
[3 marks]
(b) A random sample of 520 mangoes is chosen.
(i) Calculte the number of mangoes from this sample that have a mass of more than
191.25.
(ii) Given that 416 mangoes from this sample have a mass of more than m g, find the
value of m.
[7 marks]

ANSWERS (PAPER 1)
1

3a
3b

0.5 - 0.3125
0.1875

1
1

12

1
1
1

C10 (0.85)10 (0.15) 2

0.2924
p = 0.85, q = 0.15
14.75 12.5
1.5

1.5

12.5 12.5
14.75 12.5
or
1. 5
1.5

0.4332
4a

0.5

X 55
10

60
4b

5a
5b

6a
6b

48 55
10

1
1
1
1
1

75.8%

0.5 - 0.3264
0.94

1
1

X 180
0.94
5.5

X = 185.17

67 52
10

1.5
1 - 0.8643
k=1.1

1
1
1

128

CHAPTER 8

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

50.6 45
5

7a

0.1314

40.5 45
or
5

7b

FORM 5

1
52.1 45
5

0.7381

ANSWERS (PAPER 2)
p = 0.15, q = 0.85

P ( X 2) 1 C 0 (0.15) (0.85) C1 (0.15)(0.85)


8

1(a)(i)

1(a)(ii)

1(b)

1 - 0.2725 - 0.3847
0.3428
165.75 = n(0.15)(0.85)
n = 1300
65.34 , 7.5

P (48 x 72)
48 65.34
72 65.34
P(
z
)
7.5
7.5

P(-2.312 < z < 0.888)


1 - 0.0103 - 0.1872
400

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

321
0.8025
x

x = 400
mean = np
2(a)(i)

4.5
6

0.75

1 - P(X <1)
1 - P(X=0)

1 6 C 0 (0.75) 0 (0.25) 6

1
1

P ( X 1)

2(a)(ii)

0.9998
P ( x 59) P ( z

2(b)(i)
2(b)(ii)

59 65
)
12

P(z < - 0.5)


0.3085

m 65
1.015
12

m = 77.18
3(a)(i)

1
1
2
1

p = 0.18, q = 0.82
129

CHAPTER 8

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

P(x = 2) = 10 C 2 (0.18) 2 (0.82) 8


0.298
P(X < 3) = P(x = 0) + P(x = 1) + P(x = 2)
10

3(a)(ii)

3(b)(i)

3(b)(ii)

C 0 (0.18) 0 (0.82)10 10C1 (0.18)(0.82) 9 10 C 2 (0.15) 2 (0.82) 8

P( z

5.7 4.8
)
0.6

1 - 0.0668
0.9332

m 4 .8
0.842
0 .6

P( z

6.5 5.3
)
0.75

4.5 5.3
6.5 5.3
z
P(
)
0.75
0.75

1 - 0.1430 - 0.0548
312 x 0.8022
250
1- 0.7876

4(c)

1
1

0.0548

4(b)

1
1

0.1374 + 0.3017 + 0.2980


0.7371

m = 48
4(a)

FORM 5

k 5.3
0.798
0.75

k = 4.7015

1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

130

CHAPTER 8

5(a)(i)
5(a)(ii)

5(b)(i)

PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

P(x = 2) = 8 C 2 (0.6) 2 (0.4) 6


0.04129
P(X > 2) = 1 8 C 0 (0.6) 0 (0.4) 8 8 C1 (0.6)(0.4) 7 8 C 2 (0.6) 2 (0.4) 6
1 0.0006554 0.007864 0.04129
0.9502

1
1
1
1
1

P(

110 128
140 128
z
)
10
10

1 - 0.0359 - 0.1151
0.849
140 128
)
P( z
10

5(b)(ii)

16
0.1151

P( z

191.25 285
)
75

1 - 0.1056
0.8944
0.8944 x 520
465
P(X > m ) =

6(b)(ii)

1
1

139

6(b)(i)

0.1151
np = 16
n=

6(a)

FORM 5

1
1
1
1
416
520

= 0.8

m 285
0.842
75

m =221.85

1
1
2
1

131