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GRAPHICS FILE FORMATS
Bitmap files JPEG Bitmap files JPEG
MPEG
Reference: Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats,
http:/ / netghost.narod.ru/ gff/
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RECOGNIZING A GRAPHICS FILE
Contains digital photographs, line art, three-
dimensional images, and scanned replicas of
printed pictures
Bitmap images: collection of dots g
Vector graphics: based on mathematical instructions
Metafile graphics: combination of bitmap and vector
Types of programs
Graphics editors
Image viewers
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IMAGE BASICS
Pixel
Picture element
Smallest unit that can be displayed on a screen
Simplest graphics are black and white Simplest graphics are black and white
0 white
1 - black
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
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IMAGE BASICS
00000000000000000011110000000000000000
00000000000000001100001100000000000000
00000000000000010000000010000000000000
00000000000000100000000001000000000000
00000000000000100010001001000000000000
00000000000001000111011100100000000000
00000000000001000010001000100000000000
00000000000001000000000000100000000000
00000000000001000000000000100000000000
00000000000001001000000100100000000000
00000000000000100100001001000000000000
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
00000000000000 00 0000 00 000000000000
00000000000000100011110001000000000000
00000000000000010000000010000000000000
00000000000000001100001100000000000000
00000000000000000011110000000000000000
00011110010000000000000000000000000000
01100010010000000000000000000000000000
11000100100000000000000000000000000000
00000100100001110001011000101100100100
00111111110010010001101000110101100100
00001001000100100111001011100101001000
00010010000101101010010101001011011010
00010010000110110111111011111101101100
00000000000000000100000010000000011000
00000000000000001100000110000000110000
00000000000000001000000100000000100000
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IMAGE BASICS
Bit depth
Number of bits per image
1 bit black and white
4 bits 16 colors (2
4
) 4 bits 16 colors (2 )
8 bits 256 colors (2
8
)
16 bits 65,536 colors (2
16
)
24 bits 16,777,216 colors (2
24
)
Bit depth controls image file size
Higher the bit depth = larger file
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
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IMAGE BASICS
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
1 bit
781 bytes
16 bits
11,982 bytes
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IMAGE BASICS
RGB Color Model
Red Green Blue
Additive model combines varying amounts of Additive model combines varying amounts of
these 3 colors
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB
IMAGE BASICS
Individual pixels represented in memory as a
Red value
Green value
Blue value Blue value
Values represent intensity
If red is more intense, the color perceived is
towards the red
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB
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IMAGE BASICS
24-bit pixel value means
8 bits for each RGB value
256 possible values for each primary color
Values expressed as 0 255 Values expressed as 0 255
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB
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IMAGE BASICS
(0, 255, 0) is green
(0, 255, 255)
is cyan
(255, 255, 0)
is yellow
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB
(0, 0, 0) is black
(255, 255, 255) is white
(255, 0, 0)
is red
(0, 0, 255)
is blue
(255, 0, 255)
is magenta
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IMAGE BASICS
Memory
Number of pixels times 3
640 x 480 pixels in size
640 x 480 = 307 200 total pixels 640 x 480 = 307,200 total pixels
307,200 x 3 = 921,600 bytes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB
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UNDERSTANDING BITMAP AND RASTER IMAGES
Bitmap images
Grids of individual pixels
Raster images
Pixels are stored in rows
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Pixels are stored in rows
Better for printing
Image quality
Screen resolution
Software
Number of color bits used per pixel
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IMAGE BASICS
Bitmap
Grid of pixels
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
IMAGE BASICS
Resolution
Number of pixels per unit of measurement
dpi = dots (pixels) per inch
Typical monitor is 72 dpi Typical monitor is 72 dpi
Total sizes range from
320 x 200
1280 x 1024
Higher resolution equals sharper image
http://www.bergen.org/AAST/ComputerAnimation/
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IMAGE BASICS
Raster images
Collections of pixels
Stored as rows of pixels
Painted on the screen 30 times per second as Painted on the screen 30 times per second as
individual pixels
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raster_format
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IMAGE BASICS
Vector images
Uses geometric primitives
http://en.wikipedia.org/
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IMAGE BASICS
Brain
Handles images as vectors
Eye
C t i f h t (bit ) Captures mosaics of photons (bitmaps)
http://en.wikipedia.org/
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IMAGE BASICS
http://en.wikipedia.org/
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IMAGE BASICS
Example of vector data for a circle
Radius
Center
Line style and color Line style and color
Fill style and color
Much less data to be stored
http://en.wikipedia.org/
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IMAGE BASICS
Advantages of vector system
Smaller file sizes
Resizing does not change image
Easy modification of parameters Easy modification of parameters
Moving
Scaling
Rotating
Filling
http://en.wikipedia.org/
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UNDERSTANDING METAFILE GRAPHICS
Combine raster and vector graphics
Example: scanned photo (bitmap) with text
(vector)
Sh d t g d di d t g f b th Share advantages and disadvantages of both
types
When enlarged, bitmap part loses quality
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UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICS FILE FORMATS
Standard bitmap file formats
Graphic Interchange Format (.gif)
Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpeg, .jpg)
Tagged Image File Format ( tiff tif)
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Tagged Image File Format (.tiff, .tif)
Window Bitmap (.bmp)
Standard vector file formats
Hewlett Packard Graphics Language (.hpgl)
Autocad (.dxf)
UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICS FILE FORMATS
(CONTINUED)
Nonstandard graphics file formats
Targa (.tga)
Raster Transfer Language (.rtl)
Adobe Photoshop (.psd) and Illustrator (.ai)
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Freehand (.fh9)
Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg)
Paintbrush (.pcx)
Search the Web for software to manipulate
unknown image formats
UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS
Witnesses or suspects can create their own
digital photos
Examining the raw file format
Raw file format
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Raw file format
Referred to as a digital negative
Typically found on many higher-end digital cameras
Sensors in the digital camera simply record pixels
on the cameras memory card
Raw format maintains the best picture quality
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UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
Examining the raw file format (continued)
The biggest disadvantage is that its proprietary
And not all image viewers can display these formats
The process of converting raw picture data to
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another format is referred to as demosaicing
Examining the Exchangeable Image File format
Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) format
Commonly used to store digital pictures
Developed by JEIDA as a standard for storing metadata in
JPEG and TIFF files
UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
Examining the Exchangeable Image File format
(continued)
EXIF format collects metadata
Investigators can learn more about the type of digital
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Investigators can learn more about the type of digital
camera and the environment in which pictures were
taken
EXIF file stores metadata at the beginning of the file
UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
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UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
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UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
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UNDERSTANDING DIGITAL CAMERA FILE
FORMATS (CONTINUED)
Examining the Exchangeable Image File format
(continued)
With tools such as ProDiscover and Exif Reader
You can extract metadata as evidence for your case
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You can extract metadata as evidence for your case
CAN I CHANGE A GRAPHICS FILE SIZE?
Cropping
Selecting part of
an image an image
Change Color Depth
The number of colors
that are available for
use in an image.
Greater color depth yields
better quality and larger file size
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CAN I CHANGE A GRAPHICS FILE SIZE?
Increase Resolution
Pixel interpolation creates new
pixels by averaging the colors of
nearby pixels
C b i l t d Can become pixelated
Decreasing Resolution
Decreases image quality
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BMP native bitmap graphic file format of
Microsoft Windows OS
PCX one of original personal computer bitmap
graphics file formats (8 bit)
ARE THERE DIFFERENT KINDS OF
BITMAP GRAPHICS?
graphics file formats (8-bit)
TIFF (Tag Image File Format) highly flexible and
platform-independent graphics file format
Supports True Color
Used by scanners and digital cameras
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JPG graphics format with built-in
compression
You control level of compression
Uses True Color
ARE THERE DIFFERENT KINDS OF BITMAP
GRAPHICS?
Uses True Color
GIF limited to 256 colors
PNG 48-bit True Color, compresses
without losing data
Public domain format
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HOW DO I KNOW WHICH GRAPHICS FORMAT
TO USE?
BMP Graphical elements (e.g. buttons)
PCX Not used much
TIFF High-resolution scanned images and
digital photos
J PG Photographic or scanned images that
might be on Web
GIF Popular for Web graphics
PNG Alternative to GIF
Consists of set of instructions for
recreating a picture
Instructions include:
Shape
WHAT IS A VECTOR GRAPHIC?
p
Size
Position
Color
Common Extensions:
wmf, dxt, mgx, eps, pict, cgm
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Vectors resize better than bitmaps
Vector images usually require less storage
space than bitmaps
HOW DO VECTOR GRAPHICS COMPARE
WITH BITMAP GRAPHICS?
space than bitmaps
It is easier to edit an object in a vector graphic
than an object in bitmap graphic
Vector graphics are not usually as realistic as
bitmap images
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IS IT POSSIBLE TO CONVERT A VECTOR
GRAPHIC INTO A BITMAP?
Rasterization
superimposes a grid
over a vector image
d t i th l determines the color
for each pixel
Resulting graphic no
longer has the
qualities of a vector
graphic
This process is more difficult
Tracing software
Locates the edges of objects in a bitmap
CAN I CONVERT A BITMAP GRAPHIC INTO A
VECTOR GRAPHIC?
Locates the edges of objects in a bitmap
image
Converts the resulting shapes into vector
graphics objects
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