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Les/Kursus Privat Bahasa Inggris

Beranda English Conversation General English Topik Diskusi dan Debat Pengalaman Privat
RB!" #$ %EBR!RI #&'(
E)L!TI*+ +D TE,TI+G I+ E,P
Presented by:
Sitti Fatimah Saleng, Fifin Naili Riskiyah, & Herwindho Mukti
State Uniersity of Malang
!"#$U#%&'NS
(efinitons
Pauline robinson in his books defines evaluation as the discovery of the value for some
purposes. Other clearer definitions is proposed by alderson and murphy who writes that evaluation is
concerned with describing what is there and placing some value on what is found.
There are some scholars stated that the evaluation has been neglected in ESP. Swan suggest
eight possible reason for the underdevelopment of evaluation in ESP. Some of the possible reasons
according to swan are the shortness or even one-off nature of ESP courses, the time consuming
nature of evaluation and the lack of any felt of evaluation.
basic distinction can be made between formative evaluation and summative evaluation.
!ormative evaluation is carried out during the life of a course or pro"ect and the results obtained can
be used to modify what is being done. Summative evaluation is carried out when the course or
pro"ect is finished. Therefore, the result of the summative evaluation will be used as the basis to take
decision whether to repeat the course or not, or whether the money has been well spent or not.
further distinction can be made between process and product evaluation. process
evaluation may be concerned with teaching and learning strategies or processes, and admnistrative
and decision making process. product evaluation will look, in particular, at students product such
as e#amination results, essays, etc. $owever, lynch writes that the strongest approach to evaluation
is the one that combines as many methods, %ualitative and %uantitative, as are appropriate to the
particular evaluation conte#t.
)hy *arry out an ealuation
Since both formative and summative evaluation can be undertaken to provide data as input to
possible changes, thus evaluation can be used, in particular, as part of %uality control. &n other cases
as a ,o-ial ,.mbol --ent
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an evaluation may function as a source of information and experience. A further reason for carrying
out an evaluation may be to ensure that money is being or has been well spent.
What is the subject of the evaluation exercise
An evaluation exercise can be wide ranging or very limited in scale. The subject may be a
whole ESP projector course, or just one or some aspects. ong suggests that the formative evaluation
typically loo! at such factors as teachers" and students" attitudes toward a curricular innovation, or at
the usability of new instructional materials. A summative evaluation may loo! at virtually all aspects
of a programme, possibly with a particular interest in cost#effectiveness.
Who carries out the evaluation
As with needs analysis, a basic choice must be made between the outsider and the insider.
$or large aid#funded projects an outsider is typically brought in. %utsiders may be consultants,
inspectors or administrators. &eir and 'oberts ()**+, say that for many years ET project
evaluations were carried out by external ET specialists. They are considered experts because they
have spent years teaching, running projects or training, with the drawbac! of not having being
involved with the programme to be evaluated. %utsiders can bring a different perspective and
encourage participants to discuss.
The insiders, in the other side are most li!ely to be the course designers and the teachers, but
students also may be involved. -nsiders may be teachers, students, staff and anyone else closely
involved in the development and implementation of the programme. &eir . 'oberts ()**+/01,
observe that 2insiders have far greater experience of the situation and are aware of the history behind
development3.
How is the evaluation carried out?
The procedures for data collection in the evaluation are similar to that for need analysis. -n
conducting evaluation, several considerations should be noticed such as cost effectiveness in terms
of time and money and appropriateness for the situation. 4ata collection and data analysis often ta!e
longer time than we imagined at first. Therefore, everything should be well#managed.
5uestionnaires
%bvious problems with 6uestionnaires are their length, possible misinterpretation of
6uestions by respondents and failure of respondents to return them. 5uestionnaires are
given to students, ex#students, ESP teachers and subject specialists.
7hec!list
-t is shorter than 6uestionnaire and is used for small#scale aspects of a program, such as
spea!ing s!ill.
-nterviews
-t is very time consuming but provides the opportunity for more extended exploration of
the points. To ma!e the interview effective and efficient, it must be well#planned.
%bservation
%bservation is done during the classroom process. 8efore doing observation, we must
prepare appropriate observation sheets. 8esides observing the present students, it is also
possible to observe the past students to see the effectiveness of the course.
4iscussions
SHARE IT
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Class discussion can form a regular part of the program, the topic, the content or the
general approach to methodology, etc.
Records
Records of the project or program such as the original planning documents, statements of
needs, aims and objectives are ideally kept from the beginning. These reports are used for
evaluation purposes i.e. in the form of checklist which can be filled right after the lesson
is over or in the form of diaries of students and teachers experiences on a course.
ssessment
!t includes tests and examinations, the evaluations of students projects, written work, etc
which are carried out by teachers or evaluators. "rindley suggested that students are
better to be involved in the assessment process by having student#self and peer#
assessment $as also %ewcowic& and 'oon stated(.
)valuation is a crucial and integral part of the instructional process that teacher may be more
or less permanently conducting evaluation in the methods or elements of the designed program. n
important consideration is reliability of the instruments or techni*ues and the validity of the results.
To increase the degree of reliability and validity, evaluators should do some cross#checking of the
results by triangulation. !t is targeting the same point by means of two or more techni*ues of
evaluation, i.e. having evaluation, class discussion and a rating scale to find information on
classroom methodology.
TESTING
)+, testing is a relatively neglected area. !n -./0, lderson and 1aters wrote that 2only
limited numbers of articles have been published in the area of )+, testing, but nowadays, there have
been a lot of journals related to )+, testing. )+, tests are related in content, themes and topics to
particular disciplines, and involve a higher degree of language specificity.
)+, tests are more concerned to present learners with tasks that involve them in reading,
listening to, speaking or writing the target language, and evaluating how well they can do this. 3f
course, an important component in assessing how well somebody can use )nglish is how accurately
they can produce or understand texts written or spoken in the language, but the key to this
assessment is to present learners with tasks that resemble in some way the sort of things they may
have to do with the language in real life. Therefore, the )+, approach in testing is based on the
analysis of learners target language use situations and specialist knowledge of using )nglish for real
communication.
Performance-Based Testing
,erformance#"ased Testing is an examination approach wherein candidates must interact
with real or simulated systems. ,"T puts certification candidates in situations where they must use
their knowledge, demonstrate their skills, solve common problems, and perform troubleshooting
tasks
4epending on characteristics, %anguage and other tests can be5
Norm Referenced Test: provides information about an individuals relative rank with
reference to other individuals who have taken the test6 $"achman in Robinson, -..-5 70(
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Criterion Referenced Test: test score are reported and interpreted as reference to
specific context domain or criterion of performance.
Tests for EGP are typically norm-referenced, while ESP are typically Criterion-referenced
test. One of the tasks of the ESP test desiner is to determine the exact nat!re of the criterion for
"!din ade#!ate performance. Theoretically, an ESP test wo!ld consist of performance in a real life
sit!ation. $llison and %e&&er in 'o&inson i(e a ood re(iew of performance-&ased tests for
comm!nication skills co!rses for E$P where the primary aim of the acti(ity is to reinforce teachin
and learnin.
How specific should the content be?
%hen de(isin an ESP test one sho!ld aim at creatin ood and dependa&le meas!res of lan!ae
a&ility which need to:
the content m!st &e (alid,
the topic form m!st &e paralel, like )E*TS test +ha(e three paralel forms +life sciences,
physical sciences and arts,.
&e as a!thentic as possi&le,
pro(ide acc!rate and relia&le meas!res of lan!ae a&ility,
ha(e &eneficial effects,
&e practical and economical in terms of administration, time, money and Personnel.
One of the pre(ailin principles of ESP testin is that tests sho!ld contain tasks that mirror faithf!lly
those of the candidates- taret lan!ae !se sit!ation
Predictive validity
The )E*TS and TEEP test examine the lin!istic proficiency which related to academic
s!ccess. The lin!istic performance can &e the &asis for a prediction a&o!t f!t!re performance. The
&etter lan!ae proficiency of st!dents, the &etter their academic s!ccess.
Non-EAP tests
The *ondon Cham&er of Commerce and )nd!stry-s tests. )t applies proficiency test at the
&einnin of co!rse and achie(ement test at the end of the co!rse.
The &!siness Enlish tests. )t applies placement test to know le(el of st!dents and
achie(ement test to know the res!lt of teachin-learnin process.
Temporary 'eistration $ssessment .oard +T'$., / Professional *in!istic $ssessment
.oard +P*$., of the 01 General 2edical Co!ncil Test. )t has s!& test which meas!re
lin!istic proficiency, medical test, and inter(iew test +sim!lated doctor-patient
interaction,, etc.
The link between testin and teachin
To i(e e(al!ation and feed&ack to the teachin and learnin process
To help teachers, sylla&!s constr!ctors, material3s de(elopers
Spoken test can enco!rae st!dents to think a&o!t their p!rpose in learni Enlish and
their attit!des toward Enlish.
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Diposkan oleh Sitti Fatimah Saleng, S.Pd. di !."#
Label: $%aluation and &esting in $SP
' Tests can i(e learners a sense of accomplishment and a feelin that the teacher3s
e(al!ation matches what skills and knowlede ha(e &een co(ered.
' $ ood test will a!tomatically ha(e &eneficial effects on classroom instr!ction. Other
(aria&les s!ch as teacher competence, moti(ation and inno(ation, the climate of the
school, socioeconomic stat!s of p!pils and teachers com&ine to exert an e#!ally
important infl!ence on what oes on in an ESP classroom.
Conclusion
ESP tests sho!ld &e &ased on direct e(al!ation of lan!ae a&ility in acts of comm!nication
+readin, speakin, writin, and listenin, and assessment of content knowlede in sit!ations and
acti(ities, which are as enain and realistic as possi&le for learners. The primary oal of ESP tests
is to o&tain information a&o!t the learner-s specific p!rpose lan!ae a&ility. )n present day, it is
increasinly important not only to &e a&le to !se a forein lan!ae, &!t also to &e a&le to
demonstrate that one can !se it at the le(el re#!ired &y employers, schools, or !ni(ersities.
Considerin this, ESP examinations are ainin more and more attention, and are &ecomin an
indispensa&le tool in the modern ed!cational society.
References!
'o&inson, Pa!line. =CC=. ESP Today: A Practitioners Guide. 01: Prentice Dall
Tratnik, $lenka. <;;9. Key Issues in Testing English for Specific Purposes. S80TSA
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