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Exam 2 Material

Chapter 6
Household: all the people who occupy a housing unit
Family household: one having at least two members related by birth, marriage, or adoption, one
of whom is the householder
Nonfamily household: householder living alone or exclusively with others whom he or she is not
Traditional family: a married opposite-sex couple and their own or adopted children living at
o Historically the most important focus for marketers, though is declining over time
o Some of the decline is due to single-parent households and single-person households
Stepfamily: married-couple family household with at least one child under the age of 18 who is a
stepchild (son or daughter through marriage)
Multigenerational family: a family household containing at least two adult generations or a
grandparent and at least one other generation
o Has seen in increase thanks to:
Increasing immigrant population, whom are more likely to live in
multigenerational families
Delay in marriage of younger individuals
Medicare cuts and cultural beliefs about caring for an elder parent
Traditional family life cycle:

Household life cycle (HLC): based on the age and marital status of the adult members of the
household and the presence and age of children
People married
by their early
Couple had
Their children
grew up and
started their
own families
The original
couple retired
The male
eventually die
A few years
later the female
would die
o Assumes that households move into a variety of relatively distinct and well-defined
categories over time
o Each HLC stage presents unique needs and wants as well as financial conditions and
o HLC provides marketers with relatively homogeneous household segments that share
similar needs with respect to household-related problems and purchases
o Can be an important segmentation variable
o The purchase and consumption of many products are driven by the HLC, with each stage
posing unique problems and opportunities
o Factors such as income, occupation, and education heavily influence how an individual
meets his/her needs
o So, it makes sense to combine stage in the HLC with one of these variables to aid in
market segmentation and strategy formulation
Younger (< 35)
o Single I: consists of young unmarried individuals
Ages 1834
Unmarried Gen Y
Those who live with parents tend to be younger
A significant number are still in school or just beginning their working careers
Have few fixed expenses and lead active, social lives
Good market for the same type of products as those who live at home as well as
for convenience-oriented household products
Also beginning to develop financial portfolio
o Young couples: no children
More likely for 2530 year olds
Joint decisions, etc.
Time spent in this stage is getting longer as well
Most have dual incomes; can afford luxuries
o Full nest I: young married with children
New purchases in the area of baby stuff; new choices of vacations and
restaurants as well
Wife may withdraw fully or partly from labor force for a while, w/ resulting
decline in household income
o Single parent I: young single parents
Increasingly common
Younger members of this group tend to have limited education and a very low
income; older ones receive usually receive support from their ex-spouses
Most are renters and are not a major market for home appliances
Like energy-saving products that are not overly expensive
Middle Aged (3564)
o Middle-aged single: people who have never married and those who are divorced and
have no child-rearing responsibilities
Generation X and baby boomers
Often live alone
Have higher incomes than young singles
All single households suffer from lack of scale of economics
o Empty nest I: middle-aged with no children
Usually represent second marriages in which children from a first marriage are
not living with the parent
Also includes married couples whose children have left home
Both adults will typically have jobs and will be very busy; however, the absence
of responsibilities for children creates more free time and money
Also heavy purchasers of upscale childrens products as gifts
o Delayed full nest I: older married with young children
Having children later in life
Have significantly larger income than younger new parents
Spend heavily on child care, mortgage, home maintenance, etc.
o Full nest II: middle-aged married with children at home
Difference between this and former is the age of childrenthese children are
generally over age six and becoming more independent
These children are primary consumers of lessons of all types, dental
care, soft drinks, etc.
Greater demand for space and transportation
Greater time-pressures if wife returns to work
o Single parent II: middle-aged single with children at home
Often faced with serious financial issues
Inclined to use time-saving alternatives (ready-to-eat food)
Children of this segment are usually given extensive household responsibilities
Becoming a single parent (through adoption or conception) is increasingly
viewed as a lifestyle-choice for older, more financially secure women
Older (> 64)
o Empty nest II: older married couples
Either fully or partially retired
Younger members of this group are healthy, active, and often financially well-off
Have ample time and money (maybe to spend on grandchildren)
o Older single
Often have experienced a spouses death and are now taking many of the
financial responsibilities
Those who are single by circumstance (spouse passed away) are generally less
innovative, more risk averse, more price sensitive, and more likely to engage in
coping behaviors, such as spending more time watching TV
HLC/occupational category matrix:
o Vertical axis is the particular stage in the HLC which determines the problems the
household will likely encounter
o Horizontal axis is set of occupational categories, which provides a range of acceptable

Family decision making: the process by which decisions that directly or indirectly involve two+
family members are made
o Likened to organizational buying decisions, but organizations have relatively objective
criteria (like profit maximization), and most family purchases directly affect other
members of the family
o Many family purchases are inherently emotional and affect the relationship between
the family members
EX: the decision to buy a child a requested toy or new school clothes is a symbol
of love and commitment to the child
o Can be categorized as husband-dominant, wife-dominant, joint, or individualized
Until recently, most studies have ignored the influence of children (child-
Husband-dominant: automobiles, liquor, life insurance
Wife-dominant: household maintenance items, food, kitchen appliances
Joint decisions: buying a house, living room furniture, vacations
Nature of family purchase roles

o Initiator: the family member who first recognizes a need or starts the purchase process
o Information gatherer(s): the individual who has expertise and interest in a particular
purchase; different individuals may seek information at different times or on different
aspects of the purchase
o Influencer(s): the person who influences the alternatives evaluated, the criteria
considered, and the final choice
o Decision-maker: the individual who makes the final decision (though joint decisions are
also likely to occur)
o Purchaser(s): the family member who actually purchases the product
o User(s): the user of the product; for many products there are multiple users
How family members interact in a purchase decision is largely dependent on:
o The culture and subculture in which the family exists
o The role specialization of different family members
o The degree of involvement each has in the product are of concern
o The personal characteristics of the family members
o EX:
America has less of a masculine orientation than many other cultures; wives are
more involved
Those who identify strongly with Hispanic culture tend to make more husband-
dominated decisions than do others
Personal characteristics include education and income
Higher educationmore participation in major decisions
Conflict resolutionsix basic approaches that individuals use to resolve purchase conflicts after
they have arisen:
1. Bargaining: trying to reach a compromise
2. Impression management: misrepresenting the facts in order to win
3. Use of authority: claiming superior expertise or role appropriateness (the husband/wife
should make such decisions)
4. Reasoning: using logical arguments to win
5. Playing on emotion: using the silent treatment or withdrawing from the discussion
6. Additional information: getting additional data or a third-party opinion
A marketer must analyze family decision making within each of the firms defined target
o Within each target market they must:
Discover which family members are involved at each stage of the decision
Determine what their motivations and interests are
Develop a marketing strategy that will meet the needs of each participant
Consumer socialization: the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and
attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace
o Family provides the basic framework in which consumer socialization occurs
o Consumer socialization content: what children learn with respect to consumption
o Consumer socialization process: how the children learn it
Piagets stages of cognitive development:
o Stage 1: the period of sensorimotor intelligence (02 yrs)
Behavior is primarily motor
Child does not yet think conceptually, though cognitive development is seen
o Stage 2: the period of preoperational thoughts (37 yrs)
Characterized by the development of language and rapid conceptual
o Stage 3: the period of concrete operations (811 yrs)
The child develops the ability to apply logical thoughts to concrete problems
o Stage 4: the period of formal operations (1215 yrs)
The childs cognitive structures reach their greatest level of development, and
the child becomes able to apply logic to all classes of problems
Consumer skills: capabilities necessary for purchases to occur such as understanding money,
budgeting, product evaluation, etc.
Consumption-related preferences: the knowledge, attitudes, and values that cause people to
attach differential evaluations to products, brands, and retail outlets
Consumption-related attitudes: cognitive and affective orientations toward marketplace stimuli
such as advertisements, salespeople, warranties, etc.
Consumer socialization occurs primarily through family, as well as through a number of avenues
including advertising and friends
o Parents socialize their children through:
Instrumental training: occurs when a parent or sibling specifically and directly
attempts to bring about certain responses through reasoning or reinforcement
Modeling: occurs when a child learns appropriate, or inappropriate
consumption behavior by observing others
Mediation: occurs when a parent alters a childs initial interpretation of, or
response to, a marketing or other stimulus
McNeals five-stage model of how children learn to shop:
o Stage I: observing
Parents begin taking their children to the store with them at a median age of
two months, where they make sensory contact w/ the marketplace
By 1215 months, most children can begin to recall certain items
Stage ends when children understand that a visit to the market may produce
rewards beyond the stimulation caused by the environment
o Stage II: making requests
At median age 2 years, children being requesting items in the store (only when
the item is physically present)
Towards the end of the stage they start asking for things at home when they see
it on TV
o Stage III: making selections
At median age 3 years, children may actually start getting the items off the
shelves; begin to remember store locations
o Stage IV: making assisted purchases
Median age of 5 years
Learning to value money; are allowed to select and pay for items with their own
o Stage V: making independent purchases
Making a purchase w/o a parent to oversee it requires a fairly sophisticated
understanding of value
Median age is 8 years (children are usually in stage IV for a while before parents
let them move on to this stage)
Children are a large and growing market, however, marketing to children is fraught with ethical
concerns, including:
o The limited ability of younger children to process information and to make informed
purchase decisions
o Marketing activities, particularly advertising, can produce undesirable values in children,
resulting in inappropriate diets, and cause unhealthy levels of family conflict
Chapter 7
Group: two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and have certain
implicitly or explicitly defined relationships to one another such that their behaviors are
Reference group: a group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an
individual as the basis for his or her current behavior
Variables groups can be classified with:
o Membership
Either you are a member of the group or not
o Strength of social tie
The closeness and intimacy of the group linkages
Primary groups: involve strong ties and frequent interactions (EX: family and
Secondary groups: involve weaker ties and less frequent interaction (EX:
professional and neighborhood associations)
o Type of contact
Refers to whether the interaction is direct or indirect
o Attraction
The desirability that membership in a given group has for the individual
Dissociative reference groups: groups with negative desirability; can influence
behavior just as do those with positive desirability
EX: teens tend to avoid clothing styles associated with older consumers
Aspiration reference groups: nonmembership groups with a positive attraction
Consumer subculture: a distinctive subgroup of a society that self-selects on the basis of a
shared commitment to a particular product class, brand, or consumption activity
o These groups have:
An identifiable, hierarchical social structure
A set of shared beliefs or values
Unique jargon, rituals, and modes of symbolic expression
o Not all product owners or participants in an activity become members of the consumer
subculture associated with it
EX: you can watch Star Trek and not be a member of the associated subculture
Brand community: a nongeographically bound community based on a structured set of social
relationships among owners of a brand and the psychological relationship they have with the
brand itself, the product in use, and the firm
o Can add value to the ownership of the product and build intense loyalty
o When a consumer becomes part of a brand community, remaining generally requires
continuing to own and use the brandcan create intense brand loyalty!
o Brand fests: gatherings of owners and others for the purposes of interacting with one
another in the context of learning about and using the brand
Community: characterized by consciousness of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and a sense of
moral responsibility
Online community: a community that interacts over time around a topic of interest on the
o Online social network site: a web-based service that allows individuals to construct a
public or semipublic profile with a bounded system; articulate a list of other users within
whom they share a connection; and view and traverse their list of connections and
those made by others within the system
o Principles on how companies can effectively use social media:
Be transparent
Be a part of the community
Take advantage of the unique capabilities of each venue
Reference group influence can take three forms:
o Informational
o Normative
o Identification
Informational influence: occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of reference
group members as potentially useful bits of information
o EX: a person tries out a specific brand of nutrition bar he/she saw a track team eating
Normative influence: (aka utilitarian influence) occurs when an individual fulfills group
expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction
o EX: buying a particular brand of wine to win approval from a colleague; refraining from
wearing the latest fashion for fear of being teased by friends
o Strongest when individuals have strong ties to the group and the product involved is
socially conspicuous
o Reduced use of this technique because of ethical questions raised by implying that a
persons friends would base their reactions to the individual according to his/her
Identification influence: (aka value-expressive influence) occurs when individuals have
internalized the groups values and norms
o Guides the individual without any thought of reference group sanctions or rewards
Determinants of reference group influence:
o Group influence is strongest when the use of product or brand is visible to the group
EX: running shoes are highly visible, while vitamins are not
o Reference group influence is higher the less of a necessity an item is
EX: more influence for things like snowboards, less for things like refrigerators
o The more commitment an individual feels to a group, the more the individual will
conform to the group norms
o The more relevant a particular activity is to the groups functioning, the stronger the
pressure to conform to the group norms concerning that activity
EX: style of dress is important to a social group the frequently eats dinner
o The individuals confidence in the purchase situation (low purchase confidence means
higher degree of reference group influence)
o SEE TABLE 7-2 (P227) AND 7-1 (P229)
Asch phenomenon: agreeing with the incorrect judgment of many (P229)
o Used in personal sales strategies by choosing someone showing the most approval to
give their opinion, and going down the line until you get to the person showing the least
(who will usually bend to the rest of the group)
Not very ethical
WOM communications: (word-of-mouth communications) involves individuals sharing
information with other individuals in a verbal form, including face-to-face, phone, and the
o Critical because consumers generally trust the opinions of people rather than marketing
o Negative experiences are powerful motivators of WOM (they motivate consumers to
o Opinion leader: an individual who actively filters, interprets, or provides product and
brand-relevant information to their family, friends, and colleagues
The go to person for specific types of information
Possess enduring involvement for specific product categories, which leads to
greater knowledge and expertise
Opinion leadership is category specific--an opinion leader in one category is
often an opinion seeker in others
o Two-step flow of communication: the process of one persons receiving information
from the mass media or other sources and passing it on to others
o Multistep flow of communication: involves opinion leaders for a particular product area
who actively seek relevant information from the mass media as well as other sources
SEE P232
The exchange of advice and information between group members can occur directly in the form
of WOM when one individual seeks information from another or when one individual volunteers
o Can also occur indirectly through observations
o Likelihood of Seeking an Opinion Leader

o Goes well beyond consumer-generated ads
o Can involve setting up a forum in which customers help other customers
o Can include input into product and service design
Enduring involvement: greater long-term involvement with the product category than the non-
opinion leaders in the group
Market mavens: generalized market influencers who have information on many different kinds
of products, places to shop, etc.
o Extensive users of media
o Extroverted and conscientious
o Demographically tend to be similar to those they influence
Influential: represent about 10% of the population and have broad social networks that allow
them to influence the attitudes and behaviors of the other 90% of the population
o Heavy users of print media and are more likely to engage in WOM recommendations
about products, services, brands, and even what new websites to visit
Internet mavens also exist
o EX: teen internet mavens are able to influence family decisions
o Related to them are e-fluentials, and their influence is extensive as they communicate
news, information, and experiences to a vast array of people both online and offline
Driving factors of increasing reliance on WOM and influential consumers:
o Fragmented markets that are more difficult to reach through traditional mass media
o Greater consumer skepticism toward advertising
o Realization that opinion leaders and online creators and critics can provide invaluable
insights in the research and development process
Strategies designed to generate WOM and encourage opinion leadership:
o Advertising:
Stimulation can involve themes designed to encourage current owners to talk
about the brand or prospective owners to ask current owners for their
Simulating opinion leadership involves having an acknowledged opinion leader
endorse a brand
o Samplinggetting a sample of a product into the hands of a group of potential
o Retailing/personal selling
EX: referral reward programs
o Creating buzz
Buzz: the exponential expansion of WOM
Marketers create buzz by providing opinion leaders advance information and
product samples, having celebrities use the product, placing the product in
movies, sponsoring in events tied to the product, restricting supply, courting
publicity, and otherwise generating excitement and mystique about the brand
Generally not supported by large advertising budgets
Key aspect of guerrilla marketingmarketing with a limited budget using
nonconventional communications strategies
Must be used with care because of consumer, ethical, and legal issues
with stealth or covert marketing efforts
Viral marketing: an online pass it along strategy, utilizing electronic
communications to trigger brand messages (often via email) throughout a
widespread network of buyers
Blogs: personalized journals where people and organizations can keep a running
Twitter: a micro-blogging tool that has evolved quickly into one of the largest
social media outlets
Innovation: an idea, practice, or product perceived to be new by the relevant individual or group
o Whether or not a product is an innovation is determined by the perceptions of the
potential market
o Categories of innovation:
Continuous innovation: requires relatively minor changes in behavior or changes
in behaviors that are unimportant to the consumer
EX: Wheaties Energy Crunch cereal
Probably trigger limited decision making
Dynamically continuous innovation: requires moderate changes in an important
behavior or a major change in a behavior of low or moderate importance to the
EX: digital cameras, personal navigators, mobile apps, etc.
Discontinuous innovation: requires major changes in behavior of significant
importance to the individual or group
EX: becoming a vegetarian, Honda FCS Clarity hydrogen car
High purchase involvement likely
o Most of the new products introduced each year tend toward the no-change end of the
continuum, though much of the research has been based on discontinuous innovation
o Adoption process: a series of distinct steps or stages when purchasing an innovation

Diffusion process: the manner in which innovations spread throughout a market
o Spread refers to purchase behavior in which the product is purchased with some degree
of regularity
o Usual pattern of growth: a period of relatively slow growth rapid growth slow
o Factors affecting the spread of innovations:
1. Type of group (some groups are more accepting of change than others)
2. Type of decision (individual vs. group decisionthe fewer the individuals
involved, the more rapidly an innovation will spread)
3. Marketing effort
4. Fulfillment of felt need (the more obvious the need, the faster the diffusion)
5. Compatibility (with groups values or beliefs)
6. Relative advantage (compared to existing methods/products)
7. Complexity (how difficult the innovation is to understand)
8. Observability (how easy it is to observe the innovations positive effects)
9. Trialability (how easy it is to have a low-cost or low-risk trial)
10. Perceived risk (can be financial, physical, or social)
Function of three dimensions:
o The probability that the innovation will not perform as desired
o The consequences of it not performing as desired
o The ability (and cost) to reverse any negative consequences
Adopter categories: SEE P246
o Innovators: first 2.5% to adopt an innovation
o Early adopters: next 13.5%
o Early majority: next 34%
o Late majority: next 34%
o Laggards: final 16% to adopt
Firms should initially focus on innovators and early adopters
Diffusion inhibitors: obstacles to diffusion
o Managers task is to overcome these with diffusion enhancement strategies
Chapter 8
Nature of perception:

Information processing: a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into
information, and stored
Perception: the first three of the four major steps of information processingexposure,
attention, interpretation
o Exposure: occurs when a stimulus such as a banner ad comes within range of a persons
sensory receptor nerves (EX: vision)
o Attention: occurs when the stimulus is seen
o Interpretation: the assignment of meaning to the received sensations
Memory: the short-term use of the meaning for immediate decision making or the longer-term
retention of the meaning
The processes in perception occur virtually simultaneously and are clearly interactive
Both perception and memory are extremely selective
o Perceptual defenses: the name for this selectivity; individuals are not passive recipients
of marketing messages
o Self-selected (selective exposure); people deliberately seek out exposure to certain
stimuli and avoid others
EX: when you dont pay attention to TV commercials
o Although consumers often avoid commercials and other marketing stimuli, sometimes
they actively seek them out for various reasons including purchase goals, entertainment,
and information (voluntary exposure)
Ad avoidance: mechanical ways for consumers to selectively avoid exposure to advertising
o Zipping: occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded
o Zapping: involves switching channels when a commercial appears
o Muting; turning the sound off during commercial breaks
o Increases by lifestyle (busy and hectic), social class (higher social class), and
demographics (men and younger consumers)
o Increases as advertising clutter increases and attitudes become more negative
o More likely for ads that are boring, uninformative, and intrusive
o DVRs (40% of US households) may increase ad avoidance although evidence is mixed
Strategies to adapt in a DVR world include ad compression, still-frame ads,
hybrid ads, interactive ads, and dynamic ad placement
Product placement: placing their brands within entertainment media (such as in movies and
television programs) in exchange for payment or promotional or other consideration
o Provides exposure consumers dont try to avoid, shows how and when to use the
product, and enhances the products image
Infomercials: program-length television commercials with toll-free numbers and/or web address
through which to order or request additional information
o Consumers have a positive response to this
o More likely to be viewed by early adopters and opinion leaders
Permission-based marketing: the voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where
consumers opt in to receive e-mail based promotions
o Being used to enhance the effectiveness of mobile marketing on cell phones
Attention: occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the
resulting sensations go to the brain for processing
o The same individual may devote different levels of attention to the same stimulus in
different situations
Attention is determined by three factors: the stimulus, the individual, and the situation
Stimulus factors: physical characteristics of the stimulus itself
o Sizelarger stimuli are more likely to be noticed than smaller ones
Slotting allowances: paid by consumer-product companies to retailers to secure
shelf space
o Intensity(loudness, brightness, length, etc.) of a stimuli can increase attention
Intrusiveness: the degree to which one is forced to see or interact with a banner
ad or pop-up in order to see desired content
Repetition: the number of times an individual is exposed to a given stimulus
Attention generally decreases across repeated exposures, particularly
when those exposures occur in a short period of time
Though consumers may shift the focus of their attention from one part
to the other across repetitions (attention reallocation)
o Attractive visualsEX: mountain scenes and attractive models
Picture superiority
However, drawing attention to one element of an ad can detract from others
o Color & movementbrightly colored and moving items are more noticeable
o Positionrefers to the placement of an object in physical space or time
Better to have items that are easy to find or that stand out; having products at
eye-level is also important
Ads on the right-hand page receive more attention
High impact zones in print ads and other print documents tend to be more
toward the top and left of the ad
Vertical banners are better than horizontal ones
The earlier a commercial airs during a break, the better
o Isolationseparating a stimulus object from other objects
o Formatthe manner in which the message is presented
Simple, straightforward is better
Elements that increase the effort required to process the message tend to
decrease attention
Ads that lack a clear visual point of reference or have inappropriate movement
increase the processing effort and decrease attention
Audio messages that are difficult to understand also decrease attention
o Contrast & expectationconsumers pay more attention to stimuli that contrast with
their background than to stimuli that blend with it
Ads that differ from what consumers expect to see for a product category often
motivate more attention than ads that are more typical for the product category
Adaptation level theory: suggests that if a stimulus doesnt change, over time
we adapt or habituate to it and begin to notice it less
o InterestingnessEX: tie-in products to special events, movies, etc.
o Information quantityrepresents the number of cues in the stimulus field
Information overload: occurs when consumers are confronted with so much
information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it
Individual factors: characteristics that distinguish one individual from another
o Motivation: a drive state created by consumer interest and needs
Interestsreflection of overall lifestyle as well as a result of goals and needs
Product involvement: indicates motivation or interest in a specific product
Can be temporary or enduring
External stimulus characteristics (like animations) has less influence on
consumers that are already internally motivated
Smart banners: banner ads that are activated based on terms used in search
A behavioral targeting strategy
o Ability: refers to the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information; related
to knowledge and familiarity with the product, brand, or promotion
Brand familiarity: an ability factor related to attention; those with high brand
familiarity may require less attention to the brands ads because of their high
existing knowledge
EX: Consumers with low brand familiarity appear to require more
banner attention to yield the knowledge and trust needed to drive
further attention via click-through to the site
Situational factors: include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus (EX: the ad
or package) and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the
environment, such as time pressures or a crowded store
o Clutter: the density of stimuli in the environment
Cluttering decreases attention
o Program involvement: how interested viewers are in the program or editorial content
surrounding the ads (as opposed to involvement with the ad or brand)
Even when program involvement is low, marketers can increase attention by
enhancing the quality of the ad itself
Ad quality: how well a message is constructed in terms of being believable and
Nonfocused attention:
o Cocktail party effect: where an individual engaged in a conversation with a friend isnt
consciously aware of other conversations at a crowded party until someone in another
group says something relevant such as mentioning her name
o Hemispheric lateralization: activities that take place on each side of the brain
Left side is primarily responsible for verbal information, symbolic
representation, sequential analysis, and the ability to be conscious and report
what is happening; rational thought
Right side deals with pictorial, geometric, timeless, and nonverbal information
without the individual being able to verbally report on it; works with images and
Can easily scan large amounts of information at a time, while left side
needs frequent rest
o Subliminal stimulus: a message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other
messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it
Hides key persuasive information within the ad by making it so weak it is
difficult or impossible for someone to physically detect
Has been the focus of intense study and public concern
Interpretation: the assignment of meaning to sensations; related to how we comprehend and
make sense of incoming information based on characteristics of stimulus, the individual, and the
o Perceptual relativity: a relative process rather than absolute
o Tends to be subjective and open to psychological biases
Semantic meaning: conventional meaning such as those found in a dictionary
Psychological meaning: the specific meaning assigned a word by a given
individual or group of individuals based on their experiences, expectations, and
the context in which the term is used
o Can be a cognitive thinking process or an affective emotional process
Cognitive interpretation: a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing
categories of meaning
EX: nudity in ads are received differently in different cultures
Affective interpretation: the emotional or feeling response triggered by a
stimulus such as an ad
Like with cognitive interpretations, there are normal emotional
responses within cultures
There can also be individual variation
o Interpretation is determined by 3 characteristics:
1. Individual characteristics
2. Situational characteristics
3. Stimulus characteristics
Individual characteristics
o Traits: inherent physiological and psychological traits drive our needs and desires and
influences how a stimulus is interpreted
Physiologicallyconsumers differ in their sensitivity to stimuli (like taste)
Psychologicallyconsumers have natural cognitive, emotional, and behavioral
predispositions (that might affect intensity)
o Learning and knowledge: the meanings attached to such natural things as time, space,
relationships, and color are learned and vary widely across cultures
Consumers also learn about marketer-created stimuli like brands and
promotions through their experience with them
o Expectations: individuals interpretations of stimuli tend to be consistent with their
expectations, an effect referred to as expectation bias
EX: people expect well-known brands to be of higher quality than an identical
product with unknown brand
Situational characteristics: includes temporary characteristics of the individual, such as time
pressure and mood, and physical characteristics of the situation, such as the number and
characteristics of other individuals present and the nature of them material surrounding the
message in question
o Provides a context within which the focal stimulus is interpreted
o Contextual clues: play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual
EX: color (eliciting certain feelings)
Nature of the programming
EX: Coca Cola have refused to advertise their products during news
broadcasts because they believe the bad news might affect the
interpretation of their products
Stimulus characteristics:
o Traits: like size, shape, and color
The meaning of many stimulus traits is learned, and color is one trait in which
learning affects meaning
Incongruity: the extent to which the stimulus is unexpected
Increases attention
Rhetorical figures: involve the use of an unexpected twist or artful deviation in
how a message is communicated either visually in the ads picture or verbally in
the ads text or headline
o Stimulus organization: the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects
Proximity: stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the
same category
EX: When consumers read the headline Have a safe winter. Drive
Bridgestone Tires, they tend to infer from the proximity of the two
statements that the ad means Bridgestone Tires will help them have a
safe winter
Ambush marketing: involves any communication or activity that implies, or from
which one could reasonably infer, that an organization is associated with an
event, when in fact it is not
Closure: presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers
to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved
Figure ground: presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the
focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the
Used when the goal is to make the brand stand out as a prominent focal
object to which consumers will attend
o Changes: in order to interpret stimulus change, consumers must be able to distinguish
between similar stimuli relative to the old
Sensory discrimination: the physiological ability of an individual to distinguish
between similar stimuli
Just noticeable difference: (JND) the minimum amount that one brand can differ
from another with the difference still being noticed
The higher the initial level of an attribute, the greater the attribute must
be changed before the change will be noticed
Individuals typically do not notice relatively small differences between
brands or changes in brand attributes, so what chocolate companies do
sometimes when the price of cocoa fluctuates is to change the size of
the bar rather than the price
After noticing the change, consumers must then interpret itthe higher the
level of an attribute, the greater the attribute must change before it is seen as
EX: consumers underestimate the calories in a meal more as the portion
size increases
Change is often interpreted with respect to some referent state, which may be a
brands prior model or a competitor model
Referent price is also a referent state
Consumers can bring internal reference prices with them based on prior
Consumer inferences: goes beyond what is directly stated or presented
o Quality signals:
Price-perceived quality: inference that higher-priced brands possess higher
quality than do lower-priced brands
Advertising intensity: inference that more heavily advertised brands are higher
Warranties: longer warranties generally signal higher quality
Country of origin: (COO) consumers interpret products more positively when
they are manufactured in a country they perceive positively
Brand effects: well-known brands are perceived as higher quality than unknown
In general, operate more strongly when consumers lack expertise to make
informed judgments on their own, when the consumer motivation is low, and
when other quality-related information is lacking
o Interpreting images
Marketers need to be careful with vague ads and should take into account
cultural differences (EX: high-context cultures ten to read between the lines
and are very sensitive to cues in communication)
o Missing information and ethical concerns: when data about an attribute are missing,
consumers may assign it a value based on a presumed relationship between that
attribute and one for which data are available, etc.
Consumers can be misled different ways:
Companies can make false claims directly
Claim-belief discrepancies, whereby communication leads consumers to
believe something about the product that is not true even though it
doesnt present a direct false claim
o EX: Kraft Cheese focusing on the importance of calcium and the
five ounces of milk in their cheese that may mislead people
about how much calcium their product actually contained
Retail strategy
o Increasing exposure and placing high-margin items in high-traffic areas
o Cross-promotions: where signage in one area of the store promotes complementary
products in another
o Recently, retailers have begun reducing clutter as well
o Ambient scent: pleasant smells can increase product evaluations by boosting emotions
Brand name and logo development
o Linguistic considerations
Morpheme: semantic meaning
Phonemes: sound (how a word sounds)
o Branding strategies
Brand extension: where an existing brand extends to a new category with the
same name
EX: Levi Strauss putting its Levi name on a line of upscale men suits (not
successful because of poor fit between core brand and extension)
Co-branding: an alliance in which two brands are put together on one single
EX: Intel Inside Compaq computers
o Logo design and typographics
Logo: how a product or service name is presented
Logo symbols which are natural, moderately elaborate, and symmetrically
balanced lead to higher levels of logo liking
Different fonts evoke different meanings and an appropriate fit between the
font and product can increase choice of brand
o Media strategy
For high involvement products, ads should be placed in media outlets with
content relevant to the product
o Advertisements:
Must perform two critical taskscapture attention and convey meaning
(however, there is a tradeoff between the two)
Two strategies:
Utilize stimulus characteristics such as bright colors or surrealism to
attract attention
Tie the message to a topic in which the target market is interested
o Package design and labeling
Use bright colors, tall packages, and unusual shapes
Product information and warnings
Chapter 9
Learning: any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior
o Result of information processing
Short-term memory: (STM) working memory; the portion of total memory that is currently
activated or in use
o Closely analogous to what we call thinking
o Active, dynamic process, not a static structure
o Short-lived and has limited capacity
59 bits of information
o Maintenance rehearsal: continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it
in current memory for use in the problem solving or transferal to a long-term memory
(else it will be lost)
o Chunking: organizing individual items into groups of related items that can be processed
as a single unit
Consumers who are product experts are better able to chunk due to highly
organized memory structures
o Where elaborative activities take place
Elaborative activities: the use of previously stored experiences, values,
attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working
memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information
Can involve both concept and imagery
Concept: abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an items in
terms of other concepts (think dictionary definitions)
Imagery: involves concrete sensory representations of ideas, feelings,
and objects
o Key issue in learning and memory is extent of elaboration
Major determinant of elaboration is consumer motivation or involvement
Enhance when consumers are more involved or interested in brand or product
Increases chance of information being transferred to LTM
Long-term memory: (LTM) the portion of total memory devoted to unlimited, permanent
information storage
o Semantic memory: basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept
EX: thinking of an Acura as a luxury car
o Episodic memory: memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated
EX: graduation, first date, etc.
o Marketers do not tend to worry about what is in LTM, but how it is organized
o Schema: (schematic memory, knowledge structure) a complex web of associations
Evoked set: brands in the schematic memory that come to mind for specific
problem or situation
EX: joggingthirstwater; partiessocializingwine and beer
o Script: memory of how an action sequence should occur; a special type of schema
o Accessibility: the likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM
Top-of-mind awareness: the accessibility effect for brands
Related to the strength and number of incoming linkages
o Retrieval may involve explicit or implicit memory
Explicit memory: traditional memory recall; the conscious recollection of an
exposure event
EX: answering the review questions at the end without referring back to
the chapter
Implicit memory: the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli
EX: when a brands image becomes increasingly similar to the TV show it
appears on
High-involvement learning: when the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material
o EX: reading PC Magazine prior to purchasing a computer
Low-involvement learning: when consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the
o EX: commercial interrupting TV program for a product youre not currently using
o Much of consumer learning occurs in relatively low-involvement contexts
Conditioning: a set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an
association between two stimuli is formed or learned
o Involves presenting two stimuli in close proximity sot that eventually the two are
perceived (consciously or unconsciously) to be related or associated
Classical condition: process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music)
and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant
feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand)
o Most common in low-involvement situations
Operant conditioning: (instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as
brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior
o Unlike classical conditioning, operant conditioning requires that consumers first engage
in a deliberate behavior and come to understand its power in predicting positive
outcomes that serve as reinforcement
o Shaping: process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response
EX: free samples, price discounts on new products, and contests

Cognitive learning: encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve
problems or cope with situations
o Involves learning ideas, concepts, attitudes, and facts that contribute to our ability to
reason, solve problems, and learn relationships
o Iconic rote learning: learning a concept or the association between two or more
concepts in the absence of conditioning
Unlike conditioning, there is no unconditioned stimulus (classical) or direct
reward or reinforcement (operant)
Involves less cognitive effort and elaboration
Involved in a substantial amount of low-involvement learning
Consumers may form beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of products
without being aware of the source of information
o Vivacious learning or modeling: observing the outcomes of others behaviors or using
imagery to anticipate the outcome of various courses of action
Common in both low- and high-involvement situations
EX: deliberately observing the style of suits by others at work or by role models
before buying one
o Analytical reasoning: individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and
recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations
and concepts
Most complex form of cognitive learning
Analogical reasoning: inference process that allows consumers to use existing
knowledge base to understand a new situation or object
Stimulus discrimination: the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct
o Critical for marketers who want consumers to perceive their brands as possessing
unique and important features compared to other brands
o Important when scandals erupt, because they damage both the company that was
directly affected as well as the competitors (spillover)
o Stimulus generalization: (rub-off effect) occurs when a response to one stimulus is
elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus
EX: consumer likes one of Nabiscos products and assumes its newest product
will taste good as well
What happens when consumers forget:
o Extinction: when consumers forget conditioned learning (the desired response decays
after not being reinforced)
o Retrieval failure: when consumers forget in cognitive learning (information that is
available in LTM cannot be retrieved and put in STM)
Aspects of forgetting that are of concern to marketers:
o Likelihood of forgetting
o Rate of forgetting
Corrective advertising: government requirement that firms remove inaccurate learning caused
by past advertising
Reasons for consumers forgetting brands, etc:
1. Weak learning
2. Information from competing brands and ads may cause memory interferences
3. Response environment (EX: the store) may not be set up to encourage retrieval of
previously learned information (EX: from advertising)
Strength of learning is enhanced by six factors:
o Importancethe value consumers place on the information learned
o Message involvementinvolving people with the message
EX: when consumers sing along to ads
Using suspense (EX: revealing brand name at the very end of the ad, though this
may make associative linkages weaker)
Self-referencing: indicates that consumers are relating brand information to
EX: nostalgia appeals, second-person language
o Moodpositive moods are better
o Reinforcementanything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be
repeated in the future
Positive reinforcement: a pleasant or desired consequence
Negative reinforcement: involves the removal or avoidance of an unpleasant
EX: using Vicks to relieve sinus pain and pressure
Punishment: opposite of reinforcementany consequence that decreases the
likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future
o Repetitionincreases the accessibility of information in the memory by increasing the
accessibility of information in memory or by strengthening the associative linkages
between concepts
Effects depend on importance and reinforcement
Pulsing: frequent (close together) repetitions; should be used when it is
important to produce widespread knowledge of the product rapidly, like during
new-product introduction
EX: what political candidates use, right before election
Advertising wearout: when consumers actively shut out a message, evaluate it
negatively, or disregard it because of too much repetition
o Dual codingstoring the same information in different ways results in more internal
pathways (associative links)
EX: when consumers learn information in two different contexts (office-themed
and social-themed ad for shampoo)
EX: information being stored in different memory modes (like verbal vs. visual)
Echoic memory: memory of sounds, including words
EX: background music
Dual coding occurs when the sound component conveys a similar
meaning to that being conveyed in the verbal message
Memory interferences: when related information in memory gets in the way of trying to retrieve
a specific piece of information
o Brought on by competitive interference, which makes it harder for consumers to recall
given advertisement and its contents
To decrease this:
Avoid competing advertising
o EX: avoid having your ad appear in the same set of ads as
o EX: recency planning, or trying to plan advertising exposures so
that they occur as close in time to consumer purchase occasion
as possible
Strengthen initial learning
o Evidenced by the fact that memory interference is less
pronounced in high-involvement contexts for highly familiar
o Additional evidence comes from advertising strategies that
encourage dual coding
o However, makes brand repositioning difficult
Reduce similarity to competing ads
Provide external retrieval cues
o Brand names can serve as retrieval cue
o Another strategy is to configure the learning environment to
resemble to most likely retrieval environment
EX: if youre selling chewing gum at a retail store,
advertise it using music youd hear at said store
Brand image: schematic memory of a brand; Set of associations consumers have learned about
the brand
o Contains:
Perceived product attributes,
Usage situations
Manufacturer/marketer characteristics
Product positioning: a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to
competition within a market segment
o Key issue relates to the need for brands to create product positions that differentiate
the from competitors in ways that are meaningful to consumers
o Is not quite a synonym for brand image, and mostly involves an explicit reference to a
brands image relative to another brand or the overall industry
o Perceptual mapping: taking consumers perceptions of how similar various brands or
products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes
Offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a
products position
Product repositioning: the deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a
o Can involve:
Level of performance
The feelings it evokes
The situations in which it should be used, or
Who uses the product
Brand equity: the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional
characteristics of the product
o EX: many people pay a significant premium for Bayer aspirin relative to store brands of
aspirin although they are chemically identical
o Outcomes include increased market share, decreased consumer price sensitivity, and
enhanced marketing efficiency
o Brand leverage: marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name
for new products
AKA family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding
Successful brand leverage generally requires that the original brand have a
strong positive image and that the new product fit with the original product n at
least one of four dimensions:
1. Complementthe two products are used together
2. Substitutethe new product can be used instead of the original
3. Transferconsumers see the new product as requiring the same
manufacturing skills as the original
4. Imagethe new product shares a key image component with the
Chapter 10
Motivation: the reason for behavior and provides purpose and direction to that behavior
o There are numerous theories of motivation, and many of them offer useful insights for
the marketing manager
o Answers why consumers engage in specific behaviors
o Used interchangeably with need
Motive: a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a
behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: a macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in
general terms
o Based on four premises:
1. All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and
social interaction
2. Some motives are more basic or critical than others
3. The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other
motives are activated
4. As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play
o Stages: (SEE P353 FOR EX)
McGuires Psychological Motives: a fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific
aspects of consumer behavior
o Divides motivation into 4 main categories based using two criteria:
Is the mode of motivation cognitive or affective?
Is the motive focused on preservation of the status quo or growth?
o 4 main categories:
1. Cognitive motives focus on the persons need for being adaptively oriented
toward the environment and achieving a sense of meaning
2. Affective motives deal with the need to satisfying feeling states and to obtain
personal goals
3. Preservation-oriented motives emphasize the individual as striving to maintain
4. Growth motives emphasize development
o 4 main categories are further subdivided by asking:
Is this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment?
Does this behavior help the individual achieve a new internal or new external
relationship to the environment?
1. Cognitive preservation motives
Need for consistency (active, internal)having all facets of oneself (behaviors,
opinions, attitudes, etc. consistent with one another)
Cognitive dissonance is a common motive of this type
Need for attribution (active, external)
Attribution theory: need to determine who or what causes the things
that happen to us
Need to categorize (passive, internal)need to categorize and organize the vast
array of information and experiences they encounter in a meaningful yet
manageable way
Need for objectification (passive, external)needs for observable cues or
symbols that enable people to infer what they feel and know
2. Cognitive growth motives
Need for autonomy (active, internal)need for independence and individuality
Need for stimulation (active, external)seeking variety and difference
This need changes over time
Teleological need (passive, internal)consumers are pattern matchers who
have images of desired outcomes or end states with which they compare their
current situation; behaviors are changed and results are monitored in terms of
movement toward the desired end state
Utilitarian need (passive, external)approaching situations as opportunities to
acquire useful information or new skills
3. Affective preservation motives
Need for tension reduction (active, internal)managing tension and stress
Need for expression (active, external)need to express ones identity to others
Need for ego defense (passive, internal)need to defend ones identity or ego
Need for reinforcement (passive, external)being motivated by the reward for
behaving some way in similar situations in the past
4. Affective growth motives
Need for assertion (active, internal)
EX: Women who have a high need for assertion are competitive
achievers, seeking success, admiration, and dominance; they value
power, accomplishment, and esteem
Need for affiliation (active, external)need to develop mutually helpful and
satisfying relationship with others
Need for identification (passive, internal)need for identification results in the
consumers playing various role
Need for modeling (passive, external)reflects a tendency to base behavior on
that of others
Demand: the willingness to buy a particular product or service
o Unlike with needs, marketers do create demand
o Caused by need or motive
Latent motives: unknown to consumer or were such that they were reluctant to admit them
o EX: I bought this to show I have money.
Manifest motives: motives that are known and freely admitted
o EX: I bought this because my friends wear them.
Projective techniques: designed to provide information on latent motives
o EX: using third-person technique whereby consumers provide reasons why :other
people might buy a certain brand
Laddering/means-end/benefit chain: show a brand or product to a consumer and name all of
the benefits that product might provide, and ask the respondent to identify further benefits
until they can no longer do so
What communication strategy should the manager use?
o Depends on the extent to which more than one motive is important, and if the motive is
manifest or latent
Direct appeal for manifest motives, indirect for latent
Involvement: a motivational state cause by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or
advertisement is relevant or interesting
o Increases attention, analytical processing, information search, and word of mouth
o Also affects marketing strategies
EX: high-involvement consumers tend to be product experts and are more
persuaded by ads that include detailed product information
Three types of motivational conflict:
o Approach-approach motivational conflict: a choice between two attractive alternatives
o Approach-avoidance motivational conflict: a choice with both positive and negative
EX: sunless tanners allow consumers the aesthetic and social benefits of having
a tan (approach) without the risk of skin cancer (avoidance)
o Avoidance-avoidance motivational conflict: a choice involving only undesirable
EX: having to choose between spending money to repair old washing machine
or having to go without one
Regulatory focus theory: suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which
broad set of motives is most important
o Prevention-focused: revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to
consumers sense of duties and obligation
When these are more important to consumers:
They seek to avoid negative outcomes
Think in more concrete terms
Make decisions based more on factual substantive information, and
Prefer accuracy over speed in their decision making
Tend to possess more interdependent self-concepts
o Promotion-focused: revolve around a desire for growth and development and are
related to consumers hopes and aspirations
When these are more important
They seek to gain positive outcomes
Think in more abstract terms
Make decisions based more on affect and emotion, and
Prefer speed versus accuracy in their decision making
Tend to possess more independent self-concepts
o Both motives reside in each person simultaneously, though one may dominate (chronic
o Situational factors can temporarily make on orientation more prominent (SEE P363 FOR
Personality: an individuals characteristic response tendencies across similar situations
o Answers what behaviors consumers choose to engage in to achieve their goals
o While motivations are energizing and directing force that makes consumer behavior
purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides and directs the
behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations
o Trait theory: examine personality as an individual difference and thus allow marketers
to segment consumers as a function of their personality differences
Assume that:
All individuals have internal characteristics or traits related to action
There are consistent and measurable differences between individuals
on those characteristics
o Multitrait approach: identifies several traits that in combination capture a substantial
portion of the personality of the individual
Five-factor model: the most commonly used by marketers; identifies five basic
traits that are formed by genetics and early learning

o Single trait approach: emphasize one personality trait as being particularly relevant to
understanding a particular set of behaviors (though do not suggest the others as
Consumer ethnocentrism: reflects an individual difference in consumers
propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products
Need for cognition: (NFC) reflects an individual difference in consumers
propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking
Consumers need for uniqueness: reflects an individual difference in consumers
propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition,
utilization, and disposition of consumer goods
Sometimes consumers choose products that fit their personality; other times, they use products
to bolster an area of their personality where they feel week
Brand image: what people think of and feel when they hear or see a brand name
Brand personality: a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a
particular type of image that some brands acquire
o Perceived in 5 basic dimensions:

o Create expectations about key brand characteristics
o Are often the basis for a long-term relationship with the brand
Three important advertising tactics in communicating brand personality:
1. Celebrity endorsers
2. User imageryshowing a typical user along with images of the types of activities they
engage in while using the brand
3. Executional factorsthe tone of the ad, the appeal used, the logo and typeface
characteristics, the pace of the ad, the media outlet, etc.
Emotion: the identifiable specific feeling, and affect to refer to the liking/disliking aspect of the
specific feeling
o Triggered by complex interplay between motives, personality, and external factors
o Are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior
o Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion
o Personality also plays a role (EX: some people are more emotional than others, a
consumer trait referred to as affect intensity)
o Often triggered by environmental events
o Accompanied by physiological changes (EX: eye pupil dilation)
o Generally are accompanied with cognitive thought
o Have associated behaviors
o Involve subjective feelings
Dimensions of emotion: (SEE P370 FOR TABLE)
1. Pleasure
2. Arousal
3. Dominance
Emotion arousal as a product benefitconsumers actively seek products whose primary or
secondary benefit is emotion arousal
o EX: movies, books, music, travel programs
o Gratitude: the emotional appreciation for benefits received is a desirable consumer
outcome that can lead to increased consumer trust and purchases
o Lead to increased customer gratitude, trust in firm, customer purchases, and gratitude-
based reciprocity behaviors
EX of gratitude-based reciprocity: giving more business to firm due to feelings
of owing them
Emotion reduction as a product benefitmarketers design or position many products to
prevent or reduce the arousal or unpleasant emotions
o EX: over-the-counter medicine used to deal with anxiety or depression
Consumer coping in product and service encounters: involves consumer thoughts and behaviors
in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired
positive emotions
o Active copingthinking of ways to solve the problem, engaging in restraint to avoid rash
behavior, and making the best of the situation
o Expressive support-seekingventing emotions and seeking emotional and problem-
focused assistance from others
o Avoidanceavoiding the retailer mentally or physically or engaging in complete self-
denial of the event
Consumer emotional intelligence: consumer ability to effectively cope with stressful situation
and achieve a desirable consumer outcome
o Is an important determinant of effective consumer coping
Emotion in advertising:
o Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance
o Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of
physiological arousal
o Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself
o Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference
through classical conditioning
o Emotion may operate via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision