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History of electricity

A fragment of amber that could be used as Thales in his experimentation triboelectric effect.
The name griegode this item (, elektron) was used to name the phenomenon and
science that studies from the book De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno
Magnete Tellure
By William Gilbert (1600).

Engraving showing the theory delgalvanismo Luigi Galvani's experiments. De motu musculari
viribus electricitatis in Commentarius, 1792 The history of electricity refers to the study of
human use and electricity, to the discovery of its laws as a physical phenomenon and the
invention of devices for practical use. The phenomenon itself, apart from its relation to the
human observer, has no history; and if it is considered as part of the natural history, would
such as time, space, matter and energy. As also called electricity to the branch of science that
studies the phenomenon and the branch of technology that applies the history of electricity is
the branch of the history of science and the history of technology that deals their emergence
and evolution. One of its early milestones can be placed about the year 600. BC when the
Greek philosopher Thales observed that dembar rubbing a rod with a wool or leather, small
loads (triboelectric effect) attracting small objects were obtained, and rubbing a long time
could cause the appearance of a spark. Near the ancient Greek city of Magnesia were the
stones called Magnesia
, Including magnetite. The ancient Greeks observed that pieces of this material are attracted to
each other, and also small iron objects. words
magneto (Spanish equivalent to magnet) and magnetism derived from the place name.
Electricity historically evolved from simple perception of the phenomenon, its scientific
treatment, would not systematic until the eighteenth century. Were recorded along the Old
Age and other isolated Media and simple speculation observations and intuitions medical (use
of electric fish in diseases such as gout and headache) reported by authors such as Pliny the
Elder yEscribonio Largo,
1 u questionable interpretation of archaeological objects, such as the Baghdad Battery,
February 1 object found in Iraq in 1938, dated to about 250 BC. C., which is similar to an
electrochemical cell. No documents found demonstrating their use, although there are other
anachronistic descriptions of electrical devices in walls and ancient Egyptian writings. These
speculations and fragmentary records are almost exclusive treatment (with the notable
exception of the use of magnetism to labrjula) there from Antiquity to the Scientific
Revolution of the seventeenth century; but still then becomes little more than a show to
display in the halls. The first contributions that can be understood as successive
approximations to the electrical phenomena were conducted by researchers as systematic
William Gilbert, Otto von Guericke, Du Fay, Pieter van Musschenbroek (Leyden jar) and William
Watson. Observations submitted to scientific method begin to bear fruit with Luigi Galvani,
Alessandro Volta, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb or Benjamin Franklin, being continued in the
early nineteenth century by Andr-Marie Ampere, Michael Faraday and Georg Ohm. The
names of these pioneers ended today baptizing units used in the measurement of the different
magnitudes of the phenomenon. The final understanding of electricity was achieved recently
with its unification with the magnetism in an electromagnetic nicofenmeno described by
Maxwell's equations (1861-1865). The electric telegraph (Samuel Morse, 1833, preceded by
Gauss and Weber, 1822) can be considered the first major application in the field of
telecommunications, but not in the first industrial revolution, but from the fourth quarter of
the nineteenth century when economic applications of electricity will make it one of the
driving forces of the second industrial revolution. More than great theorists like Lord Kelvin,
was the moment of engineers, as Znobe Gramme, Nikola Tesla, Frank Sprague, George
Westinghouse, Ernst Werner von Siemens, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison
especially and revolutionary way of understanding the relationship between
investigacincientfico-technical and capitalist market. The successive paradigm shifts in the
first half of the twentieth century (relativistic and quantum) studied the role of electricity in a
new dimension: atomic and subatomic.

Electrification was not only a technical process but a real social change extraordinary
implications, starting elalumbrado and followed by all kinds of industrial processes (electric
motor, metallurgy, refrigeration ...) and communication (telephone, radio). Lenin during the
Bolshevik Revolution, socialism defined as the sum of electrification and power of the Soviets,
3
but it was mainly the consumer society that emerged in the capitalist countries, which relied
more heavily on domestic use of electricity in home, and it was in these countries that the
feedback between science, technology and society developed complex structures which
allowed the

current systems R & D and R & D + I, in which public and private sector interpenetrate, and
individual figures fade into research teams. Electricity is essential for the information society of
the third industrial revolution that has taken place since the second half of the twentieth
century (transistor, television, computers, robotics, internet ...). It can only be compared in
importance lamotorizacin dependent on oil (which is also widely used as other fossil fuels in
electricity generation). Both processes demanded increasing amounts of power, which is at the
origin of ymedioambiental energy crisis and the search for new energy sources, most with
immediate electrical use (nuclear energy and alternative energy, given the limitations of
traditional hydroelectricity). The problems that have electricity for storage and transport over
long distances, and to the autonomy of the mobile devices are unresolved technical challenges
effectively enough. The cultural impact of what Marshall McLuhan called
Age of Electricity, which would follow the Age of Mechanization
(compared to how the Metal Age followed the Stone Age), lies in the very high speed of
propagation of electromagnetic radiation (300,000 km / s) that makes people perceive almost
instantaneously. This implies previously unimaginable possibilities, such as concurrency and
the division of each process in a sequence. A cultural change that came from the focus on
"specialized segments of attention" (adopting one particular perspective), and the idea of
"instant sensory awareness of the whole", an attention to the "total field" was imposed, a
"sense of overall structure. "The sense of "form and function as a unity", an "integral idea of
structure and configuration" became evident and prevalent. These new mental conceptions
had great impact on all kinds of scientific, educational and even art (eg, cubism) areas. In the
realm of the spatial and political, "electricity is not centralized but decentralized ... while the
railroad requires a uniform political space, the airplane and the radio discontinuity and allow
greater diversity in the spatial organization"


GLOSSARY
TERMINAL PLIERS:
Multifunctional tool to put terminals, peel and cut wires. Also called an electrician, with
protective cover

AMPEREMETER:
A device that measures the intensity of electric current when we insert a wire.

AMP:
Unit that measures the intensity of an electric current. Its abbreviation is A, and its name
comes from the French physicist Andr Marie Ampre.

AUTOSECCIONADOR:
device that opens a circuit automatically under predetermined conditions, when the circuit is
deenergized .

BASE SCHUKO:
European type socket with earth outlet side.

SOCKET OUTLETS:
Electrical accessories that are placed on the wall, provided with holes in which the pins of the
plug are introduced.


BIPOLAR:
Category IC design. In this circuit, the components are bipolar transistors and other devices
that are manufactured to the properties of the semiconductor pn junction. Bipolar circuits
having higher operating speeds than the MOS circuits, but are more complex to manufacture
and consume more energy.

Coil:
Winding a conductive wire around a solid or hollow cylinder, and whereby due to the special
geometry important magnetic properties obtained.

BORNE:
Each of the buttons to which the metal wires of an electrical appliance together.

VOLTAGE TESTER:
Screwdriver to check for power to light a neon lamp that has in its interior.

Coaxial Cable:
It comprises an insulated wire surrounded by a braided mesh and an outer cover. A wide
range of coaxial cable types for different purposes that vary in diameter and impedance.

wiring:
Permanently interconnected circuits to implement a specific function. Usually refers to the
set of wires used to form a local area network.

Rigid Cables:
Cables used to transport energy and have the particularity of being installed between fixed
piping to outlets.

Junction box:
In electricity, recessed box or surface for accommodating splices. Also junction box.

Box elements:
In electricity, recessed box designed to house switches, bases, etc. If you are not recessed and
called socket is screwed.

Gauge:
Tool to determine the size (thickness) of the wires.

Gutter:
set consists of one or more electrical conductors through the fixing elements and their
mechanical protection.

Linear loads
Most electrical loads are classified as conventional fillers; These behave nonlinearly, which
means that by applying a voltage waveform of the current retains the same shape, but
generally will be shifted in time an angle (j).


Soldering iron (soldering):
Apparatus for soft soldering.

Powerplant:
set of facilities used directly and indirectly to produce electricity.

Hydroelectric Plant:
It is that center where the energy produced by falling water to hit and move the axis of
electric generators is used.

Thermal power plant:
Facility where electricity is derived from coal (coal, anthracite or lignite). Sometimes also
covers plants using petroleum.

Circuit:
is the path followed by an electric current to travel from the negative pole to the positive
pole of the generator voltage or electromotive force (emf.). Electrical circuit is one that, with
elements placed in the human, such as conductors, electronic components being configured so
to perform a function. Arguably the shortest electrical circuit is a conductor connecting the
two poles of an electric source, it is obvious that this has practical sense, rather it is defined as
a short circuit.

Coefficient of earth fault:
is the coefficient UPF / UP, with UPF effective healthy tension between phase and ground
point P during a ground fault, and UP the effective voltage between any phase and ground
point P in the absence of fault.

Power Capacitor:
Device storing small amounts of electricity. Its capacity is measured in farads.

Electrolytic Capacitor:
Electronic component that stores direct current.

Conductor:
Are metal elements, typically copper or aluminum, permeable to the passage of electrical
current and which, therefore, have the function to transport the "Electronic Pressure" from
end to end of the cable. Material opposing low resistance to electrical current. Materials that
do not possess this quality are called insulators.

Live conductors:
the normally intended for the transmission of electrical energy.


Connector:
Part aimed at establishing connections properly insulated and moisture-proof.

RCA Connector:
Connection Type used for audio and video signals.

Energy consumption:
Total energy expenditure in a given process.

Current:
Movement of electricity through a conductor. It is the flow of electrons through a conductor.
Their strength is measured in amperes (A).

Earth fault current:
is the current in case of a single earth fault point, is derived by that point from faulty
grounding or grounded circuit parts.

Alternating Current Electric:
It is the current flow in a circuit periodically varying sense.

Circuit Breakers:
In electricity, a device for producing a cut in the current when a short circuit or an electrical
overload occurs. This cut is produced by melting a fuse.

Pole cut:
cutting all active drivers. Simultaneous connection and disconnection occurs while in neutral
or compensating and conductive or polar phases. Not simultaneous, the connection is
established earlier.


short:
Accidental contact of two cables with different polarity.

energy:
Energy is the ability of the bodies or whole thereof to perform work. Any material body
moves from one state to another produces physical phenomena are nothing but
manifestations of some energy conversion.

Alternative Energy:
Energy from unconventional sources, such as solar and wind power.

Power Source:
power generator apparatus.

Measuring instrument:
Set consists of the measurement system, the fan casing and accessories attached.

Switch:
Breaking device designed to perform the opening and / or closing of a circuit that has two
positions that can remain in the absence of corresponding external action and one to open and
one to close the circuit. It can be unipolar, bipolar, tripolar or tetrapolar.

kilowatt:
Unit of energy used to produce consumption. Equivalent to the use of an artifact 1,000 W of
power for one hour. KV: One thousand volts.


Luminaria:
Device used to distribute, filter or transform lamplight, and includes all necessary to secure
and protect the lamps and to connect power circuit parts.


megawatt:
One million watts.


megavolt:
A million volts.


Magnetic core:
An amount of ferrous material is placed in a coil or a transformer to provide us with a better
air for increasing a magnetic flux path, therefore the inductance of the coil and increase the
coupling between the various coils of a transformer.


Power:
It is the work done or energy transfer in the unit time. It is measured in watts (W) or kilowatt

Resistance:
Quality of a material to resist the passage of an electric current.

Earth resistance:
Relationship between the voltage reaches about a poin.