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Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.

1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.1
Introduction

Slide Set 1
WELCOME
TO
SYSC 3600: Systems & Simulation
Fall 2013
Section A: TBD
Section B: Professor Aitken
Lecture Slides prepared by Dr. R. Dansereau
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004
Note: Elements of content based on notes of Dr. Rossille, Dr. Danilo-Lemoine,
and Dr. Schwartz. Elements of layout based on style of Dr. Kinsner.
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.2
Introduction
Preliminaries
Course Description

Welcome

This course provides an introduction in techniques to model,


analyze and predict the behaviour of dynamic systems.

The course integrates the knowledge gained from previous


courses on mechanical and electrical engineering as well as
differential equations.

Such an integration leads to a better understanding and a


mature appreciation of the dynamics of engineering systems.
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.3
Introduction
Preliminaries
Objectives

Welcome

Preliminaries

Course Description

APPRECIATION OF:

Differential equations as applied to systems

Feedforward and feedback systems

Control systems

KNOWLEDGE OF:

System modeling (differential equations, input/output)

Continuous-time and some discrete-time systems

Convolution

Impulse and frequency response of a system

Laplace Transform

System stability
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.4
Introduction
Preliminaries
References
Course Text:

K. Ogata, System Dynamics, 4


th
ed., Prentice Hall, 2004.
All students must have access to the textbook!
Other sources:

E.W. Kamen and B.S. Heck, Fundamentals of Signals and


Systems using the Web and Matlab, 2/e, Prentice Hall,
2000.

Oppenheim and Wilsky, Signals and Systems, 2


nd
ed.,
Prentice Hall, 1997.

L. Balmer, Signals and Systems, 2


nd
ed., Prentice Hall
Europe, 1997.

B. Lathi, Linear Signals and Systems, Berkeley Cambridge,


1992.

Welcome

Preliminaries

Course Description

Objectives
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.5
Introduction
Fundamentals
Definition of System
DEFINITION
System: Any process that results in the transformation
of an input (excitation) into an output (response).
ex: - Noise filter for audio signals
- Prediction of stock share prices
- Equalizer on a stereo system
- Electromechanical prosthetic arm for an amputee
System
Inputs
(excitation)
Outputs
(response)
- Electrical, mechanical, electromechnical,
biomechanical

Preliminaries

Course Description

Objectives

References
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.6
Introduction
Fundamentals
Systems (cont.)
System = environmental part + designed part
System
Inputs
(excitation)
Outputs
(response)
A system can also be treated as a "black box".

Do not necessarily know how inside of system works.

Can determine the output response to different input


excitations.

i.e., Imagine an alien gives you a "system". You can try


different test input signals (excitations) and try to figure
out what the system does by observing the outputs
(response).

Preliminaries

Fundamentals

Definition of System
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.7
Introduction
Fundamentals
Definition of Signal
DEFINITION
Signal: An observable parameter that carries information.
ex: - Voltage, current
- Speech or music recording
- Video or television signal
- Bioelectric (electrocardiogram, electromyogram)
- Force, speed, acceleration, jerk
- Picture (pixel parameter is not a function of time!)
- We will restrict ourselves to signals that
are a function of time.

Preliminaries

Fundamentals

Definition of System

Systems (cont.)
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.8
Introduction
Fundamentals
Why simulate?

Two ways to study a system:

1) Build the system and try it in a real environment.

Brute force method

Very expensive

Not feasible in cases where other systems already in place.

Usually done at last stage of design process.


or
2) Model entire system including design and environment. Then
simulate the model for the system.

Easier to study new systems or improve existing ones.

System can be built after most bugs in design have been


worked out with simulations.

Fundamentals

Definition of System

Systems (cont.)

Definition of Signal
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.9
Introduction
Fundamentals
Simulations
Physical System
(real world)
xt yt
Simulation Model
(approximates
physical system)
xt yt

Fundamentals

Systems (cont.)

Definition of Signal

Why simulate?
In simulations, the physical world is modeled using mathematics,
computer simulations, electrical circuits, mechanical models, etc.

Often, the model only approximates the physical system.

Our models will be N


th
-order linear differential equations.
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.10
Introduction
Fundamentals
I/O Models
System
xt yt
Input signal
(excitation)
Output signal
(response)

Fundamentals

Definition of Signal

Why simulate?

Simulations
System modeling - we will study 5 representation approaches:

Linear input/output N
th
-order differential equations

State space modeling (state variables)

Convolution models (impulse response)

Transfer function representation (Laplace Transform)

Frequency response representation (Fourier Transform)


Focus is with signals where time, t, is the independent variable.
Copyright by R.M. Dansereau, 2001-2004, v.0.6.1
Syst. & Simulation
Slide 1.11
Introduction
Fundamentals
Simplicity vs. Accuracy

Fundamentals

Why simulate?

Simulations

I/O Models
Goal: Model and simulate aspects of the real world.
Problems: This brings in the issue of the
Simplicity of
the model
Accuracy of
the results
vs.

Simple models:

System nonlinearities often ignored

Parasitic energy loss/transformation often ignored

Accurate models:

Accurate equations often difficult to determine

Time required for simulation is often intractable