Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16



VII Semester Mechanical Engineering
ME432 Power Plant Engineering
%. Na&e t'e (o)r &a*or +ir+)it, in ,tea& -ower -lant.
Coal and ash circit
Air and !le gas circit
"eed #ater and steam circit
Cooling #ater circit
2. $'at +on,i,t, o( air an. (l)e ga, +ir+)it/
Air and !le gas circit consists o! !orced draght !an$ air%&re%heater$ 'oiler$ !rnace$ s&er
heater$ economiser$ dst collector$ indced draght !an and chimne(.
3. $'at +on,i,t, o( (ee. water an. ,tea& (low +ir+)it in ,tea& -ower/
The !eed #ater and steam !lo# circit consists o! !eed &m&$ economiser 'oiler drm
s&er heater$ tr'ine and condenser.
4. $'at +on,i,t, o( +ooling water +ir+)it an. +oal 0 a,' +ir+)it in ,tea& -ower -lant/
The cooling #ater circit consists o! a &m&$ condenser and cooling to#er. The coal and
ash circit consists o! coal deli)er($ &re&aration o! coal$ handling o! coal to the 'oiler !rnace$ ash
handling and ash storage.
1. $'at i, t'e &ain -)r-o,e o( t'e re,er2oir/
The main &r&ose o! reser)oir is to store #ater recei)ed !rom catchments areas dring the
rain( seasons and s&&l( the same dring the dr( season.
3. $'at i, t'e &ain -)r-o,e o( t'e .a&/
The main &r&ose o! the dam is to increase the height o! #ater le)el and also to increase
the #or*ing head o! the h(dralic &o#er &lant.
4. $'5 tra,' ra+6 i, ),e./
The trash rac* is sed to &re)ent the entr( o! de'ris$ #hich might damage the tr'ine
rnners and choc* & the no++le o! im&lse tr'ine.
7. $'at i, t'e ),e o( ,)rge tan6/
The srge tan* is sed to &ro)ide 'etter reglation o! #ater &ressre in the s(stem. The
srge tan* controls the #ater #hen the load on the tr'ine decreases and s&&lies #ater #hen the
load on the tr'ine increases. Ths$ srge tan* controls the &ressre )ariations reslting !rom the
ra&id changes in #ater !lo# in &enstoc* and hence &re)ents #ater hammer.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
8. $'at i, t'e ()n+tion o( Fore 9a5/
"ore 'a( is considered as natrall( &ro)ided srge tan*. It is tem&orar( #ater storage
#hen the load on the &lant is redced and &ro)ides #ater !or initial increment on increasing load.
%:. E;-lain a9o)t -en,to+6/
The &i&e 'et#een srge tan* and &rime mo)er is *no#n as &enstoc*. It is designed to
#ithstand high &ressre. It is made & o! rein!orced concrete. In )er( cold areas$ the &enstoc* is
'ried to &re)ent ice !ormation and to redce the e/&ansion 0oints.
%%. $'at i, t'e ),e o( ,-ill $a5,/
S&ill#a( is li*e a sa!et( )al)e o! the dam. It discharges ma0or !lood #ithot damaging the
dam. It *ee&s the reser)oir le)el 'elo# the ma/imm le)el allo#ed.
%2. $rite a9o)t -ri&e &o2er,/
-rime mo)er con)erts the *inetic energ( o! #ater into mechanical energ( to &rodce
electrical energ(. -elton #heel$ tr'ine$ "rancis tr'ine$ 1a&lan tr'ine and -ro&eller tr'ine are
&rime mo)ers sed in h(dralic &o#er &lants.
%3. $'at are t'e ),e, o( air (ilter an. ,)-er+'arger, in .ie,el engine -ower -lant/
The &r&ose o! air !ilter is to !ilter the air !rom dst and other ss&ended &articles. The
&r&ose o! s&er charger is to increase the &ressre o! the engine to increase &o#er o! the engine.
%4. $'at i, t'e ),e o( .ra(t t)9e/
The dra!t t'e is sed to regain the *inetic energ( o! #ater coming ot o! reaction tr'ine.
It ena'les the reaction tr'ine to 'e &laced o)er tailrace le)el.
%1. $'at i, t'e ()n+tion<o( +ooling ,5,te& in #ie,el -ower -lant/
The !nction o! cooling s(stem is to remo)e heat !rom the engine c(linder to *ee& the
tem&eratre o! the c(linder in lo# range and e/tend engine li!e.
%3. $'at +on,i,t, o( l)9ri+ation ,5,te& in .ie,el engine -ower -lant/
The l'rication s(stem consists o! oil &m&s$ oil tan*s$ !ilters$ coolers and connecting
&i&es. The &r&ose o! the l'rication is to redce the !riction o! mo)ing &arts and also &i&es to
redce the #ear and tear o! mo)ing &arts.
%4. $'at i, t'e -)r-o,e o( inter+ooler in ga, t)r9ine -ower -lant/
Since the &o#er re2ired to com&ress the air is less in isothermal &rocess it is re2ired to
maintain the$ tem&eratre o! air constant as !ar as &ossi'le. 3ence the air lea)ing the 4.-.
com&ressor is cooled '( intercooler and then &assed to the 3.- com&ressor.
%7. Na&e two +o&9ine. -ower +5+le,/
Com'ined c(cle o! gas tr'ine and steam &o#er &lant.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
Com'ined c(cle o! gas tr'ine and diesel &o#er &lant.
%8. #e(ine t)r9o +'arging in +o&9ine. ga, t)r9ine an. .ie,el +5+le,/
In the com'ined c(cle$ the e/hast gas !rom the diesel engine is e/&anded in the tr'ine$
#hich is co&led #ith com&ressor #hich s&&lies &ressri+ed air to the diesel engine. This
increases diesel engine ot&t. This arrangement is *no#n as tr'o charging.
2:. $'at i, t'e &ain -)r-o,e o( 'ig'<-re,,)re 9oiler,/
The high%&ressre 'oilers are sed to increase the e!!icienc( o! the &lant and to redce the
cost o! electricit( &rodction.
2%. State i&-ortant a.2antage, o( 'ig'<-re,,)re 9oiler,/
The amont o! scale !ormation is less$ since the )elocit( o! #ater throgh &i&es are more.
All &arts o! the s(stem are heated ni!orml($ so there is no danger o! o)erheating.
22. Na&e i&-ortant 'ig' -re,,)re 9oiler,/
4a Mont 'oiler
Benson 'oiler
4oe!!ler 'oiler
Velo/ 'oiler.
23. $rite a9o)t La Mont 9oiler/ $'at i, t'e &a*or .i,a.2antage o( La Mont 9oiler/
4a Mont 'oiler is a !orced circlation high &ressre #ater t'e 'oiler.
The ma0or disad)antage is the !ormation o! '''les$ salt and sediment on the inner
sr!aces o! the heating sr!aces. This redces the heat !lo# and steam generation.
24. $rite a9o)t =en,on 9oiler/ State ,o&e i&-ortant a.2antage, o( =en,on 9oiler/
Benson 'oiler is the high &ressre$ )ertical !ire t'e 'oiler. This 'oiler has no drm and is
6designed to o&erate at critical &ressre o! 557 'ar. Benson 'oiler has no drm. So the total
#eight o! the Benson 'oiler is redced '(%589$ #hen com&ared to other 'oilers.
o The erection o! Benson 'oiler is easier and 2ic*er.
21. $rite a9o)t Loe((ler 9oiler/
The ma0or disad)antage in 4a Mont 'oiler is the de&osition o! salt and sediment on the
inner sr!ace o! the #ater t'es. It redces the heat trans!er and ltimatel( the steam generating
In 4oe!!ler 'oiler$ this &ro'lem is sol)ed '( &re)enting #ater !rom !lo#ing throgh the
'oiler t'es. The steam is generated otside the t'es.
23. E;-lain Re'eat +5+le/
I! the dr(ness !raction o! steam lea)ing the tr'ine is less than 8.::$ then$ corrosion and
erosion o! tr'ine 'lades occr. To a)oid this sitation$ reheat is sed.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
In the reheat c(cle$ the e/&ansion o! steam ta*es &lace in one <or= more%tr'ines. Steam is
e/&anded in the 3- tr'ine !irst$ and then it is reheated. The reheated steam is again e/&anded in.
the 4- tr'ine.
24. $'at are t'e i&-ortant a.2antage, o( Re<'eating/
De to reheating$ net#or* done increases
3eat s&&l( increases
Thermal e!!icienc( increases
De to reheating$ the tr'ine e/it dr(ness !raction increases so moistre decreases % so
'lade erosion 'ecomes minimm % so li!e o! the tr'ine #ill 'e increased.
27. Na&e .i((erent &et'o., o( re'eating/
<a= Gas Reheating
<'= 4i)e % steam reheating
<c= Com'ined gas li)e steam reheater.
28. #e(ine in ,tea& -ower -lant/
Assme I *g o! steam is e/&anded in the tr'ine. Be!ore com&lete amont o! steam %is
e/&anded$ some amont o! steam <m *g= is %e/tracted > E/tracting the steam in the tr'ine 'e!ore
e/hast is called 'leeding. This 'led steam is sed to heat the !eed #ater.
3:. E;-lain t'e ter& Regeneration/
Regeneration means heating the !eed #ater '( steam ta*en !rom the tr'ine. The steam is
e/hasted <'led= !rom the tr'ine at se)eral locations 'e!ore e/hast and is s&&lied to
regenerator <!eed #ater heater= to heat the !eed #ater.
3%. State ,o&e a.2antage, o( Regeneration +5+le/
3eat s&&lied to 'oiler 'ecomes redced
Thermal e!!icienc( is increased since the a)erage tem&eratre o! heat addition to the c(cle
is increased.
De to 'leeding in the tr'ine$ erosion o! tr'ine de to moistre is redced.
32. Na&e .i((erent &et'o., ),e. to e;tra+t ,tea& (or 'eating t'e (ee. water/
Direct contact heater
Drain &m& method
All drains to hot #ell
Cascade s(stem
33. #e(ine t'e ter& wa,te 'eat re+o2er5/
?aste heat is the heat #hich is not at all sed and e/hasted ot as a #aste &rodct. ?aste
heat is normall( a)aila'le !rom the indstr( in the !orm o! &rocess steam and #ater at high
tem&eratre. Also$ the #aste heat is discharged #ith the e/hast gases in so man( indstries. This
heat can 'e reco)ered !or se!l &r&ose. This &rocess is *no#n%as #aste heat reco)er(.
34. $'at are t'e wa,te &aterial,, w'i+' +an 9e ),e. (or ()el (or -ower generation/
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
Mnici&al #aste
Indstrial #aste
-a&er #aste
R''er #aste.
31 $rite a9o)t wa,te 'eat 9oiler,/
The #aste heat 'oilers se the #aste heat in gases coming ot o! diesel engines and gas
tr'ines at high tem&eratre <or= se the #aste as a !el in the incineration.
Some 'oilers se the indstrial dirt( gases !or &o#er generation.
33. $rite a9o)t (l)i.i,e. 9e. 9oiler,/
?hen the high )elocit( gas is &assed throgh a &ac*ed 'ed o! !inel( di)ided solid
&articles$ the &articles 'ecome ss&ended in the gas stream and the &ac*ed 'ed 'ecomes a
!lidised 'ed. ?hen the gas )elocit( is )er( high$ the !lidised 'ed 'ecome tr'lent and ra&id
mi/ing o! &articles occrs. Altimatel($ the$ 'eha)ior o! mi/tre solid &articles and %gas 'ecome a
!lid. Brning o! a !el in sch a state is *no#n as "lidised Bed Com'stion. The 'oiler &lant
sing this !lidised 'ed com'stion is *no#n as !lidised 'ed 'oilers.
34. State ,o&e a.2antage, o( (l)i.i,e. 9e. 9oiler,/
An( t(&e o! !el % solid$ li2id <or= gaseos !el <or= domestic and indstrial #aste can 'e
sed in "BC s(stem. An( t(&e% o! com'sti'le matter can 'e 'rned '( ad0sting the
!actors as si+e$ air )elocit( and rate o! !eed.
3igh heat trans!er rate is &ossi'le to the sr!aces immersed in the 'ed$ 'ecase solid
mi/ing is e/tremel( &ossi'le.
3igh com'stion e!!icienc(.
The solid !el need not 'e &l)erised in !lidised 'ed 'oilers.
37. Na&e t'e two t5-e, o( +oal 'an.ling/
Ot &lant handling
In%&lant handling.
38. $rite a9o)t o)t<-lant 'an.ling/
Ot &lant handling incldes the handling o! coalmine to the thermal &o#er &lant. These
handlings are otside the &lant in the !ollo#ing #a(s.
Trans&ortation '( sea <or= ri)er
Trans&ortation '( rail
Trans&ortation '( road
Trans&ortation o! coal '( &i&eline.
4:. $rite a9o)t in-lant 'an.ling o(<+oal/
In order to handle large 2antit( o! coal inside the &lant$ some mechanical handling
s(stems are &ro)ided !Br smooth$ eas( and 'etter controlled o&eration. The in&lant coal handling
is di)ided$ into !ollo#ing categories.
Coal nloading
Coal &re&aration
Coal trans!er
Coal storage
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
4%. $'5 t'e -re-aration o( +oal i, ne+e,,ar5/
The coal !rom coal nines cannot 'e directl( !ed into the !rnace. -ro&er &re&aration o! coal
shold 'e done 'e!ore !eeding the coal to the !rnace. In the coal &re&aration$ the coal &asses
throgh the di!!erent e2i&ments li*e .. Crshers 5. Si+ers ;. Driers and Magnetic Se&arators.
42. Na&e t'e .i((erent t5-e, o( +oal tran,(or&ing e>)i-&ent,/
.. Belt con)e(ors 5. Scre# con)e(ors ;. Bc*et ele)ators @. Gra' 'c*et ele)ators 7. S*i&
hoists B. "light con)e(ors.
The coal trans!er starts '( carr(ing o! coal !rom%nloading &oint to the storage site.
43. $'at i, t'e ),e o( 9elt +on2e5or,/
Belt con)e(ors are mostl( sed !or trans&orting coal o)er long distance #ith large
2antit(. An endless 'elt is made to rn o)er a &air o! end drms and &lle(s and s&&orted '(
series o! roller at reglar inter)als.
44. $rite a9o)t ,+rew +on2e5or an. 9)+6et +on2e5or,/
In scre# con)e(or$ an endless helicoid scre# is !itted to the Cha!t. On one end o! the sha!t$
the dri)ing mechanism is !itted and the other end o! the sha!t is s&&orted on a 'all 'earing. ?hile
the scre# is rotating$ the coal is trans!erredD !rom one end to the other end.
Bc*et con)e(ors are sed as )ertical li!ts. The coal is loaded at the 'ottom and nloaded
at the to& in the 'c*et con)e(ors.
41. #e(ine .ra)g't, w'at i, t'e ),e o( .ra)g't in t'er&al -ower -lant,/
Draght is de!ined as a small &ressre di!!erence re2ired 'et#een the !el 'ed <!rnace=
and otside air to maintain constant !lo# o! air and to discharge the gases throgh chimne( to the
atmos&here. Draght can 'e o'tained '( chimne($ !an$ steam 0et <or= %air 0et <or= com'ination o!
The ses are
To s&&l( re2ired 2antit( o! air to the !rnace !or com'stion o! !el.
To dra# the com'stion &rodcts throgh the s(stem.
To remo)e 'rnt &rodcts !rom the s(stem
43. $rite a9o)t +la,,i(i+ation o( .ra)g't/
Draght is classi!ied as
.. Natral draght
5. Arti!icial draght
The arti!icial draght is !rther classi!ied as
<a= Steam 0et draght
<'= Mechanical draght
<c= Indced draght
<d= "orced draght
44. #e(ine t'e ter& Nat)ral .ra)g't an. w'at are t'e a.2antage, o( nat)ral .ra)g't
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
The tall chimne( creates the natral draght '( the tem&eratre di!!erence 'et#een hot
gases in the chimne( and cold atmos&heric air otside the chimne(.
The ad)antages are
No e/ternal &o#er is re2ired
Air &olltion is less since gases are discharged at high le)el.
No maintenance cost
Ca&ital cost is less than arti!icial draght.
47. $rite a9o)t arti(i+ial .ra)g't/
In modem &o#er &lants$ the draght shold 'e !le/i'le to meet the !lctating loads and it
shold 'e inde&endent o! atmos&heric conditions. To achie)e this$ the aid o! dra!t !ans 'ecomes
mst and '( em&lo(ing the dra!t !ans$ the height o! the chimne( #old 'e redced.
48. $rite a9o)t (or+e. .ra)g't ,5,te&/
In this s(stem$ the 'lo#er <!orced dra!t !an= is located at the 'ase o! the 'oiler near the
grate. Air is !orced to the !rnace '( !orced !an and the !le gases are !orced to chimne( throgh
economiser and air &reheater.
1:. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( (or+e. .ra)g't ,5,te&
Since the !an handles cold air$ the !an si+e and the &o#er re2ired are less.
No need o! #ater cooled 'earings 'ecase the air 'eing handled is cold air$
-ressre throghot the s(stem is a'o)e atmos&heric &ressre so the air lea*age into
the !rnace is redced.
1%. ow t'e in.)+e. .ra)g't i, wor6ing/
In an indced draght s(stem$ a 'lo#er <indced dra!t !an= is &laced near <or= at the 'ase
o! the chimne(. The !an sc*s the !le gas !rom the !rnace creating a &artial )acm inside the
!rnace. Ths atmos&heric air is indced to !lo# throgh the !rnace to aid the com'stion o!
!el. The !le gases dra#n '( the !an &asses throgh chimne($ to the atmos&here.
12. $'5 t'e 9alan+e. .ra)g't ,5,te& i, -re(erre. t'an ot'er ,5,te&/
In the indced draght s(stem$ #hen the !rnace is o&ened !or !iring$ the cold air enters
the !rnace and dilate the com'stion. In the !orced draght s(stem$ #hen the !rnace is o&ened
!or !iring$ the high &ressre air #ill tr( to 'lo# ot sddenl( and !rnace ma( sto&. 3ence the
!rnace cannot 'e o&ened !or !iring <2= ins&ection in 'oth$ s(stems. Balanced draght$ #hich is a
com'ination o! indced and !orced draght$ is sed to o)ercome the a'o)e stated di!!iclties.
13. $'at i, t'e .i((eren+e 9etween ,to+6er (iring an. -)l2eri,e. ()el (iring/
The stoc*er !iring method is sed !or !iring solid coal #here as &l)erised !iring method is
sed !or !iring &l)erised coal.
14. $'at are<t'e .i((erent t5-e, o( ,to+6er,/
.. O)er !eed stoc*ers
Tra)elling grate stoc*ers
S&read stoc*ers
5. Ander !eed stoc*ers
Single retort stoc*er
Mlti retort stoc*er
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
11. $'at i, t'e ),e o( -)l2eri,er an. na&e .i((erent t5-e, o( -)l2eri,ing &ill,/
The &l)eriser is sed to &l)erise the coal in order to increase the sr!ace e/&osre.
-l)erised coal ena'les ra&id com'stion. The di!!erent t(&es o! &l)erising mills are
.. Ball mill
5. 3ammer mill
;. Ball and race mill.
13. Na&e t'e two &et'o., o( -)l2eri,e. ()el (iring ,5,te&/
.. Anit <or= direct s(stem
5. Bin <or= central s(stem.
14. $'at are a.2antage, o( )nit ?or@ .ire+t ,5,te& o( -)l2eri,e. ()el (iring/
.. The la(ot is sim&le and economical
5. It gi)es direct control o! com'stion
;. Coal trans&ortation s(stem is sim&le
@. Maintenance cost is less
17. ow t'e a,' 'an.ling ,5,te& i, +la,,i(ie./
.. Mechanical handling s(stem
5. 3(dralic s(stem
;. -nematic s(stem
@. Steam 0et s(stem
18. $'5 a,' 'an.ling ,5,te& i,A nee.e./
To remo)e the ashes !rom the !rnace ash ho&&er
To trans&ort the ashes !rom !rnace ash % ho&&er to a storage
To dis&ose the ashes !rom the storage
3:. Na&e .i((erent t5-e, o( .),t +olle+tor,/
.. Mechanical Dst collector
Gra)itational se&arators
Bag hose dst collector
There are three t(&es o! 'ag hose dst collector
O&en &ressre t(&e
Closed &ressre t(&e
Closed sction t(&e
5. C(clone. Se&arators
;. Elector Static -reci&itator <ES-=
3%. $'at i, t'e &ain -)r-o,e o( +'i&ne5/
The main &r&ose o! chimne( is to emit the !le gases at a considera'le height to a)oid
nisance to the srronding &eo&le.
32. $'at are t'e .i((erent t5-e, o( loa. a+t on t'e +'i&ne5/
There are t#o t(&es o! loads acting on the chimne( namel(.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
Its o#n #eight #hich is considered to as a single )ertical !orce acting throgh the
centroid$ and
The ?ind &ressre$ #hich is considered as the hori+ontal !orce acting on the centroid o!
)ertical &ro0ected area.
33. Na&e .i((erent t5-e, o( +'i&ne5/
.. Steel chimne(
5. Site constrcted chimne(
;. -lastic chimne(
34. #e(ine (or+e. .ra(t an. in.)+e. .ra(t +ooling tower,
I! the !an is located at the 'ottom o! the to#er and air is 'lo#n '( the !an & throgh
the descending #ater it is called as !orced dra!t cooling to#ers
I! the !an is located at the to& o! the to#er and air enters throgh the lo)ers located
on the to#erFs side and dra#n & and discharge throgh the !an casing$ it is called as indced
31. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( in.)+e. .ra(t +ooling tower o2er (or+e. .ra(t +ooling
i. The otlet #ater comes in contact #ith the driest air and #armest #ater comes in
contact #ith most hmid air.
ii. The re%circlation is seldom a &ro'lem.
iii. The !irst cost is lo# de to the redction in &m& &o#er consm&tion.
33. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( '5-er9oli+ nat)ral<.ra(t +ooling tower,/
Since no !ans are sed &o#er cost and a/iliar( e2i&ments cost is redced.
3(&er'olic to#er chimne( creates its o#n dra!t e)en #hen there is no #ind
Grond !ogging and #arm air re%circlation are a)oided in h(&er'olic to#ers
The strctre is more or less sel!%s&&orted.
34. $'at are t'e (a+tor, t'at a((e+t t'e rate o( e2a-oration o( water in +ooling tower,/
Amont o! #ater sr!ace area e/&osed
The time o! e/&osre
The relati)e )elocit( o! air &assing o)er the dro&lets
The R3 o! air
The direction o! air!lo# relati)e to #ater.
37. $'at i, t'e wor6ing -rin+i-le o( Cooling !ower,/
The hot #ater is s&ra(ed !rom the to& o! the to#er$ #hile the air is made to !lo# !rom the
'ottom o! the to#er to the to&. This air cools the hot #ater in the cooling to#er. Air )a&orises a
small &ercentage o! #ater$ there '( cooling the remaining #ater. The air a'sor's the heat and
lea)es at the to& o! the to#er and cooled #ater lea)es at the 'ottom and recirclated to the
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
38. Na&e .i((erent t5-e, o( +ooling tower,/
The cooling to#ers are classi!ied as !ollo#s.
<a= According to the constrction o! material
.. Tim'er % !or small to#er
5. "erro concrete % !or large ca&acit( stations.
;. Mlti dec* concrete to#ers % !or large steam stations
@. Metallic
<'= According to the natre o! air draght%
.. Atmos&heric <or= Natral draght cooling s(stem
5. Mechanical draght cooling to#er.
4:. ow t'e at&o,-'eri+ ?or@ nat)ral .ra)g't +ooling tower,< are +la,,i(ie./
In atmos&heric <or= natral cooling to#ers$ the natral air &ro)ides the re2ired
cooling #ithot the se o! !ans. This is classi!ied into three t(&es.
.. Natral dra!t s&ra( !illed to#ers
5. Natral dra!t &ac*ed t(&e to#ers.>
;. 3(&er'olic cooling to#ers
4%. ow &e+'ani+al .ra(t +ooling tower, are +la,,i(ie./
Mechanical dra!t cooling to#er is classi!ied into three t(&es
.. "orced dra!t to#er.
5. Indced dra!t conter !lo# to#er
;. Indced dra!t cross !lo# to#er.
42. ow t'e .r5 t5-e +ooling tower, are +la,,i(ie./
The dr( t(&e cooling to#ers are classi!ied into t#o t(&es >as !ollo#s.
.. Indirect dr( t(&e <or= 3eller cooling s(stem
5. Direct dr( t(&e%cooling s(stem
43. $'at are t'e &et'o., to re.)+e t'e e((e+t, o( -arti+)late,/
The e!!ects o! &articlates can 'e redced '( the !ollo#ing methods.
Coal cleaning
Asing im&ro)ed electrostatic &reci&itator design
Controlling the dst #ithin allo#a'le limit. This can 'e done '( increasing the
height o! chimne( there'( redcing the concentration
44. $'at are t'e e>)i-&ent, ),e. (or a,' +olle+tion/
Electrostatic &reci&itator
"l( ash scr''ers
Cinder catcher
C(clone dst collector
41. $'at i, &eant 95 A#e,)l-')ri,ationA an. na&e t'e &et'o., a.o-te. (or
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
Desl&hrisation o! !el is the &rocess o! redcing the sl&hr content in the !el. The
!ollo#ing methods are ado&ted !or desl&hrisation.
.. Chemical treatment
5. "orth !lotation
;. Magnetic se&aration
43. $'at are t'e &et'o., a.o-te. to re&o2eA S:2 (l)e ga,e,/
.. ?et scr''ing
5. Solid a'sor'ent
;. Catal(tic o/idation
44. $rite a9o)t C:2,/
In thermal &o#er &lants$ it is necessar( to *ee& the concentration O! C85 as lo# is
necessar( as &ossi'le. To achie)e this$ a constant recording o! concentration O! C85
These recorders are 'ased on the three di!!erent &rinci&les$ as gi)en 'elo#.
.. Thermal condcti)it( cell
5. Chemical a'sor&tion cell
;. Densit( 'alance C5. ?hat is the% necessit( o! Atomatic controls !or !eed #aterG
The electrical load on &o#er &lant )aries in an irreglar manner. The atomatic control
&ro)ided at a steam &o#er &lant sccess!ll( meets o)er the )aria'le load. The atomatic control
!or !eed #ater is necessar( sine the s&&l( o! !eed #ater de&ends &on &lant load.
47. Na&e ,o&e o( t'e a)to&ati+ +ontrolling &et'o., (or (ee. water/
.. Single element &ilot o&erated s(stem
5. Single element sel! o&erated s(stem
;. T#o element &ilot o&erated s(stem
@. Three element &ilot o&erated s(stem
48. $'at i, t'e -)r-o,e o( a)to&ati+, +o&9),tion +3%ritrol/
The main &r&ose o! %atomatic com'stion> control s(stem is to maintain load against
demand$ to &re)ent smo*e$ to increase 'oiler hose e!!icienc($ to carr( ot rotine ad0stments
and to &ro)ide interloc*ing sa!e gards.
7:. $'at are t'e a--lian+e, 6nown a, 9oiler a++e,,orie,/
The a&&liances sed to increase the e!!icienc( o! the 'oiler are *no#n as 'oiler
The im&ortant 'oiler accessories are
.. Economiser 5. S&erheater ;. Air &reheater @. "eed &m& 7. In0ector
7%. $'at are t'e &et'o., a.o-te. to re&o2e SO
(ro& .)e ga,e,/
.. ?et scr''ing
5. Solid a'sor'ent
;. Catal(tic o/idation
72. $rite a9o)t C:2,/
In thermal &o#er &lants$ it is necessar($ to *ee& the concentration o! C85 as lo#
as &ossi'le. To achie)e this > a constant recording o! concentration o! C85 is necessar(.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
These recorders are 'ased on the three di!!erent &rinci&les$ as gi)en 'elo#.
.. Thermal condcti)it( cell
5. Chemical a'sor&tion cell
;. Densit(% 'alance
73. $'at i, t'e ne+e,,it5 o( A)to&ati+ +ontrol, (or (ee. water/
The electrical load on &o#er &lant )aries irreglar manner. The atomatic man control
&ro)ided at a steam &o#er &lant sccess!ll( meets o)er the )aria'le load. The atomatic control
!or !eed #ater is necessar( sine the s&&l( o! !eed#ater de&ends &on &lant load.
74. Na&e ,o&e o( t'e a)to&ati+ +ontrolling &et'o., (or (ee. water/
A single element &ilot o&erated s(stem
Single element sel! o&erated s(stem
T#o element &ilot o&erated s(stem
Three element &ilot o&erated s(stem
71. $'at i, t'e -)r-o,e o( a)to&ati+ +o&9),tion +ontrol/
The main &r&ose atomatic com'stion control s(stem is to maintain load ad0st
demand$ to &re)ent smo*e$ to increase 'oiler hose e!!icienc($ to carr( ot rotine ad0stments
and to &ro)ide interloc*ing sa!e gards.
73 $'at i, t'e ),e o( air -re'eater/
Air &re heater is sed to trans!er heat !rom the !le gases to the air 'e!ore it &asses into the
!rnace !or com'stion. It is &laced 'et#een the economi+er and chimne(. The o)erall e!!icienc(
o! the &lant ma( 'e increased '( .8 &er cent '( the se o! air &reheater.
74. $rite a9o)t 9oiler &o)nting,/
The de)ices sed !or the e!!icient o&eration$ &ro&er maintenance$ and sa!e o&eration 'oiler
The di!!erent 'oiler montings are
.. ?ater gage <or= #ater le)el indicator
5. -ressre gage <or= steam gage
;. Sa!et( )al)es
@. "si'le &lg
7. Sto& )al)e
B. Blo# o!! coc*
E. "eed chec* )al)e.
77. $'at i, &eant 95 9oiler trial/
Steam is generated in 'oilers nder certain conditions o! !eed #ater and e/ists as steam
#hile a certain amont o! !el is 'rnt. To std( the &er!ormance o! 'oiler$ some e/&eriments are
condcted '( o&erating$ the 'oiler !or a certain length o! time and recording the data. This
&rocedre is *no#n as 'oiler trial.
78. State t'e o9*e+ti2e o( 9oiler trial/
..To determine the thermal e!!icienc( o! the 'oiler #hen #or*ing at a de!inite &ressre.
5.To dra# & heat 'alance sheet !or the 'oiler to chec* the &er!ormance o! the 'oiler.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
8:. #e(ine .e&an. (a+tor/
Demand !actor is de!ined as the ratio o! ma/imm demand to connected load.
Connected load is the sm o! ratings in *? o! e2i&ment installed in the consmer>s
Ma/imm demand is the ma/imm load$ #hich a consmer ses at an( time.
8%. #e(ine loa. +)r2e/
4oad cr)e is a gra&hical re&resentation 'et#een load in *? and time in hors. It. sho#s
)ariatiBn o! load at the &o#er station. The area nder the load cr)e %re&resents the energ(
generated in a &articlar &eriod.
82. #e(ine loa. (a+tor/
4oad !actor is de!ined as the ratio o! a)erage load to the &ea* load <or= ma/imm demand.
83. $'at in+l).e, (i;e. +o,t/
"i/ed cost incldes the !ollo#ing cost.
.. Cost o! land 5. Cost o! 'ilding
;. Cost o! e2i&ment @. Cost o! installatiBn
7. Interest B. De&reciation cost
E. Insrance :. Management cost
84. $'at in+l).e, o-erating +o,t/
O&erating cost incldes the !ollo#ing cost.
.. Cost o! !el 5. Cost o! o&erating la'or$
;. Cost o! maintenance la'ors and materials.
@. Cost o! s&&lier li*e
?ater !or !eeding 'oilers$ !or condenser and !or general se.
4'rication oil and$ grease.
?ater treatment chemicals.
81. $'at i, t'e nee. o( .e-re+iation +o,t/
De&reciation cost is the amont to 'e set aside &er (ear !rom the income o! the &lant to
meet the de&reciation cased '( the age o! ser)ice$ #ear and tear o! the machiner( and
e2i&ments. De&reciation amont collected e)er( (ear hel&s in re&lacing and re&airing the
83. $rite a9o)t ato&i+ n)&9er/
The ncles contains &rotons and netrons. The nm'er o! &rotons in a gi)en atom is an
atomic nm'er <H=. The atomic nm'er !or 3 is . and 3e %is 5.
84. $rite a9o)t i,oto-e, o( an ele&ent/
Some elements ha)e the same nm'er o! &rotons in the ncles 't di!!erent nm'er% o!
netrons. As a reslt$ these elements ha)e the same atomic nm'er 't di!!erent mass nm'er.
Sch t(&e o! elements #hich > ha)e the same atomic nm'er I same nm'er o! &rotons % the
%same chemical &ro&erties 't di!!erent mass nm'ers de to di!!erent nm'er o! netrons$ are
*no#n as I the isoto&es o! an element.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
87. $'at are t'e re>)ire&ent, to ,),tain (i,,ion -ro+e,,/
The 'om'arded netrons mst ha)e s!!icient energ( to case !ission
The nm'er o! netrons &rodced mst 'e a'le to create the rate o! !ission
The !ission &rocess mst generate energ(
The !ission &rocess mst 'e controlled
88. #e(ine &)lti-li+ation (a+tor o( a (i,,ion -ro+e,,.
nm'er o! netrons o! an( one generation
* J
nm'er o! netrons o! immediatel( &receding generation.
%::. #e(ine (ertile &aterial, an. in rea+tor,
There are materials li*e A
and Th
#hich are not !issile 't can 'e con)erted into
!issile materials '( the 'om'ardment o! netrons. Sch materials are *no#n as !ertile
The &rocess o! con)erting more !ertile material into !issile material in a reaction is
*no#n as 'reeding.
%:%. $'at are t'e .e,ira9le -ro-ertie, o( a goo. &o.erator/
It mst 'e as light as &ossi'leIt mst slo#do#n the netron as 2ic* as &ossi'le
It mst ha)e resistance to corrosion
It mst ha)e good machina'ilit(
It mst ha)e good condcti)it( and high melting &oint
%:2. $'at are t'e .e,ira9le -ro-ertie, o( a +oolant/
It shold not a'sor' netron
3a)e high chemical and radiation sta'ilit(
3a)e high 'oiling &oint
%:3. Na&e (ew t5-e, o( rea+tor,.
"ast reactors$ Thermal reactors$ natral !el reactors$ Enriched Aranim reactors$
#ater moderated reactors$ hea)( #ater moderated reactor$ gra&hite moderated reactor$ gas
cooled reactors and Sodim cooled reactors.
%:4. $'at are t'e a.2antage, ),ing CO

a, +oolant/
Gases do not react chemicall( #ith the strctral materials
Gas can attain an( tem&eratre !or a &articlar &ressre
The( do not a'sor' netron
The lea*age o! gas #ill not a!!ect the reacti)it(
The gas coolant &ro)ides 'est netron econom(
%:1. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( rea+tor,/
It gi)es high &o#er densit( than an( other reactor
3igh 'reeding is &ossi'le
3igh 'rn%& o! !el is achie)a'le
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
The o&eration o! the reactor is not limited '( Xe &oisoning
%:3. $'at are t'e .e&erit, o( rea+tor/
3ighl( enriched !el is re2ired
Control is di!!iclt and e/&ensi)e
Sa!et( mst 'e &ro)ided against melt do#n
3andling o! sodim is a ma0or &ro'lem
%:4. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( So.i)& in (a,t< rea+tor,/
Sodim has )er( lo# a'sor&tion cross%sectional area
It &osses good heat trans!er &ro&erties at high tem&eratre and lo# &ressre
It does not react #ith an( o! the strctral materials sed in &rimar( circits
%:7. Na&e t'e .i((erent t5-e, o( M# generator,
O&en c(cle M3D
Closed c(cle M3D
Closed c(cle M3D #ith li2id metal
%:8. $'at i, t'e wor6ing -rin+i-le o( &agneto ' -ower -lant/
The #or*ing &rinci&le o! M3D is as li*e that o! d(namo. Instead o! solid condctor
high tem&eratre &lasma is &assed throgh the magnetic !ield at sonic s&eed. ?hen the gas is
&assed throgh magnetic !ield$ crrent is indced. Electrodes collect this indced crrent.
%%:. $'at i, t'e -)r-o,e o( +ontrol ro.,/
The control rods are sed to start the chain reaction$ maintain the chain reaction at
re2ired le)el and to sht do#n the reactor dring emergenc(.
%%%. $'at are t'e .i((erent t5-e, o( loa. a+ting on t'e +'i&ne5/
Its o#n #eight #hich is considered to act on a single )ertical !orce acting throgh the
The #ind &ressre$ #hich is considered to act on the hori+ontal !orce acting on the
centroid o! )ertical &ro0ected area.
%%2. $'at i, &eant 95 N)+lear (i,,ion/
Aranim e/ists in di!!erent isoto&es o! A5;:$ t-;@ and A5;7. Ot o! these$ E-;7 is most
nsta'le. ?hen nsta'le hea)( ncles is 'om'arded #ith high%energ( netrons$ it s&lits &
roghl( into t#o e2al !ragments and a'ot 5.7 netrons are released and a large amont o!
energ( is &rodced. This &rocess is called nclear !ission.
%%3. Na&e t'e .i((erent +o&-onent, o( n)+lear rea+tor/
.. Nclear !el 5. Moderator ;. Control rods @. Re!lectors
7. Reactor )essel B. Biological shielding E. Coolant
%%4. State ,o&e a.2antage, o( Pre,,)riBe. $ater rea+tor/
The &ressri+ed #ater reactor is com&act
In this t(&e$ #ater is sed as coolant$ moderator and re!lector #ater is chea& and
a)aila'le in &lent(=
It re2ires less nm'er o! control rods.
%%1. $'at are t'e a.2antage, o( ga, +oole. rea+tor n)+lear -ower -lant/
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering
.. "el &rocessing is sim&le
5. The se o! C85 as coolant com&letel( eliminates the &ossi'ilit( o! e/&losion in reactor.
;. No corrosion &ro'lem
%%3. $'at i, in n)+lear rea+tor/
The &rocess o! &rodcing !issiona'le material !rom a !ertile material sch as ranim 5;:
<A5;:= and thorim 5;5 <Th 5;5 = '( netron a'sor&tion is *no#n as 'reeding.
%%4. Na&e t'e +oolant, +o&&onl5 ),e. (or (a,t rea+tor,/
4i2id metal <Na <or= Na 1=
3elim <3e=
Car'on dio/ide.
Com&iled '( Dr. S. ,ose&h Se*har M.E$ -h.D$ A-ME$ NI College o! Engineering