Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

09/07/2012

1
Finishes to Improve Colour Fastness
By
Dr. Tanveer Hussain
Definitions
Colour Fastness
The resistance of a material:
to change in any of its colour characteristics,
to the transfer of its colourants to adjacent materials or both
Fading
Means that the colour changes and lightens
Bleeding
The transfer of colour to a secondary, accompanying
fibre material
Soiling or Staining
Coming of a colour on to accompanying material

09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 2
09/07/2012
2
Types of Fastness
Washing
Water
Light
Rubbing
Perspiration
Ironing
Chlorine
Peroxide, etc.
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 3
Fastness Rating
Washing
1-5 Grey scale
Light
1-8 Blue scale
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 4
09/07/2012
3
Techniques for better wet Fastness
Intensive Washing-off
For cellulosics dyed with reactive dyes
Washing at high temperature often with special auxiliaries
that have dispersing, sequestering and dissolving (hydration,
increased solubility) properties
Using compounds with high affinity for hydrolysed dye, the
so-called colour transfer inhibitors e.g. polyacrylic acid
derivatives
Using peroxidases (oxidative active enzymes such as
baylase RP).
Low energy, water and time
Restricted only to jet applications
Potential toxicity
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 5
Techniques for better wet Fastness
Intensive Washing-off
For wool dyeings:
Washing under mild alkaline conditions with
ammonia, soda or sodium hydrogen carbonate
For polyester dyeings:
Reduction clearing for unfixed or loosely fixed dye
Colour fastness elevated up one rating

09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 6
09/07/2012
4
Techniques for better wet Fastness
Molecule enlargement
For anionic dyes (such as reactive, direct and acid
dyes)
Results in reduced water solubility, generated by dye-salt
formation with anionic dyestuff in the fibre
Enclosure of the dyestuffs in cellulosic fibres with
formaldehyde condensation products
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 7
Chemistry of techniques for better wet
Fastness
Cationic Products
e.g. polyammonium compounds (polyquats); quaternary
polyhetrocycles such as polydiallyldimethyl ammonium chloride
(DADMAC)
Mostlly used for direct and reactive dyes
Improvements up to 1-2 rating
Washing fastness more improved than water or perspiration
fastness

09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 8
09/07/2012
5
Chemistry of techniques for better wet
Fastness
Formaldehyde condensation products
Comparable to the corresponding products for
permanent press and easy care finishes
Often improve perspiration more than washing
fastness
Mostly used for lining fabrics
Disadvantages:
Harsh handle (requiring use of softeners)
Decreased light fastness up to 2 ratings
Shade change
Formaldehyde release
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 9
Chemistry of techniques for better wet
Fastness
Condensation products of aromatic
sulphonic acids
Common name is syntan, derived form
synthetic tannin
Used for dyeing and printing on nylon fibres
Improvement in wet fastness up to 2 ratings
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 10
09/07/2012
6
Washing fastness evaluation methods
ISO
AATCC
ASTM
BS
DIN
FTMS
Marks& Spencer
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 11
Light fastness: Definitions
Light fastness
The resistance of dyestuffs to the influence of
light energy, especially the UV part of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
UVA (320-400 nm)
UVB (280-320 nm)
UVC (100-280 nm)
The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy
and the dyestuff damage.
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 12
09/07/2012
7
Light fading: Mechanism
Light protection of dye is related to light
protection of fibre
Fibre damage also accelerate dye
decomposition
Fading is promoted by:
Moisture
Heat
Oxygen in air
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 13
Factors influencing light fastness [LF]
Type of light (energy content, exposure time, rhythm of change from
light to dark)
Dyestuff or pigment
Type (better LF for lower specific surface)
Concentration (better LF for dark shades)
Distribution (better LF for even distribution than for ring dyeing)
Dyestuff combination (catalytic fading or protection)
Fibre type: PES > PA ; PAN > meta-aramid (nomex)
Moisture: less LF with high moisture
Heat: less LF with high temperature
Accompanying substances
Titanium dioxide; residual size; thickners; cationic fixers; formaldehyde
condensation products; oxidising & reducing agents (except LF
improvers)
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 14
09/07/2012
8
Basis of the effect
Interaction with the light
UV-absorber or UV screener, which have light filter
(UV-cutting) effects
Interaction with the dyestuff
After-treatment with copper salts (formation of copper
complexes with high light fastness)
Application of radical traps, so-called anti-oxidants,
which are mostly sterically hindered phenols and
amines
Decomposition of intermediate peroxides and
singlet-oxygen quenching
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 15
Chemistry of LF improving finishes
UV light absorbers
Colourless organic compounds, mostly with aromatic
structures
Benzophenone, benzotriazol, phenyl triazine &
cynoacrylic acid derivatives; Titanium dioxide
Mechanism
Absorb high UV energy and transform it to vibration energy
(and then into heat energy) without photodegradation;
Disadvantages
High price
High concentration required
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 16
09/07/2012
9
Chemistry of LF improving finishes
Copper complexes
Requires special structure to be present in the
dyestuff
Work only for selected dyes
A content of 40-60 ppm copper in the finished product
is sufficient for good light protection
Disadvantages:
High residual copper in waste water
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 17
Chemistry of LF improving finishes
Anti-oxidants
Hindered phenol light stabilisers (HPLS)
Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS)
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 18
09/07/2012
10
Application of LF improvement finishes
UV absorbers can be combined with
dyeing or after treatment with exhaustion
or pad-dry techniques.
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 19
Evaluation of LF
ISO 105 B01-B06
AATCC test methods
FAKRA tests
SAE J1885 for automotive textiles
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 20
09/07/2012
11
Rubbing & Crocking Fastness: Definitions
Rubbing fastness
A change in colour of the rubbed textile (by
bleeding and fading)
Crocking fastness
The migration of colour from the dyed surface
to another surface by intense contact, e.g. by
rubbing (soiling/staining)
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 21
Rubbing & Crocking Fastness
Factors
Type of fibre (tensile strength, wet abrasion)
Kind and concentration of dye
Dyeing or printing procedure
Degree of fixation
Ring dyeing
Wet fastness
After-treatment with softeners, silicones, crosslinking agents
Type of textile in contact: shade, surface, kind of fibre and fabric
Intensity of the contact:: pressure, time, moisture and
temperature
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 22
09/07/2012
12
Rubbing & Crocking Fastness
Rating
1(poor) to 5 (best)
Wet rubbing may be less than dry up to 2
ratings
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 23
Basis for improvement in rubbing fastness
Formation of films coating the fibres
Reduced rubbing of the smoothed surface
The finish products can behave similarly to lubricants
in reducing the rubbing forces.
Hydrophobation
Finishes that reduce the swelling of hydrophilic
fibres cause an effect (durable press and easy-
care finishes with crosslinking agents for
cellulose fibres)
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 24
09/07/2012
13
Applied chemistries for improving rubbing
fastness
Partially hydrolysed polyvinylacetate
(PVAc/PVA) or polyvinylether
Application of pigment binders, mostly
based on acrylic copolymers similar to
those used as hand builders.
Application methods mostly used pad-dry
techniques.
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 25
Methods for evaluating rubbing fastness
ISO 105-X12
AATCC Crockmeter Method 8: Colour
fastness to crocking
AATCC Test Method 116: for small fabric
samples and printed samples
09/07/2012 Dr. Tanveer Hussain 26