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ovalent bond

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


"Covalent" redirects here. For other uses, see Covalent (disambiguation).

A covalent bond forming H
2
(right) where two hydrogen atoms share the two electrons
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is
known as covalent bonding.
[1]
For many molecules, the sharing of electrons allows each atom to
attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration.
Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interactions, including -bonding, -bonding, metal-
to-metal bonding, agostic interactions, and three-center two-electron bonds.
[2][3]
The term
covalent bond dates from 1939.
[4]
The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to
a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence",
such as is discussed in valence bond theory. In the molecule H
2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding.
[5]
Covalency is greatest
between atoms of similar electronegativities. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require
that the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity.
Covalent bonding that entails sharing of electrons over more than two atoms is said to be
delocalized.
There are three types of covalent bond depending upon the number of shared electron
pairs.
SINGLE COVALENT BOND
DOUBLE COVALENT BOND
TRIPLE COVALENT BOND
SINGLE COVALENT
BOND

A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is
called a "Single Covalent bond."
It is denoted by single short line( )
Examples:

In single bond formation each atom provide one electron.
DOUBLE COVALENT
BOND

A covalent bond formed between two atoms by the mutual sharing of two electron pairs is
called a "double covalent bond". It is denoted by double short line ( )
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Examples:

TRIPLE COVALENT
BOND

A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of three electron pairs is called a "Triple
covalent bond". It is denoted by triple short line ( ).
Examples:

POLAR COVALENT
BOND

A covalent bond formed between two different atoms is known as Polar covalent bond.
For example when a Covalent bond is formed between H and Cl , it is polar in nature
because Cl is more electronegative than H atom . Therefore, electron cloud is shifted
towards Cl atom. Due to this reason a partial -ve charge appeared on Cl atom and an
equal +ve charge on H atom
Examples:

NON-POLAR BOND
A covalent bond formed between two like atoms is known as Non-polar bond. Since
difference of
electro negativity is zero therefore, both atoms attract electron pair equally and no charge
appears on
any atom and the whole molecule becomes neutral.
Examples:
H - H
Cl - Cl
F - F