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Prepared by ISIS Canada

A Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence

www.isiscanada.com

Principal Contributor: L.A. Bisby, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Department of Civil Engineering, Queens University

Contributors: M. Ranger and B.K. Williams

March 2006

ISIS Education Committee:

N. Banthia, University of British Columbia

L. Bisby, Queens University

R. Cheng, University of Alberta

R. El-Hacha, University of Calgary

G. Fallis, Vector Construction Group

R. Hutchinson, Red River College

A. Mufti, University of Manitoba

K.W. Neale, Universit de Sherbrooke

J. Newhook, Dalhousie University

K. Soudki, University of Waterloo

L. Wegner, University of Saskatchewan

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

1

Obj ec t i ves of Thi s Modul e

The objective of this module is to provide engineering

students with an overall awareness of the application and

design of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing

materials in new concrete structures. It is one of a series of

modules on innovative FRP technologies available from

ISIS Canada. Further information on the use of FRPs in a

variety of innovative applications can be found at

www.isiscanada.com. While research into the use of FRP

materials as reinforcement for concrete is ongoing, an

overall knowledge of currently available FRP

reinforcements, and design procedures for their use, is

essential for the new generation of structural engineers. The

problems of the future cannot be solved with the materials

and methodologies of the past. The primary objectives of

this module are:

1. to provide engineering students with a general

awareness of FRP materials and some of their potential

uses in civil engineering applications;

2. to introduce general philosophies and procedures for

designing structures with FRP reinforcing materials;

3. to facilitate the use of FRP reinforcing materials in the

construction industry; and

4. to provide guidance to students seeking additional

information on this topic.

The material presented herein is not currently part of a

national or international code, but is based mainly on the

results of numerous detailed research studies conducted in

Canada and around the world. Procedures, material

resistance factors, and design equations are based on the

recommendations of the ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3:

Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced

Polymers. As such, this module should not be used as a

design document, and it is intended for educational use only.

Future engineers who wish to design FRP-reinforced

concrete structures should consult more complete design

documents (refer to Section 10 of this document).

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

2

Addi t i onal I SI S Educ at i onal Modul es

Avai l abl e f r om I SI S Canada (w w w .i si sc anada.c om)

Modul e 1 Mechanics Examples Incorporating FRP

Materials

Nineteen worked mechanics of materials problems are presented

which incorporate FRP materials. These examples could be used

in lectures to demonstrate various mechanics concepts, or could be

assigned for assignment or exam problems. This module seeks to

expose first and second year undergraduates to FRP materials at

the introductory level. Mechanics topics covered at the elementary

level include: equilibrium, stress, strain and deformation,

elasticity, plasticity, determinacy, thermal stress and strain, flexure

and shear in beams, torsion, composite beams, and deflections.

Modul e 2 Introduction to FRP Composites for

Construction

FRP materials are discussed in detail at the introductory level.

This module seeks to expose undergraduate students to FRP

materials such that they have a basic understanding of the

components, manufacture, properties, mechanics, durability, and

application of FRP materials in civil infrastructure applications. A

suggested laboratory is included which outlines an experimental

procedure for comparing the stress-strain responses of steel versus

FRPs in tension, and a sample assignment is provided.

Modul e 4 Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of

Concrete Structures

The use of externally-bonded FRP reinforcement for strengthening

concrete structures is discussed in detail. FRP materials relevant

to these applications are first presented, followed by detailed

discussions of FRP-strengthening of concrete structures in flexure,

shear, and axial compression. A series of worked examples are

presented, case studies are outlined, and additional, more

specialized, applications are introduced. A suggested assignment

is provided with worked solutions, and a potential laboratory for

strengthening concrete beams in flexure with externally-bonded

FRP sheets is outlined.

Modul e 5 Introduction to Structural Health

Monitoring

The overall motivation behind, and the benefits, design,

application, and use of, structural health monitoring (SHM)

systems for infrastructure are presented and discussed at the

introductory level. The motivation and goals of SHM are first

presented and discussed, followed by descriptions of the various

components, categories, and classifications of SHM systems.

Typical SHM methodologies are outlined, innovative fibre optic

sensor technology is briefly covered, and types of tests which can

be carried out using SHM are explained. Finally, a series of SHM

case studies is provided to demonstrate four field applications of

SHM systems in Canada.

Modul e 6 Application & Handling of FRP

Reinforcements for Concrete

Important considerations in the handling and application of FRP

materials for both reinforcement and strengthening of reinforced

concrete structures are presented in detail. Introductory

information on FRP materials, their mechanical properties, and

their applications in civil engineering applications is provided.

Handling and application of FRP materials as internal

reinforcement for concrete structures is treated in detail, including

discussions on: grades, sizes, and bar identification, handling and

storage, placement and assembly, quality control (QC) and quality

assurance (QA), and safety precautions. This is followed by

information on handling and application of FRP repair materials

for concrete structures, including: handling and storage,

installation, QC, QA, safety, and maintenance and repair of FRP

systems.

Modul e 7 Introduction to Life Cycle Costing for

Innovative Infrastructure

Life cycle costing (LCC) is a well-recognized means of guiding

design, rehabilitation and on-going management decisions

involving infrastructure systems. LCC can be employed to enable

and encourage the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) and

fibre optic sensor (FOS) technologies across a broad range of

infrastructure applications and circumstances, even where the

initial costs of innovations exceed those of conventional

alternatives. The objective of this module is to provide

undergraduate engineering students with a general awareness of

the principles of LCC, particularly as it applies to the use of fibre

reinforced polymers (FRPs) and structural health monitoring

(SHM) in civil engineering applications.

Modul e 8 Durability of FRP Composites for

Construction

Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), like all engineering materials,

are potentially susceptible to a variety of environmental factors

that may influence their long-term durability. It is thus important,

when contemplating the use of FRP materials in a specific

application, that allowance be made for potentially harmful

environments and conditions. It is shown in this module that

modern FRP materials are extremely durable and that they have

tremendous promise in infrastructure applications. The objective of

this module is to provide engineering students with an overall

awareness and understanding of the various environmental factors

that are currently considered significant with respect to the

durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil

engineering applications.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

3

Section 1

I nt r oduc t i on and Over vi ew

WHY USE FRPs?

The population of the modern developed world depends on

a complex and extensive system of infrastructure for

maintaining economic prosperity and quality of life. The

existing public infrastructure of Canada, the United States,

Europe, and other countries has suffered from decades of

neglect and overuse, leading to the accelerated deterioration

of bridges, buildings, and municipal and transportation

systems, and resulting in a situation that, if left unchecked,

may lead to a global infrastructure crisis. Much of our

infrastructure is unsatisfactory in some respect, and public

funds are not generally available for the required

replacement of existing structures or construction of new

ones.

Fig. 1-1. Severely corroded reinforcing steel in this

bridge column has resulted in spalling of the

concrete cover and exposure of the steel

reinforcement.

One of the primary factors which has led to the current

unsatisfactory state of our infrastructure is corrosion of

reinforcing steel inside concrete (Fig. 1), which causes the

reinforcement to expand, and results in delamination or

spalling of concrete, loss of tensile reinforcement, or in

some cases failure. Because infrastructure owners can no

longer afford to upgrade and replace existing structures

using the same materials and methodologies as have been

used in the past, they are looking to newer technologies,

such as non-corrosive FRP reinforcement, that will increase

the service lives of concrete structures and reduce

maintenance costs.

FRPs have, in the last ten to fifteen years, emerged as a

promising alternative material for reinforcement of concrete

structures. FRP materials are non-corrosive and non-

magnetic, and can thus be used to eliminate the corrosion

problem invariably encountered with conventional

reinforcing steel. In addition, FRPs are extremely light,

versatile, and demonstrate extremely high tensile strength,

making them ideal materials for reinforcement of concrete

(refer to Figure 1-2).

Fig. 1-2. FRP Reinforcing bars being installed in

the concrete deck of the Salmon River Bridge,

British Columbia prior to pouring of the concrete.

FRPs are particularly useful for reinforcing

concrete bridge decks which are highly

susceptible to corrosion.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

4

Section 2

FRP Mat er i al s

This section provides a brief overview of FRP materials and

some of their important characteristics and properties when

used as reinforcing materials for concrete. A more complete

discussion of FRP materials and their applications in civil

engineering can be obtained from ISIS EC Module 2: FRP

Composites for Civil Engineering Applications, or from one

of a number currently available composite materials

textbooks.

GENERAL

FRP materials, originally developed for use in the

automotive and aerospace sectors, have been considered for

use as reinforcement of concrete structures since the 1950s.

However, it is really only in the last 10 years or so that

FRPs have begun to see widespread use in large civil

engineering projects, likely due to drastic reductions in FRP

material and manufacturing costs, which have made FRPs

competitive on an economic basis.

Many types and shapes of FRP materials are now

available in the construction industry. For the purposes of

tensile reinforcement of concrete, the currently available

reinforcing products include unidirectional FRP bars, which

have fibres oriented along the axis of the reinforcement

only, and orthogonal grids, which have unidirectional bars

running in two (or sometimes 3) orthogonal directions. In

this document, the focus is on unidirectional FRP

reinforcing bars, since they are the most widely used of the

FRP reinforcing products currently available in North

America. Also, although it has been demonstrated through

research that FRP materials can be effectively used for

prestressed reinforcement of concrete structures, this is a

specialized topic and is beyond the scope of this module.

Fig. 2-1 shows various types and shapes of currently

available FRP materials.

Const i t uent s

FRP materials are composed of high strength fibres

embedded in a polymer matrix. The fibres, which have very

small diameters and are generally considered continuous,

provide the strength and stiffness of the composite, while

the matrix, which has comparatively poor mechanical

properties, separates and disperses the fibres. The primary

function of the matrix is to transfer loads to the fibres

through shear stresses that develop at the fibre-matrix

interface, although it is also important for environmental

protection of the fibres. In concrete reinforcing

applications, the fibres are generally carbon (graphite),

glass, or aramid (Kevlar), and the matrices are typically

epoxies or vinyl esters. Fig. 2-2 shows typical stress-strain

curves for fibres, matrices, and the FRP materials that result

from the combination of fibres and matrix. The reader is

referred to ISIS EC Module 2 (ISIS, 2003) for further

information on fibres and matrices.

Fig. 2-1. Various types and shapes of FRPs used in

the construction industry

Fig. 2-2. Stress-strain relationships for fibres,

matrix, and FRP.

Manuf ac t ur i ng Pr oc ess

Although a variety of techniques can be used to manufacture

FRP shapes, a technique called pultrusion is used almost

exclusively for the manufacture of FRP reinforcing rods. In

this technique, continuous strands of the fibres are drawn

from creels (spools of fibres) through a resin tank, where

they are saturated with resin, pulled through a number of

wiper rings, and finally pulled through a heated die. This

process simultaneously forms and heat cures the FRP into a

matrix

Strain

[%]

fibres

FRP

0.4 4.8 > 10

Stress

[Mpa]

1800-4900

600-3000

34-130

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

5

reinforcing rod. To ensure a strong bond with concrete, a

surface treatment is normally applied consisting of a spiral

or braided wrap, or a coating of sand embedded in the outer

surface of the polymer matrix. The pultrusion process is

illustrated schematically below.

Fig. 2-3. The pultrusion process.

Various FRP reinforcing products are currently available in

industry. Figs. 2-4 to 2-6 show some of the different

products currently being produced for use in North-

America.

Pr oper t i es

Unidirectional FRP materials used in concrete reinforcing

applications are linear elastic up to failure, and they do not

exhibit the yielding behaviour that is typically displayed by

conventional reinforcing steel. This is shown in Fig. 2-7,

which demonstrates the significant differences in the tensile

behaviour of FRPs as compared with steel. FRP materials

generally have much higher strengths than the yield strength

of steel, although they do not exhibit yield, and have strains

at failure that are much less. The differences in behaviour

between FRPs and steel have important consequences for

the design of FRP-reinforced concrete members, as we shall

see, since yielding of reinforcement in steel-reinforced

concrete members is used implicitly to provide ample

warning of impending failure.

The specific properties of FRP materials vary a great

deal from product to product, and depend on the fibre and

matrix type, the fibre volume content, and the orientation of

the fibres within the matrix, among other factors. It is

beyond the scope of this module to discuss different FRP

reinforcing materials in detail. However, Table 2-1 and Fig.

2-7 give material properties for a number of typical FRP

reinforcing products. It is thus becomes important in the

design of FRP-reinforced concrete members to specify

which FRP material is to be used and what minimum

mechanical properties are required.

Fig. 2-4. ISOROD glass FRP reinforcement.

Fig. 2-5. Leadline

TM

carbon FRP reinforcement.

Fig. 2-6. NEFMAC

grid-shaped FRP reinforcement.

resin tank

shaping and

heating die

puller

creel

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

6

Table 2-1. Selected Properties of Typical Currently Available FRP Reinforcing Products

Reinforcement Type Designation

Diameter

[mm]

Area

[mm

2

]

Tensile Strength

[MPa]

Elastic Modulus

[GPa]

Deformed Steel #10 11.3 100 400* 200

V-ROD CFRP Rod 3/8 9.5 71 1431 120

V-ROD GFRP Rod 3/8 9.5 71 765 43

NEFMAC GFRP Grid G10 N/A 79 600 30

NEFMAC CFRP Grid C16 N/A 100 1200 100

NEFMAC AFRP Grid A16 N/A 92 1300 54

LEADLINE

TM

CFRP Rod -- 12 113 2255 147

* specified yield strength

Strain [%]

0 1 2 3

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Steel

ISOROD CFRP

ISOROD GFRP

NEFMAC GFRP

NEFMAC CFRP

NEFMAC AFRP

Leadline

TM

CFRP

Fig. 2-7. Stress-strain plots for various reinforcing

materials

Advant ages and Di sadvant ages

FRP materials for use in concrete reinforcing applications

have a number of key advantages over conventional

reinforcing steel. Some of the most important advantages

include:

FRP materials do not corrode electrochemically, and

have demonstrated excellent durability in a number of

harsh environmental conditions;

FRP materials have extremely high strength-to-

weight ratios. FRP materials typically weigh less than

one fifth the weight of steel, with tensile strengths that

can be as much as 8 to 10 times as high; and

FRP materials are electromagnetically inert. This

means that they can be used in specialized structures

such as buildings to house magnetic resonance imaging

(MRI) or sensitive communications equipment, etc.

There are, however, some disadvantages to using FRPs, as

opposed to conventional reinforcing steel, as reinforcement

for concrete. The main disadvantage is the comparatively

high initial cost of FRP materials. Although prices have

dropped drastically in recent years, most FRP materials

remain more expensive than conventional reinforcing steel

on an initial material cost basis. However, because of the

high strength of these materials, they are often competitive

on a cost-per-force basis. Furthermore, the excellent

durability of FRP reinforcing materials in concrete, which

has the potential to increase the service lives of structures

while reducing inspection and maintenance costs, makes

them cost-effective when the entire life-cycle cost of a

structure is considered, rather than the initial construction

cost alone.

Another often cited potential disadvantage of FRP

materials is their relatively low elastic modulus as compared

with steel. This means that FRP-reinforced concrete

members are often controlled by serviceability (deflection)

considerations, rather than strength requirements.

ADDI TI ONAL CONSI DERATI ONS

Coef f i c i ent of Ther mal Ex pansi on

The thermal properties of FRP reinforcing products are

substantially different than those of conventional reinforcing

steel and concrete, and can also vary a great deal in the

longitudinal and transverse directions. The characteristics

are highly variable among different FRP products, and it is

difficult to make generalizations regarding thermal

expansion or other properties. The thermal properties of

any FRP reinforcing material should be thoroughly

investigated before it is used as reinforcement for concrete,

since differential thermal expansion of FRPs inside concrete

has the potential to cause cracking and spalling of the

concrete cover.

Table 2-2. Typical Coefficients of Thermal

Expansion for FRP Reinforcing Bars [10

-6

/C]

Material

Direction

Steel GFRP CFRP AFRP

Longitudinal 11.7 6 to 10 -1 to 0 -6 to 2

Transverse 11.7 21 to 23 22 to 23 60 to 80

Ef f ec t of El evat ed Temper at ur e or Fi r e

Elevated temperatures, as may be experienced in some

industrial settings or in the case of fire, adversely affect the

mechanical and bond properties of FRP reinforcing

materials in concrete. Thus, special precautions are required

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

7

when FRPs are used in structures where elevated

temperatures or fire are concerns. In most cases, the

temperature or the FRP reinforcement should be maintained

below the glass transition temperature (GTT) of the polymer

matrix. For currently available FRP reinforcing products

the GTT is generally in the range of 65 to 150C.

Bond Pr oper t i es

The properties of the bond between FRP reinforcing bars

and concrete depend on the surface treatment applied to the

FRP reinforcing bar during manufacturing, the mechanical

properties of the FRP, and the environmental conditions to

which the bar is subjected during its lifetime. Again,

generalizations are difficult to make, although the bond

between currently available FRP reinforcing materials and

concrete appears equivalent (or superior in some cases) to

that between steel reinforcement and concrete. The bond of

FRP bars to concrete does not depend on the concrete

strength, as it does for steel reinforcement.

Cr eep and Rel ax at i on

When FRP materials are subjected to a constant elevated

stress level they can fail suddenly and unexpectedly. This

type of failure is referred to as creep-rupture and is highly

undesirable. The larger the ratio of the sustained (dead

load) stress to the transient (live load) stress in an FRP

reinforcing bar, the more likely creep-rupture becomes.

Susceptibility to creep rupture is also influenced by UV

radiation, high temperature, alkalinity, and weathering.

Different FRP types have different susceptibilities to

creep-rupture. Carbon FRPs are the least susceptible,

followed by aramid FRPs. Glass FRPs are the most

susceptible. To protect against creep-rupture, the material

resistance factors suggested by ISIS Canada (ISIS, 2001) for

FRP reinforcements have been adjusted to account for the

effect of sustained load. These resistance factors,

frp

, are

given in Table 3-1.

Dur abi l i t y

The durability of FRP reinforcing bars in concrete is a

complex topic and research in this area is ongoing. Readers

seeking additional information on the durability of FRP

materials are encouraged to consult ISIS Educational

Module #8, also available from ISIS Canada at

www.isiscanada.com. To date, FRP reinforcing applications

in concrete structures have performed well, and no failures

due to durability problems have been reported.

Section 3

Desi gn f or Fl ex ur e

PHI LOSOPHY AND ASSUMPTI ONS

The design of FRP-reinforced concrete in Canada should be

conducted under the unified limit-states philosophy

currently used by the existing design codes. For buildings,

loads and load combinations for FRP-reinforced concrete

members should be determined in accordance with CSA-

S806-02. For bridges, the Canadian Highway Bridge Design

Code, CSA-S6-05, should be used. Serviceability checks

for cracking and deflection must also be performed.

Resi st anc e Fac t or s

Following the recommendations of ISIS Canada Design

Manual No. 3, the material resistance factor for concrete is

taken as

c

= 0.60 for buildings, 0.65 for precast concrete,

and 0.75 for bridges. The material resistance factor for

FRPs depends on the type of FRP material, and is based on

the variability of material characteristics, the effect of

sustained load, and various durability considerations. Table

3-1 provides resistance factors for steel, concrete, and FRP

materials as specified by relevant Canadian codes.

Assumpt i ons

It is assumed that FRPs are perfectly linear-elastic materials.

Thus, failure of an FRP-reinforced section in flexure can be

due to FRP rupture or concrete crushing. The ultimate

flexural strength for both of these failure modes can be

calculated using a similar methodology as that used for

steel-reinforced sections. Hence, the following additional

assumptions are required:

1. the failure strain of concrete in compression is

3500 10

-6

;

2. the strain in the concrete at any level is proportional to

the distance from the neutral axis (plane sections

remain plane);

3. FRPs are linear elastic to failure;

4. concrete compressive stress-strain curve is parabolic

and concrete has no strength in tension;

5. perfect bond exists between FRP reinforcement and

concrete; and

6. neglect FRPs strength in compression.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

8

Table 3-1. Resistance Factors for FRP Bars

Material Notation Factor

Building Components: CSA-S806-02

Concrete cast in situ

c

0.60

Precast concrete

c

0.65

Steel reinforcement

s

0.85

Carbon FRP

f

0.75

Glass FRP

f

0.75

Aramid FRP

f

0.75

Bridge Components: CSA-S6-05

Concrete

c

0.75

Carbon FRP

f

0.75

Aramid FRP

f

0.60

Glass FRP

f

0.50

Fig. 3-1. Assumed stress-strain behaviour of FRP.

Fig. 3-2. Assumed stress-strain behaviour of

concrete.

FAI LURE MODES

There are three potential flexural failure modes for FRP-

reinforced concrete sections:

Balanced failure simultaneous FRP tensile rupture

and concrete crushing

Compression failure concrete crushing prior to FRP

tensile rupture

Tension Failure tensile rupture of the FRP prior to

concrete crushing

Compression failure is the most desirable of the above

failure modes. This failure mode is less violent than tension

failure, and is similar to the failure of an over-reinforced

section when using steel reinforcement.

Tension failure is less desirable, since tensile rupture of

FRP reinforcement will occur with less warning. Tension

failure will occur when the reinforcement ratio is below the

balanced reinforcement ratio for the section. This failure

mode is permissible with certain safeguards.

Bal anc ed Fai l ur e

As mentioned above, balanced failure will occur when

concrete crushing occurs simultaneously with FRP tensile

rupture. It is important to remember that the balanced

failure condition is drastically different for FRP-reinforced

concrete than it is for members reinforced with steel.

Because FRPs will not yield at the balanced condition, an

FRP-reinforced concrete member at the balanced condition

will fail suddenly, although accompanied by cracking and a

significant amount of deflection. At balanced failure, the

strain in the concrete reaches its ultimate value,

cu

=

0.0035, while the FRP reinforcement simultaneously

reaches its ultimate strain,

frpu

. The ultimate strain of the

FRP depends on the specific FRP reinforcing material being

used (refer to Table 2-1), and is determined from the FRP

ultimate stress, f

frpu

, and tensile elastic modulus, E

frp

, using:

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

= (Eq. 3-1)

Using strain compatibility, for a rectangular cross-section

with a single layer of FRP reinforcement, the distribution of

strains across the member can be illustrated as shown in Fig.

3-3a. Thus, the ratio of the balanced neutral axis depth, c

b

,

to the effective depth of the section, d, at the balanced

reinforcement ratio,

frpb

, can be expressed in terms of

known quantities as follows:

frpu cu

cu b

d

c

+

= (Eq. 3-2)

To determine the balanced reinforcing ratio, force

equilibrium over the cross-section is utilized, and the

compressive and tensile stress resultants, C and T, are

equated as follows:

T C = (Eq. 3-3)

The true distribution of stress in the concrete in the

compression zone is non-linear, as shown in Figure 3-3a.

However, as is the case for steel-reinforced concrete

members, we can replace the non-linear stress distribution

with an equivalent rectangular stress-block. To do this, the

f

frpu

Strain

frpu

Stress

E

frp

1

f

c

Strain

cu

Stress

1

E

c

c

c

f

c

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

9

same stress-block parameters,

1

and

1

, are used as those

suggested in CSA A23.3-94/CHBDC for steel-reinforced

concrete, namely:

67 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0

1

=

c

f (Eq. 3-4)

67 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0

1

=

c

f (Eq. 3-5)

Thus, the compressive stress resultant is:

b c f C

b c c 1 1

' = (Eq. 3-6)

The tensile stress resultant is determined from the FRP

ultimate stress and the cross-sectional area of FRP

reinforcement:

frp frp frpu frp

A E T = (Eq.3-7)

Now, equating the compressive and tensile stress resultants

and rearranging, the balanced failure reinforcement ratio,

frpb

, is obtained:

+

= =

frpu cu

cu

frpu

c

frp

c

frpb

frpb

f

f

bd

A

'

1 1

(Eq. 3-8)

For a given FRP-reinforced concrete member, an FRP

reinforcement ratio less than

frpb

will result in tension

failure, and an FRP reinforcement ratio greater than

frpb

will result in compression failure. Next, we will examine

the two potential failure modes that are of practical interest.

Compr essi on Fai l ur e

If an FRP-reinforced concrete section contains sufficient

tensile reinforcement, then failure of the section will be

induced by crushing of the concrete in the compression zone

before the FRP reaches its ultimate strain. This type of

failure is highly unlikely for a T-section in positive bending,

since the width of the compression zone, b, is very large,

and so only rectangular sections are considered.

For the case of compression failure, the strains in the

cross-section can be illustrated as shown in Figure 3-3b.

Again, the strain in the extreme compression fibre is

assumed to be

cu

= 0.0035, and the non-linear stress

distribution in the concrete can be replaced by the CSA

A23.3-94/CHBDC equivalent rectangular stress block

(using parameters

1

and

1

as defined previously).

The compressive and tensile stress resultants can be

determined as follows:

cb f C

c c 1

'

1

= (Eq. 3-9)

frp frp frp

f A T = (Eq. 3-10)

A complication in the analysis arises from the fact that FRP

reinforcement does not yield, and hence the stress in the

FRP at compression failure of the member, f

frp

, is unknown.

Equating the tensile and compressive stress resultants

yields:

b f

f A

a c

c c

frp frp frp

'

1

1

= = (Eq. 3-11)

And from strain compatibility (refer to Fig. 3-3b) we can

derive the following:

a

a d

E f

c

c d

c

c d

cu frp frp

cu frp

cu

frp

=

1

1

1 1

(Eq. 3-12)

Now, substituting Eq. 3-11 into Eq. 3-12, and solving for

the stress in the FRP reinforcement at compressive failure,

gives:

+ = 1

4

1

2

1

2

1

'

1 1

cu

frp

frp frp

c c

cu frp frp

E

f

E f

(Eq. 3-13)

Once the stress in the FRP reinforcement is known, Eq. 3-11

can be used to determine the depth of the equivalent

rectangular stress block, a, and the flexural capacity, M

r

, can

be obtained in a similar fashion as for steel-reinforced

concrete:

=

2

a

d f A M

frp frp frp r

(Eq. 3-14)

NOTE:

Rather than using Eq. 3-13 to determine the stress in the

FRP at compressive failure, an iterative procedure can be

performed using Eqs. 3-9, 3-10, and 3-11 by assuming a

neutral axis depth, calculating the compressive and tensile

stress resultants using strain compatibility, and checking if

C = T. If C T, the neutral axis depth is updated and the

procedure is repeated until convergence of the neutral axis

depth is achieved within a suitable tolerance.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

10

Fig. 3-3. Flexural failure modes for FRP-reinforced concrete beams.

Tensi on Fai l ur e

If the FRP reinforcement ratio is less than the balanced

failure reinforcement ratio, then the section will fail by FRP

tensile rupture before the concrete in the compression zone

crushes (Fig. 3-3c). This situation is different from an

under-reinforced concrete member with steel reinforcement

in that there is no yielding of the FRP. In this case, the

strain in the concrete at failure is less than

cu

= 0.0035, and

the strain in the FRP reinforcement is given by:

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

= (Eq. 3-15)

Because the concrete in the compression zone is not at

ultimate, the stress distribution in the concrete cannot be

Cross-section Strain Distribution Stress Distribution

Equivalent

Stress Distribution

b

d

A

frpb

c

b

cu

frpu

c

f

c

C

T f

frpu

a =

1

c

b

d

A

frp

c

cu

frp

<

frpu

c

f

c

C

T f

frp

a =

1

c

d

A

frp

c

c

<

cu

frpu

c

f

c

C

T f

frpu

a = c

(a)

BALANCED

FAILURE

c

=

cu

frp

=

frpu

(b)

COMPRESSION

FAILURE

c

=

cu

frp

<

frpu

(c)

TENSION FAILURE

c

<

cu

frp

=

frpu

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

11

described using the equivalent rectangular stress block

parameters used previously. The

1

and

1

parameters

suggested by CSA A23.3-94/CHBDC are valid only for the

case of

c

=

cu

. Thus, modified stress block parameters are

required. These modified parameters, and , can be

determined either from tabulated values available in ISIS

Design Manual No. 3, or from Figs. 3-2 and 3-3 below,

which give and as functions of the strain in the concrete

for a variety of concrete strengths.

Fig. 3-2. Equivalent stress-block parameter for

concrete.

Fig. 3-3. Equivalent stress-block parameter for

concrete.

Once and have been determined, the tensile and

compressive stress resultants can be determined for an

assumed value of the neutral axis depth using:

frp frpu frp frp frpu frp frp

E A f A T = = (Eq. 3-16)

cb f C

c c

'

= (Eq. 3-17)

Again, for equilibrium it is required that:

T C = (Eq. 3-18)

If the above equation is not satisfied, then a new value of the

neutral axis depth is assumed, and are reevaluated, and

Eq. 3-18 is checked. This process is repeated in an iterative

fashion until Eq. 3-18 is satisfied. For each iteration, the

updated neutral axis depth, c, can be determined using:

b f

E A

c

c c

frp frpu frp frp

'

= (Eq. 3-19)

where and are determined at the following concrete

strain (from strain compatibility, Fig. 3-3c):

c d

c

frpu c

= (Eq. 3-20)

Once the tensile and compressive stress resultants are

known, the moment resistance of the member can be

determined by taking moments about the compressive stress

resultant. Thus:

=

2

c

d f A M

frpu frp frp r

(Eq. 3-21)

Due to the brittle failure associated with failure by rupture

of the FRP reinforcement, it is recommended that and

additional safety requirement of:

f

M

r

M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-22)

be applied when failure is by tensile rupture of the FRP.

MI NI MUM FLEXURAL RESI STANCE

Three criteria are suggested by ISIS Canada Design Manual

No. 3 to provide minimum tensile reinforcement for an

FRP-reinforced concrete member.

Failure of a member immediately after cracking, which

occurs suddenly and without warning, should be avoided.

Thus, the moment resistance of an FRP-reinforced concrete

member, M

r

, should be at least 50% greater than the

cracking moment, M

cr

. Hence:

cr r

M M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-23)

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

12

The cracking moment is determined from the modulus of

rupture of the concrete, f

r

, the moment of inertia of the

transformed section, I

t

, and the distance from the centroidal

axis of the transformed section to the extreme tension fibre,

y

t

, using:

t

t r

cr

y

I f

M = where

c r

f f ' 6 . 0 = (Eq. 3-24)

As the minimum reinforcement condition is usually

governed by tensile rupture of the FRP reinforcement, the

moment resistance, M

r

, must be at least 50% greater than

the moment due to the factored loads, M

f

. Thus:

f

M

r

M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-25)

ADDI TI ONAL CONSI DERATI ONS

Beams w i t h FRP Rebar s i n Mul t i pl e

l ayer s

For the case of FRP-reinforced concrete beams with

reinforcement in two or more layers, the strain in the outer

layer of FRP reinforcement is the critical strain. This means

that lumping of reinforcement, as is commonly performed

in the analysis of steel-reinforced concrete beams, is not

permitted (refer to Figure 3-4). Members can be easily

designed on the basis of the strain in the outermost layer of

FRP reinforcing bars by assuming strain compatibility.

Fig. 3-4. Lumping of reinforcement is not

permitted.

Beams w i t h Compr essi on

Rei nf or c ement

FRP reinforcing materials are generally weak in

compression. Although these materials may be used as

compression reinforcement, their contribution to the flexural

strength of FRP-reinforced concrete members should be

neglected.

Section 4

Ser vi c eabi l i t y

GENERAL

Serviceability considerations, relating both to cracking and

to deflection, are crucial factors in the design of FRP-

reinforced concrete flexural members. FRP reinforcing bars

generally have much higher strengths than the yield strength

of conventional steel reinforcement. However, the modulus

of elasticity of FRP materials is generally less than that of

reinforcing steel, and this can lead to the formation of large

cracks or to unserviceable deflections. The result is that, in

many cases, serviceability considerations may control the

design of FRP-reinforced concrete members.

CRACKI NG

In steel-reinforced concrete members, it is necessary to

control crack widths both for aesthetic reasons and to

prevent corrosion of reinforcing steel. For FRP-reinforced

members, there is no such corrosion requirement (FRP bars

are non-corrosive) and so cracking must be limited

primarily for aesthetic reasons, as well as to control service

load stresses in the reinforcement (to prevent creep-rupture).

If there is a need to calculate the crack width at service

load levels for an FRP-reinforced concrete member,

guidance is available in Section 7.4.1 of ISIS Design

Manual No. 3. The limiting crack width for FRP-reinforced

members is recommended by CHBDC (CSA, 2005) to be

0.7 mm, except for members subjected to aggressive

environments where 0.5 mm is recommended. Alternatively,

as a conservative approach, the ISIS design guidelines

suggest, to control cracking, that the maximum strain in

tensile FRP reinforcement at service should not exceed

0.2%. Thus:

002 . 0

frps

(Eq. 4-1)

The strain in the FRP at service load levels can be

determined using the concept of transformed sections in

either cracked or un-cracked sections.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

13

If there is a need to calculate the crack width at service

load levels for an FRP-reinforced concrete member,

guidance is available in Section 7.3.1 of ISIS Design

Manual No. 3.

DEFLECTI ON

Since the modulus of elasticity of FRP reinforcement is

generally substantially lower than for conventional steel

reinforcement, FRP-reinforced members typically display

significantly more deflection than equivalent steel-

reinforced members. This means that the minimum

thickness (overall member depth) requirements used in CSA

A23.3-94 or CSA S6-05 for steel-reinforced concrete are

unconservative, and are thus not directly applicable to

members reinforced with FRPs. Furthermore, deflections

for FRP-reinforced concrete members must be checked

against the requirements of CSA A23.3-94 or CSA S6-05

using the effective moment of inertia, as described below.

MI NI MUM THI CKNESS

For steel-reinforced concrete structures, CSA A23.3-94

recommends span-to-depth ratios for a variety of member

types and end conditions to ensure adequate deflection

control. For FRP-reinforced concrete members, the

following equation should be used to ensure similar span to

deflection ratios as for steel-reinforced beams:

d

frp

s

s

n

frp

n

h h

l l

(Eq. 4-2)

where:

n

is the member length [mm]

h is the member thickness [mm]

s

is the maximum strain allowed in the steel

reinforcement in service

frps

is the maximum strain allowed in the FRP

reinforcement in service

d

is a dimensionless coefficient taken as 0.50 for

a rectangular section

The ratio (l

n

/h)

s

is the equivalent ratio for steel-reinforced

concrete and is obtained from Table 9-1 of CSA A23.3-94.

EFFECTI VE MOMENT OF I NERTI A

If a member remains uncracked under service loads, then

deflection requirements can be checked using the concept of

transformed sections. However, if the member is cracked

under service load, the effective moment of inertia should

be calculated (for a rectangular section) using the following

equation, which was empirically derived from test data on

FRP-reinforced concrete members:

( )

cr t

a

cr

cr

cr t

e

I I

M

M

I

I I

I

+

=

2

5 . 0 1

(Eq. 4-3)

where: I

cr

is the moment of inertia of the cracked section

transformed to concrete with concrete in tension

ignored, calculated using the Eq. 4-4 below [mm

4

]

I

t

is the moment of inertia of a non-cracked section

transformed to concrete [mm

4

]

M

cr

is the cracking Moment [Nmm]

M

a

is the maximum moment in a member at the

load stage at which deflection is being calculated

[Nmm]

2

3

) 1 (

3

) (

k d A n

kd b

I

frp frp cr

+ = (Eq. 4-4)

where: b is the width of the compression zone [mm]

d is the effective depth of the section [mm]

n

frp

is the modular ratio E

frp

/E

c

The neutral axis depth, kd, can be calculated using the

following equation:

( )

+ + =

frp frp frp frp frp frp

n n n k 2

2

(Eq. 4-5)

where:

frp

is the FRP reinforcement ratio.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

14

Section 5

Def or mabi l i t y

In the past, the concept of a balanced section was used to

implicitly design steel-reinforced concrete structures for

ductile behaviour. Traditionally, a balanced section is one

in which the steel reinforcement reaches the yield strain

simultaneously with the crushing strain being reached in the

concrete. It was recognized that an under-reinforced design,

having reinforcement less than the balanced condition, gave

ductile behaviour, with very large curvature observed prior

to failure. Conversely, an over-reinforced design, with

reinforcement above the balanced condition, gave a very

safe structure with comparatively less deformation observed

prior to failure. Thus, a trade-off between ductility and

safety was recognized.

Unlike steel, FRP reinforcement has a linear strain-

stress relationship. For FRP reinforcement there is no

plastic phase. However, because of the comparatively low

modulus of elasticity of FRP reinforcing materials, an FRP-

reinforced member will also exhibit sufficiently large

curvature at failure. Because of this important difference in

the characteristics of FRP reinforcement, in comparison

with steel, it is important that issues of deformability and

safety be thoroughly investigated.

ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3 suggests that the

FRP reinforcement ratio can be less than the balanced FRP

reinforcement ratio, provided that the curvature at service

loads is an acceptably low proportion of the curvature at

ultimate. This concept is referred to as deformability and

can be summarized, for rectangular and T-beams in flexure,

by the following equation:

=

s s

u u

M

M

DF

=

s s

u u

M

M

DF

In the previous expressions,

u

and M

u

are the curvature and

moment at ultimate conditions, respectively, and

s

and M

s

are the curvature and moment at service conditions, but not

exceeding the condition where the maximum concrete

compressive strain = 0.001.

The concept of deformability, while extremely

important, is rather complex and is not discussed further.

Deformability is discussed in significant detail in Chapter 9

of ISIS Design Manual No. 3.

Section 6

Spac i ng and Cover

Conc r et e Cover

Adequate concrete cover to the FRP-reinforcement is

required to prevent cracking due to thermal expansion,

swelling from moisture, and to protect the FRP

reinforcement from fire. Due to the wide variety of FRP

reinforcing products available, it is difficult to make

generalizations as to the required concrete cover for various

types of FRP reinforcing materials. CHBDC (CSA, 2005)

recommends that the minimum clear cover shall be 35 mm

with a construction tolerance of 10 mm. The overall

guidelines suggested by ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3

are as follows;

Table 6-1. Cover to Flexural Reinforcement

Exposure Beams Slabs

Interior 2.5d

b

or 40mm 2.5d

b

or 20mm

Exterior 2.5d

b

or 50mm 2.5d

b

or 30mm

* d

b

is the bar diameter in mm

CSA-S806-02 provides additional information on concrete

cover requirements if fire rating requirements area design

consideration.

Bar Spac i ng

To ensure that concrete can be placed properly and that

temperature cracking will be avoided, the minimum bar

spacing for longitudinal reinforcing bars in FRP-reinforced

concrete members should be taken as the maximum of:

1.4 d

b

1.4 times the maximum aggregate size (MAS)

30 mm

the concrete cover obtained above

The maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement should

be taken, in the same manner as suggested by CSA A23.3-

94 for steel-reinforced concrete, as the smaller of:

5 times the slab thickness

500 mm

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

15

Const r uc t abi l i t y

The following are additional considerations which must be

accounted for when designing with FRP reinforcement:

All FRP materials should be protected against UV

radiation.

Storage and handling requirements for FRPs may vary

significantly depending on the specific product being

used.

FRPs should not come into contact with reinforcing

steel in a structure.

FRP reinforcement is light and must be tied, with

plastic ties, to formwork to prevent it from floating

during concrete placing and vibrating operations.

Care must be taken when vibrating concrete to ensure

that the FRP reinforcement is not damaged (plastic

protected vibrators should be used).

Additional information on the appropriate handling and

application of FRP materials is given in ISIS Educational

Module 6.

Section 7

Addi t i onal Topi c s

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND

ANCHORAGE

For concrete to be reinforced with FRPs, there must be force

transfer from the FRP to the concrete through bond. The

required development length for FRP reinforcement is

dependent on the bond between FRP and concrete, which in

turn depends on the bar diameter, surface condition,

embedment length, and bar shape. Because the bond of

FRP bars to concrete differs depending on the specific FRP

reinforcement being used, the development length for any

specific product should be determined from experimental

tests. Most FRP reinforcement manufacturers can provide

guidance in this regard for any specific FRP product.

FLEXURAL DESI GN AI DS

To assist in the flexural design of FRP-reinforced concrete

members, ISIS Canada has produced a series of designs

aids. The design aids consist of a series of charts that were

developed for rectangular sections with a specific type of

reinforcement in a single layer. They were developed based

on the serviceability requirement that the strain in the FRP

at service load levels should not exceed

frp

= 0.002, and

they can be used for the design of section dimensions and

reinforcement details to satisfy both serviceability and

ultimate limit states requirements. The design charts have

not been included herein, but are available in Chapter 10 of

ISIS Design Manual No. 3.

DESI GN FOR SHEAR

FRP are widely used in a variety of shapes and

configurations for flexural reinforcement of concrete

members. FRPs have been used successfully as shear

reinforcement in full-scale field applications, although the

topic is not covered in any significant detail in this manual.

If steel stirrups are used in an FRP reinforced concrete

member, and the shear design is conducted according to

existing standards, such as CSA A23.3-94, then no

problems with the shear capacity of the member are

expected.

Further information on the shear design of concrete

members reinforced with FRPs for both flexure and shear

can be found in Chapter 11 of ISIS Design Manual No. 3.

Fig. 7-1. CFRP stirrups for shear reinforcement of

a prestressed concrete bridge girder.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

16

Section 8

Ex ampl es

EXAMPLE 1

Moment Capac i t y Anal ysi s of a Rec t angul ar Beam w i t h FRP Rei nf or c ement

(Tensi on Fai l ur e)

Pr obl em:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, for a precast

(

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete section with the

following dimensions:

Section width b = 350 mm

Section depth h = 600 mm

The tensile reinforcement consists of eight 12.7 mm

diameter GFRP ISOROD bars (bundled in pairs) in a single

layer. Assume that the shear reinforcement consists of 5

mm diameter Leadline

TM

stirrups and that the beam has an

interior exposure condition.

Given information:

Concrete compressive strength, f

c

= 35 MPa.

ISOROD GFRP tensile strength, f

frpu

= 617 MPa

ISOROD GFRP tensile modulus, E

frp

= 42 GPa

The area of one 12.7 mm bar, A

bar

= 129 mm

2

Sol ut i on:

1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of

the section.

The required concrete cover to the flexural reinforcement is

(Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 32 ) 7 . 12 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =

b

d

40 mm governs.

The effective depth, d, is calculated from:

mm 554

2

7 . 12

40 600

2

cover = = =

b

d

h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:

00532 . 0

554 350

129 8

=

= =

bd

A

frp

frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio (Eq. 3-8):

( )

0125 . 0

0146 . 0 0035 . 0

0035 . 0

617

35

4 . 0

65 . 0

88 . 0 80 . 0

'

1 1

=

+

=

+

= =

frpu cu

cu

frpu

c

frp

c

frpb

frpb

f

f

bd

A

Where:

80 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-4)

88 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-5)

0146 . 0

10 42

617

3

=

= =

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or

compression failure. In this case:

0125 . 0 00532 . 0 = < =

frpb frp

Therefore, we have TENSION FAILURE, and the strain

distribution is as shown in Fig. 9-1.

5. Perform an iterative strain-compatibility analysis:

Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 50 mm. The value of 50

mm is arbitrary, but is likely a reasonable first guess. Now,

using strain compatibility:

c d c

frpu

c

which gives:

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

17

6

10 1448

50 554

0146 . 0

50

=

=

c

Fig. 9-1. Strain compatibility analysis.

The tensile stress resultant can be calculated directly using

Eq. 3-16:

( )( )

kN 255

N 254698 617 129 8 4 . 0

=

= =

=

frpu frp frp

f A T

where

frp

is determined according to Table 3-1.

The compressive stress resultant is more difficult to obtain.

It is given by Eq. 3-17:

cb f C

c c

'

=

Because the strain in the extreme concrete compression

fibre is less than ultimate, the equivalent rectangular stress

block factors, and , must be determined from Figs. 3-2

and 3-3.

From Fig. 3-2, with a concrete strain of

c

= 1448 10

-6

and interpolating between the curves for 30 and 40 MPa

concrete, we find that = 0.75. Using Fig. 3-3, with the

same concrete strain as above, we find = 0.69.

Now, the compressive stress resultant can be obtained:

( )( )( )( )( )

kN 206

N 030 06 2 350 50 69 . 0 35 65 . 0 75 . 0

'

=

= =

= cb f C

c c

Now we must check for equilibrium of the stress-resultants

on the cross-section:

255 206 = < = T C

Since C < T, further iteration is required. We will try

increasing (guessing) the neutral axis depth to 55 mm. In

the same manner as above, the following can be determined:

6

10 1674

57 554

0146 . 0

57

=

=

c

( )( )

kN 255

N 046 382 617 129 8 4 . 0

=

= = T

The stress block parameters, = 0.80 and = 0.69, are

again determined from Figs. 3-2 and 3-3. Giving:

( )( )( )( )( )

kN 251

N 505532 2 350 57 69 . 0 35 65 . 0 8 . 0

=

= = C

255 251 = = T C OK

This time, C and T are approximately equal, and we can

continue to determine the moment capacity using Eq. 3-21:

( )( )

m kN 1 . 136 mm N 10 1 . 136

2

57 69 . 0

554 617 129 8 4 . 0

2

6

= =

=

c

d f A M

frpu frp frp r

Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 136.1 kNm.

Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural

capacity requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r

M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )( )

m kN 0 . 74 mm N 10 0 . 74

302

10 30 . 6 35 6 . 0

6

9

= =

=

=

t

t r

cr

y

I f

M

where:

0.0146

c

<

cu

d= 554mm

c

350 mm

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

18

c r

f f ' 6 . 0 =

inertia of moment section ed transform =

t

I

fibre tension extreme to N.A. from distance =

t

y

Thus we have:

m kN 111 0 . 74 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 136 = = =

cr r

M M

OK

Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure

upon cracking.

The reader should note that the beam in the preceding

analysis may not be adequate with regard to serviceability

requirements, particularly given that the modulus of

ISOROD GFRP reinforcement is less than that of

conventional steel reinforcement. Serviceability

requirements for cracking and deflection should also be

investigated, although they are not covered here.

EXAMPLE 2

Moment Capac i t y Anal ysi s of a Rec t angul ar Beam w i t h Tensi on Rei nf or c ement

(Compr essi on Fai l ur e)

Pr obl em:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, for a precast

(

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete section with the

following dimensions:

Section width b = 300 mm

Section depth h = 500 mm

The tensile reinforcement consists of six #10 ISOROD

CFRP bars in a single layer. Assume that the shear

reinforcement consists of 5 mm diameter Leadline

TM

stirrups and that the beam has an interior exposure

condition.

Given information:

Concrete compressive strength, f

c

= 35 MPa.

ISOROD CFRP tensile strength, f

frpu

= 1596 MPa

ISOROD CFRP tensile modulus, E

frp

= 111 GPa

The area of one #10 bar, A

bar

= 71 mm

2

The diameter of one #10 bar, d

b

= 9.3 mm

Sol ut i on:

1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of

the section.

The required concrete cover to the flexural reinforcement is

(Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 23 ) 3 . 9 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =

b

d

The effective depth, d, is calculated from:

mm 455

2

3 . 9

40 500

2

cover = = =

b

d

h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:

( )

( )

% 312 . 0 00312 . 0

455 300

71 6

= =

= =

bd

A

frp

frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio

(Eq. 3-8):

( )

% 245 . 0 00245 . 0

0144 . 0 0035 . 0

0035 . 0

1596

35

8 . 0

65 . 0

88 . 0 80 . 0

'

1 1

= =

+

=

+

= =

frpu cu

cu

frpu

c

frp

c

frpb

frpb

f

f

bd

A

Where:

80 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-4)

88 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-5)

0144 . 0

10 111

1596

3

=

= =

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or

compression failure. In this case:

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

19

00245 . 0 00312 . 0 = > =

frpb frp

Therefore, we have COMPRESSION FAILURE, and the

strain distribution is as follows:

Fig. 9-1. Strain compatibility analysis.

5. Determine the tensile stress in the FRP reinforcement at

compressive failure of the section (Eq. 3-8):

( )( )

( )( )( )( )

( )( )( )

MPa 1396

1

0035 . 0 111000 8 . 0 10 12 . 3

35 65 . 0 88 . 0 80 . 0 4

1

0035 . 0 111000 5 . 0

1

4

1 5 . 0

2

1

3

2

1

'

1 1

=

+

=

+ =

cu

frp

frp frp

c c

cu frp frp

E

f

E f

6. Determine the stress block depth, a (Eq. 3-11):

( )( )

( )( )( )

mm 87

300 35 65 . 0 80 . 0

1387 71 6 8 . 0

'

1

1

=

=

= =

b f

f A

a c

c c

frp frp frp

7. Determine the flexural capacity, M

r

(Eq. 3-14):

( )( )

m kN 196 mm N 10 196

2

87

455 1396 71 6 8 . 0

2

6

= =

=

a

d f A M

frp frp frp r

Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 196 kNm.

Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural capacity

requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r

M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )( )

m kN 8 . 45 mm N 10 8 . 45

248

10 20 . 3 35 6 . 0

6

9

= =

=

=

t

t r

cr

y

I f

M

where:

c r

f f ' 6 . 0 =

inertia of moment section ed transform =

t

I

fibre tension extreme to N.A. from distance =

t

y

Thus we have:

m kN 7 . 68 8 . 45 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 196 = = =

cr r

M M

OK

Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure

upon cracking.

The reader should note that the beam in the preceding

analysis may not be adequate with regard to serviceability

requirements, particularly given that the modulus of

ISOROD CFRP reinforcement is less than that of

conventional steel reinforcement. Serviceability

requirements for cracking and deflection should also be

investigated, although they are not covered here.

frp

<

frpu

cu

= 0.0035

d= 455 mm

c

300 mm

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

20

Section 9

Fi el d Appl i c at i ons

The following case studies provide examples of field

applications where FRP reinforcement has been used

successfully for reinforcement of concrete. Further

information on a variety of additional field applications can

be obtained from the ISIS Canada website

(www.isiscanada.com).

TAYLOR BRI DGE

A significant research milestone was achieved on October 8,

1998 when Manitobas Department of Highways and

Transportation opened the Taylor Bridge in Headingley,

Manitoba. The two-lane, 165.1-metre-long structure has

four out of 40 precast concrete girders reinforced with

carbon FRP stirrups. These girders are also prestressed with

carbon FRP cables and bars. Glass FRP reinforcement has

been used in portions of the barrier walls.

Fig. 10-1. The Taylor Bridge, in Headingly

Manitoba, during construction.

As a demonstration project, it was vital the materials be

tested under the same conditions as conventional steel

reinforcement. Thus only a portion of the bridge was

designed using FRPs.

Two types of carbon FRP reinforcements were used in

the Taylor bridge. Carbon fibre composite cables produced

by Tokyo Rope, Japan, were used to pretension two girders,

while the other two girders were pretensioned using

Leadline bars produced by Mitsubishi Chemical

Corporation, Japan.

Two of the four FRP-reinforced girders were reinforced

for shear using carbon FRP stirrups and leadline bars in a

rectangular cross section. The other two beams were

reinforced for shear using epoxy coated steel reinforcement.

The deck slab was reinforced by Leadline bars similar

to those used for prestressing. Glass FRP reinforcement

produced by Marshall Industries Composites Inc. was used

to reinforce a portion of the barrier wall. Double-headed

stainless steel tension bars were used for the connection

between the barrier wall and the deck slab.

The bridge incorporates a complex embedded fibre

optic structural sensing system that will allow engineers to

compare the long-term behaviour of the various materials.

This remote monitoring is an important factor in acquiring

long-term data on FRPs that is required for widespread

acceptance of these materials through national and

international codes of practice.

Fig. 10-2. Placing the FRP-reinforced concrete

deck of the Taylor Bridge.

J OFFRE BRI DGE

Early in August of 1997, the province of Qubec decided to

construct a bridge using carbon FRP reinforcement. The

Joffre Bridge, spanning the Saint Francois River, was

another contribution to the increasing number of FRP-

reinforced bridges in Canada. A portion of the Joffre Bridge

concrete deck slab is reinforced with carbon FRP, as are

portions of the traffic barrier wall and the sidewalk.

The bridge is outfitted extensively with various kinds of

monitoring instruments including fibre optic sensors

embedded within the FRP reinforcement (these are referred

to as smart reinforcements). Over 180 monitoring

instruments are installed at critical locations in the concrete

deck slab and on the steel girders, to monitor the behaviour

of the FRP reinforcement under service conditions. The

instrumentation is also providing valuable information on

long-term performance of the concrete deck slab reinforced

with FRP materials.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

21

Fig. 10-3. Placement of FRP grid for Joffre Bridges

concrete deck reinforcement (yellow coils are

sensor lead wires).

Fig. 10-4. Aerial view of Joffre Bridge during

construction.

WOTTON BRI DGE

Wotton Bridge, in the municipality of Wotton, Qubec, is a

single span prestressed concrete girder bridge with a total

length of 30.6 metres and a width of 8.9 metres. The deck

slab rests on four prestressed concrete girders, spaced at 2.3

metres, with a cantilever slab of one metre on either side.

The deck slab is reinforced internally with ISOROD GFRP

and CFRP reinforcing bars with diameters of 15 mm and 10

mm respectively. FRP reinforcement is used both for top

and bottom slab reinforcement.

MORRI STOWN BRI DGE

The Morristown Bridge, in the State of Vermont, USA, is a

single-span integral abutment bridge with a total length of

43 metres and a width of 11.3 metres. The deck slab has a

thickness of 230 mm and rests on 5 steel girders spaced at

2.4 metres. The deck slab cantilevers on either side of the

bridge are 0.92 metres in length. Top and bottom deck

reinforcement consists of ISOROD GFRP reinforcing bars.

Fig. 10-5. Placement of GFRP and CFRP

reinforcement in the Wotton Bridge deck.

Fig. 10-6. The completed Wotton Bridge.

Fig. 10-7. The GFRP-reinforced Morristown Bridge

deck just before placement of the concrete deck

slab.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

22

Fig. 10-8. Close-up of the Morristown Bridge

decks GFRP reinforcement just before placement

of the concrete (bars were bundled in this

application).

Section 10

Ref er enc es and Addi t i onal Gui danc e

Additional information on the use of FRP materials can be obtained in various documents available from ISIS Canada:

ISIS Design Manual No. 4: Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures with Externally-Bonded Fiber Reinforced

Polymers.

ISIS Design Manual No. 5: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRPs.

ISIS Educational Module 1: Mechanics Examples Incorporating FRP Materials.

ISIS Educational Module 2: An Introduction to FRP Composites for Construction.

ISIS Educational Module 4: An Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of Concrete Structures.

Due to the increasing popularity and use of FRP reinforcements in the concrete construction industry, a number of design

recommendations have recently been produced by various organizations for the design of concrete structures with internal

FRP reinforcement. The following documents should be consulted for additional information or if design with FRP materials

is being contemplated.

ISIS Design Manual No. 3: Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fiber Reinforced Polymers.

Published by Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures Canada, Winnipeg, MB. 2001

CAN/CSA-S806-02: Design and Construction of Building components with Fibre Reinforced Polymers.

Published by the Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, ON. 2002.

CAN/CSA-S6-05: Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code.

Published by the Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, ON. 2005.

ACI 440.1R-03: Guide for the design and construction Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars.

Published by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 2003.

Not at i on

A

frp

cross-sectional area of FRP reinforcement in tension (mm

2

)

A

frpb

cross-sectional area of FRP reinforcement at the balanced failure condition (mm

2

)

A

frpmin

minimum area of FRP required (mm

2

)

a depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block (mm)

b width of the compression zone for a rectangular section (mm)

C compressive stress resultant (N)

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

23

C

n

nominal compressive stress resultant (N)

c depth of neutral axis (mm)

c

b

depth of the neutral axis at the balanced failure condition (mm)

d effective depth of the section (mm)

d

b

diameter of the reinforcement (mm)

E

c

elastic modulus of the concrete (MPa)

E

frp

elastic modulus of the FRP (MPa)

f

c

compressive strength of the concrete (MPa)

f

frp

stress in the FRP reinforcement at failure (MPa)

f

frpu

ultimate tensile strength of the FRP (MPa)

f

r

modulus of rupture of the concrete (MPa)

h overall member depth (mm)

I

cr

moment of inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete with concrete in tension ignored (mm

4

)

I

t

moment of inertia of the transformed section (mm

4

)

n

member length (mm)

M

a

maximum moment in a member at the load stage at which deflection is being calculated (Nmm)

M

cr

cracking moment of the cross-section (Nmm)

M

f

moment due to the factored loads (Nmm)

M

r

factored moment resistance of the cross-section (Nmm)

n

frp

modular ratio E

frp

/E

c

T tensile stress resultant (N)

T

n

nominal tensile stress resultant (N)

y

t

distance from the centroidal axis of the transformed section to the extreme tension fibre (mm)

stress-block parameter for concrete at a strain less than ultimate

1

CSA A23.3-94 stress-block parameter for concrete at ultimate

d

dimensionless coefficient taken as 0.50 for a rectangular section

stress-block parameter for concrete at a strain less than ultimate

1

CSA A23.3-94 stress-block parameter for concrete at ultimate

cu

ultimate concrete strain

frp

strain in the FRP reinforcement at compression failure

frps

strain in the tensile FRP reinforcement at service load

frpu

ultimate strain of the FRP in tension

s

maximum strain allowed in the reinforcement in service

c

material resistance factor for concrete

frp

material resistance factor of FRP reinforcement

frpb

balanced failure reinforcement ratio

frp

FRP reinforcement ratio

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

24

Appendi x A:

Suggested Student Assignment

Pr obl em #1:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, in positive

bending, for the precast (

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete

section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior

exposure condition:

Material Properties:

Concrete Compressive Strength, f

c

= 45 MPa

FRP Ultimate Strength, f

frpu

= 1596 MPa

FRP Elastic Modulus, E

frp

= 111 MPa

Area of FRP Bars, A

bar

= 71 mm

2

Pr obl em #2:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, in positive

bending, for the precast (

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete

section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior

exposure condition:

Material Properties:

Concrete Compressive Strength, f

c

= 40 MPa

FRP Ultimate Strength, f

frpu

= 2255 MPa

FRP Elastic Modulus, E

frp

= 147 MPa

Area of FRP Bars, A

bar

= 113 mm

2

5

0

0

m

m

250 mm

3 9.3 mm diameter

carbon ISOROD bars

2 9.3 mm diameter

carbon ISOROD bars

4

0

0

m

m

300 mm

6 12 mm diameter

carbon Leadline

TM

bars

in two layers

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

25

Appendi x B:

Assignment Solutions

Pr obl em #1:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, in positive

bending, for the precast (

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete

section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior

exposure condition:

Material Properties:

Concrete Compressive Strength, f

c

= 45 MPa

FRP Ultimate Strength, f

frpu

= 1596 MPa

FRP Elastic Modulus, E

frp

= 111 MPa

Area of FRP Bars, A

bar

= 71 mm

2

Sol ut i on:

1. First, note that we always assume FRP reinforcement is

ineffective in compression. Thus, we can completely ignore

the compression reinforcement for the purposes of this

problem. Next, determine the concrete cover and the

effective depth of the section.

The required concrete cover to the main reinforcement is

(Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 23 ) 3 . 9 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =

b

d

40 mm cover governs.

The effective depth, d, is thus:

mm 455

2

3 . 9

40 500

2

cover = = =

b

d

h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:

( )

( )

3

10 87 . 1

455 250

71 3

=

= =

bd

A

frp

frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio

(Eq. 3-8):

( )

3

1 1

10 02 . 3

0143 . 0 0035 . 0

0035 . 0

1596

45

8 . 0

65 . 0

86 . 0 78 . 0

'

+

=

+

= =

frpu cu

cu

frpu

c

frp

c

frpb

frpb

f

f

bd

A

Where:

78 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-4)

86 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-5)

0143 . 0

10 111

1596

3

=

= =

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or

compression failure. In this case:

3 3

10 02 . 3 10 87 . 1

= < =

frpb frp

Therefore, we have TENSION FAILURE, and the strain

distribution is as follows:

5

0

0

m

m

250 mm

3 9.3 mm diameter

carbon ISOROD bars

2 9.3 mm diameter

carbon ISOROD bars

0.0143

c

<

cu

d

=

4

5

5

m

m

c

250

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

26

5. Perform an iterative strain-compatibility analysis:

Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 60 mm. Using strain

compatibility:

6

10 2172

60 455

0143 . 0

60

=

=

c

frpu

c

c d c

The tensile stress resultant can be calculated directly using

Eq. 3-16:

( )( )

kN 272

N 272000 1596 71 3 8 . 0

=

= =

=

frpu frp frp

f A T

where

frp

is determined according to Table 3-1.

The compressive stress resultant obtained using Eq. 3-17:

cb f C

c c

'

=

The strain in the extreme compression fibre is less than

ultimate, and , must therefore be determined from Figs.

3-2 and 3-3. From Fig. 3-2, with a concrete strain of

c

=

2172 10

-6

and interpolating between the curves for 40 and

50 MPa concrete, we find that = 0.90. Using Fig. 3-3 we

find = 0.70.

The compressive stress resultant can be obtained:

( )( )( )( )( )

kN 276

N 276412 250 60 70 . 0 45 65 . 0 90 . 0

'

=

= =

= cb f C

c c

Check for equilibrium of the stress-resultants on the cross-

section:

272 276 = = T C

Since C T, further iteration is not required.

6. Determine the moment capacity using Eq. 3-21:

( )( )

m kN 118 mm N 10 118

2

60 70 . 0

455 1596 71 3 8 . 0

2

6

= =

=

c

d f A M

frpu frp frp r

Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 118 kNm.

7. Check that the minimum flexural capacity requirements

are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r

M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )( )

m kN 42 mm N 10 42

250

10 88 . 2636 45 6 . 0

6

6

= =

=

=

t

t r

cr

y

I f

M

Thus we have:

m kN 63 42 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 118 = = =

cr r

M M

OK

Therefore, the flexural resistance of the carbon FRP-

reinforced concrete beam is 118 kNm.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

27

Pr obl em #2:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M

r

, in positive

bending, for the precast (

c

= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete

section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior

exposure condition:

Material Properties:

Concrete Compressive Strength, f

c

= 40 MPa

FRP Ultimate Strength, f

frpu

= 2255 MPa

FRP Elastic Modulus, E

frp

= 147 MPa

Area of FRP Bars, A

bar

= 113 mm

2

Maximum aggregate size, MAS = 14 mm

Sol ut i on:

1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of

the section. The required concrete cover to the flexural

reinforcement is (Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 30 ) 12 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =

b

d

The bar spacing requirements dictate that the spacing

between layers of reinforcement must be the greater of:

mm 17 ) 12 )( 4 . 1 ( 4 . 1 = =

b

d ;

mm 20 ) 14 )( 4 . 1 ( 4 . 1 = = MAS ;

mm 30 ; or

the concrete cover of mm 40 Governs

The effective depth to the bottom layer of reinforcement, d,

is (note that we may not lump the reinforcement as we

would normally do for steel reinforced concrete):

mm 354

2

12

40 400

2

cover = = =

b

bottom

d

h d

The depth to the top layer of reinforcement is:

mm 314 40

2

12

40 400

40

2

cover

= =

=

b

top

d

h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio (here we will use

the average value of effective depth, THIS STEP ONLY!):

( )

( )

3

10 76 . 6

334 300

113 6

=

= =

bd

A

frp

frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio

(Eq. 3-8):

( )

3

1 1

10 84 . 1

0153 . 0 0035 . 0

0035 . 0

2255

40

8 . 0

65 . 0

87 . 0 79 . 0

'

+

=

+

= =

frpu cu

cu

frpu

c

frp

c

frpb

frpb

f

f

bd

A

Where:

79 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-4)

87 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0

1

= =

c

f (Eq. 3-5)

0153 . 0

10 147

2255

3

=

= =

frp

frpu

frpu

E

f

(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or

compression failure. In this case:

3 3

10 84 . 1 10 76 . 6

= > =

frpb frp

Therefore, we have COMPRESSION FAILURE, and the

strain distribution is as follows:

4

0

0

m

m

300 mm

6 12 mm diameter

carbon Leadline

TM

bars

in two layers

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

28

5. Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 115 mm (educated

guess).

6. Now we must determine the actual stresses in the

different layers of FRP reinforcement (NO LUMPING) and

check that the compression and tensile forces are equal.

From the strain profile shown above:

( )

6

,

,

10 7274

115

0035 . 0

115 354

= =

=

bottom frp

bottom

bottom frp

cu

c d c

( )

6

,

,

10 6057

115

0035 . 0

115 314

= =

=

top frp

top

top frp

cu

c d c

Now, the tension force is calculated by summing the

contributions of both layers of FRP:

( )( )( )

kN 290 N 290000

147000 10 7274 113 3 8 . 0

6

,

= =

=

=

E A T

( )( )( )

kN 241 N 241000

147000 10 6057 113 3 8 . 0

6

,

= =

=

=

E A T

So the total tensile force is T = 290 + 241 = 531 kN. Now,

the compression force is

( )( )( )( )( )

kN 617 N 617000

300 115 87 . 0 40 65 . 0 79 . 0

'

1

= =

=

= cb f C

c c

Since C = 616 T = 531, we must try a different neutral

axis depth. Try c = 104 mm. As before:

( )

6

,

10 8436

104

0035 . 0

104 354

= =

bottom frp

( )

6

,

10 7088

104

0035 . 0

104 314

= =

top frp

Now, the tension force is calculated by summing the

contributions of both layers of FRP:

( )( )( )

kN 336 N 336000

147000 10 8436 113 3 8 . 0

6

= =

=

bottom

T

( )( )( )

kN 282 N 282000

147000 10 7088 113 3 8 . 0

6

= =

=

top

T

So the total tensile force is T = 336 + 282 = 618 kN. Now,

the compression force is

( )( )( )( )( )

kN 613 N 613000

300 104 87 . 0 40 65 . 0 87 . 0

= =

= C

Since C = 613 T = 618, we will use a neutral axis depth of

c = 104 mm.

7. We can now determine the flexural capacity, M

r

(Eq. 3-

14):

4

0

0

m

m

300 mm

frp

<

frpu

cu

= 0.0035

d

b

o

t

t

o

m

=

3

5

4

m

m

c

d

t

o

p

=

3

1

4

m

m

frp,top

frp,bottom

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

29

mm N 10 175

2

104

314 10 282

2

104

354 10 336

2

2

6

3

3

, ,

, ,

=

=

a

d f A

a

d f A M

top top frp top frp frp

bottom bottom frp bottom frp frp r

Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 175 kNm.

Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural capacity

requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r

M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )

mm N 10 3 . 30

200

12

400 300

40 6 . 0

6

3

=

=

=

t

t r

cr

y

I f

M

Thus we have:

( ) 5 . 45 3 . 30 5 . 1 5 . 1 175 = = =

cr r

M M OK

Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure

upon cracking.

Therefore, the flexural resistance of the carbon FRP-

reinforced concrete beam is 175 kNm.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

30

Appendi x C:

Suggested Laboratory

The following laboratory procedure is given as an example

of a reinforced concrete laboratory that can be given in

conjunction with an undergraduate course on reinforced

concrete design, and that includes both conventional

reinforcing steel and internal FRP reinforcement. Given the

wide variety of laboratory and testing facilities available at

various Canadian universities, this laboratory is given

primarily as an example for professors of what can be done

using FRP reinforcement to increase the impact and student

understanding of traditional reinforced concrete labs.

Inclusion of FRP reinforcement into traditional

reinforced concrete laboratories is advantageous for a

number of reasons, including:

it introduces students to a new and innovative material

which is gaining acceptance within the reinforced

concrete industry;

it increases student understanding of the fundamental

concepts and assumptions, including serviceability and

deflection, used in reinforced concrete beam design and

analysis;

it forces students to consider and understand important

mechanics concepts such as elasticity, plasticity, and

ductility; and

it exposes students to the state-of-the-art in reinforced

concrete design and thus increases student enthusiasm

for the course content, subsequently, in many cases,

increasing student participation and effort.

The laboratory presented herein suggests the use of

glass FRP reinforcing bars, ISOROD, manufactured by

Pultrall Inc. It is important to recognize that the laboratory

procedures can be adapted to include the use of any specific

type of FRP reinforcement, and this specific type of

reinforcement has been used here only as an example.

Caut i on:

FRP Materials

FRPs are linear elastic materials. As such, these materials

do not display the yielding behaviour observed when testing

steel and they provide little warning prior to failure. In

addition, beams which fail in shear or due to FRP rupture

may fail suddenly and with little warning. It is important

that instructors, students, laboratory demonstrators, and

technical staff be made aware of the specific failure modes

to be expected when testing FRP materials, and that

appropriate safety precautions be taken in addition to

those precautions that are normally enforced.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

31

Conc r et e Beam Labor at or y

OVERVI EW

This laboratory is intended to increase students

understanding of the effects of various amounts and types of

internal reinforcement, both steel and fibre reinforced

polymer (FRP), on the flexural and shear behaviour of

reinforced concrete beams. The laboratory consists of the

fabrication and testing of five concrete beams with varying

amounts and types of reinforcement. The laboratory

illustrates the following important concepts:

1. the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete

beams;

2. under-reinforced versus over-reinforced concrete

beams;

3. the effect of shear reinforcement on the load capacity,

deflection, ductility, and failure of reinforced concrete

beams;

4. the effect of reinforcement type (steel or FRP) on the

load capacity, deflection, ductility, and failure of

reinforced concrete beams; and

5. the concepts of cracking, yielding, and moment-

curvature.

The class will be divided into five groups, and each

group will be responsible for the fabrication and testing of

one of the five beams. Experimental data obtained during

testing for all beams will be made available to all groups for

use in writing the laboratory report. Each group will submit

one report only, but will comment on the results for all five

beams.

Beam Det ai l s

All beams will be fabricated from concrete with a specified

28-day concrete strength of 35 MPa (compression tests will

be conducted to determine the true 28-day strength of the

concrete). Steel reinforcement will consist of deformed

reinforcing bars with a specified yield strength of 400 MPa.

FRP reinforcement will consist of glass FRP reinforcing

bars with a specified ultimate strength of 691 MPa and a

tensile elastic modulus of 40 GPa. Note that the beams

suggested herein are given as an example only, since GFRP

bars should not directly contact steel bars in an actual field

application of GFRP reinforcement. The five beams to be

tested in this laboratory are:

1. an under-reinforced beam without shear reinforcement

(steel reinforcing bars);

2. an under-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement

(steel reinforcing bars);

3. an over-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement (steel

reinforcing bars);

4. an under-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement

(glass FRP reinforcing bars); and

5. an over-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement

(glass FRP reinforcing bars).

Dimensions and reinforcement details of the beams are

given on the following page.

I nst r ument at i on and Test i ng

All beams will be tested in four-point bending to failure, as

shown in the figure below. Strain gauges will be mounted

on the tensile reinforcement, prior to casting the concrete,

and on the concrete compression fibre. Load, deflection,

and reinforcement and concrete compressive strain will be

measured and recorded during testing. Cracking patterns

will also be marked and photographed during testing. Any

significant visual observations will be recorded throughout

the tests.

Labor at or y Repor t

The laboratory report should consist of the following:

1. A title page giving the group name and number.

2. An abstract, briefly stating the purpose and procedure

of the lab and the major conclusions drawn.

3. An introduction providing information on the material

properties, beam details, testing setup, instrumentation,

procedures, etc.

4. A calculations and analysis section detailing all

calculations performed for the laboratory. Where a

calculation has been performed more than once only a

sample calculation should be provided. A summary of

theoretical calculations should be presented in tabular

form.

5. An experimental results and discussion section,

summarizing the test results obtained for all beams

tested. This section should include photographs and

plots showing beam behaviour along with a thorough

comparison of theoretical and observed results, and a

comparison of the behaviour of the various beams.

6. A conclusion in which the major points of interest from

the above sections are highlighted. The focus in the

conclusion should be on the consequences of the

observed behaviour on the practical design of

reinforced concrete beams.

7. A list of references. All tests referenced during the

course of the laboratory project should be listed using

an accepted referencing format.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

32

200

4

0

0

100

25

2 20M bars

1 15M bar

40 mm cover

to reinforcement

* all dimensions

in millimeters

3000

200

4

0

0

100

25

25

150 150

Etc..

2 20M bars

1 15M bar

10M stirrups

30 mm cover

to stirrups

* all dimensions in

millimeters

200

4

0

0

100

25

25

150 150

Etc..

4 25M bars

10M stirrups

30 mm cover

to stirrups

35 mm vertical

spacing between

bars

* all dim. in mm

200

4

0

0

100

25

25

150 150

Etc..

2 25 mm

glass FRP bars

10M stirrups

30 mm cover

to stirrups

* all dimensions in

millimeters

200

4

0

0

100

25

25

150 150

Etc..

2 10 mm

glass FRP bars

10M stirrups

30 mm cover

to stirrups

* all dimensions in

millimeters

BEAM #1

BEAM #2

BEAM #3

BEAM #4

BEAM #5

100

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

33

CALCULATI ONS AND ANALYSI S

The calculation and analysis section of your report should

include calculations of the following parameters according

to traditional reinforced concrete theory, as presented in

class. Each group should perform the calculations for their

specific beam and then forward their results to all other

groups:

1. Issues related to flexural strength:

a. The bending moment at first cracking of the

concrete in tension (cracking moment, M

cr

).

b. The bending moment at an extreme fibre concrete

compressive stress of 0.4f

c

.

c. The nominal (predicted) moment capacity of the

section.

d. The design (ultimate) moment capacity of the beam

according to CSA A23.3-94 for steel-reinforced

beams and according to ISIS Design Manual No. 3

for FRP-reinforced concrete beams.

2. Issues related to strain and deformation:

a. The strain in the reinforcement and in the concrete

compression fibre at first cracking of the concrete

in tension.

b. The strain in the reinforcement and concrete at an

extreme fibre concrete compressive stress of 0.4f

c

.

c. The strain in the reinforcement and concrete

compression fibre at ultimate.

3. Issues related to curvature and deflection:

a. The midspan curvature and deflection at first

cracking of the concrete in tension.

b. The midspan curvature and deflection at twice the

cracking moment, 2 M

cr

.

c. The midspan curvature and deflection at a concrete

compressive stress of 0.4f

c

.

d. The midspan curvature at ultimate.

RESULTS AND DI SCUSSI ON

In addition to presenting, through the use of graphs and

tables, a summary of experimental data obtained for all five

beams, the results and discussion section of each report

should contain, for all five beams, discussions on the

following topics:

1. A comparison of the theoretical calculations versus the

results obtained during testing and a discussion of

discrepancies between theory and observation.

2. Plots showing:

a. Load versus deflection for all 5 beams.

b. Midspan bending moment versus deflection for all

5 beams.

c. Midspan moment versus strain in the reinforcement

for all 5 beams.

d. Midspan moment versus concrete extreme

compression fibre strain.

Each plot should include points showing: the cracking

moment, steel yielding (where applicable), a

compressive fibre concrete stress of 0.4f

c

, a

compressive fibre concrete strain of 0.0035, and the

maximum load/moment. A bar chart should also be

included showing a comparison of the five beams based

on selected important criteria (left to the discretion of

the student). Each plot should be followed by a brief

commentary and discussion.

3. A comparison should be made between the calculated

design ultimate load, the calculated nominal load

capacity, and the observed load capacity for all beams.

What does this imply for the design of actual reinforced

concrete beams in practice?

Students are expected to provide clear and concise

discussions of the above-listed topics and to add additional

commentary and calculations as they see fit. The reports

will be graded in part on the quality of independent thought

and discussion brought to bear on the various concepts

demonstrated in this laboratory, and on the students explicit

recognition of the greater significance of the results

obtained.

1

2

3

4

1000 mm 1000 mm 900 mm

1 Load cell

2 Concrete compression strain gauge

3 Reinforcement strain gauge

4 Displacement transducer

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

34

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