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ISIS Educational Module 3:

An I nt r oduc t i on t o FRP-Rei nf or c ed Conc r et e




Prepared by ISIS Canada
A Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence
www.isiscanada.com
Principal Contributor: L.A. Bisby, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Department of Civil Engineering, Queens University
Contributors: M. Ranger and B.K. Williams
March 2006













ISIS Education Committee:

N. Banthia, University of British Columbia
L. Bisby, Queens University
R. Cheng, University of Alberta
R. El-Hacha, University of Calgary
G. Fallis, Vector Construction Group
R. Hutchinson, Red River College
A. Mufti, University of Manitoba
K.W. Neale, Universit de Sherbrooke
J. Newhook, Dalhousie University
K. Soudki, University of Waterloo
L. Wegner, University of Saskatchewan
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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Obj ec t i ves of Thi s Modul e

The objective of this module is to provide engineering
students with an overall awareness of the application and
design of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing
materials in new concrete structures. It is one of a series of
modules on innovative FRP technologies available from
ISIS Canada. Further information on the use of FRPs in a
variety of innovative applications can be found at
www.isiscanada.com. While research into the use of FRP
materials as reinforcement for concrete is ongoing, an
overall knowledge of currently available FRP
reinforcements, and design procedures for their use, is
essential for the new generation of structural engineers. The
problems of the future cannot be solved with the materials
and methodologies of the past. The primary objectives of
this module are:
1. to provide engineering students with a general
awareness of FRP materials and some of their potential
uses in civil engineering applications;
2. to introduce general philosophies and procedures for
designing structures with FRP reinforcing materials;
3. to facilitate the use of FRP reinforcing materials in the
construction industry; and
4. to provide guidance to students seeking additional
information on this topic.
The material presented herein is not currently part of a
national or international code, but is based mainly on the
results of numerous detailed research studies conducted in
Canada and around the world. Procedures, material
resistance factors, and design equations are based on the
recommendations of the ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3:
Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fibre Reinforced
Polymers. As such, this module should not be used as a
design document, and it is intended for educational use only.
Future engineers who wish to design FRP-reinforced
concrete structures should consult more complete design
documents (refer to Section 10 of this document).

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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Addi t i onal I SI S Educ at i onal Modul es
Avai l abl e f r om I SI S Canada (w w w .i si sc anada.c om)

Modul e 1 Mechanics Examples Incorporating FRP
Materials

Nineteen worked mechanics of materials problems are presented
which incorporate FRP materials. These examples could be used
in lectures to demonstrate various mechanics concepts, or could be
assigned for assignment or exam problems. This module seeks to
expose first and second year undergraduates to FRP materials at
the introductory level. Mechanics topics covered at the elementary
level include: equilibrium, stress, strain and deformation,
elasticity, plasticity, determinacy, thermal stress and strain, flexure
and shear in beams, torsion, composite beams, and deflections.

Modul e 2 Introduction to FRP Composites for
Construction

FRP materials are discussed in detail at the introductory level.
This module seeks to expose undergraduate students to FRP
materials such that they have a basic understanding of the
components, manufacture, properties, mechanics, durability, and
application of FRP materials in civil infrastructure applications. A
suggested laboratory is included which outlines an experimental
procedure for comparing the stress-strain responses of steel versus
FRPs in tension, and a sample assignment is provided.

Modul e 4 Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of
Concrete Structures

The use of externally-bonded FRP reinforcement for strengthening
concrete structures is discussed in detail. FRP materials relevant
to these applications are first presented, followed by detailed
discussions of FRP-strengthening of concrete structures in flexure,
shear, and axial compression. A series of worked examples are
presented, case studies are outlined, and additional, more
specialized, applications are introduced. A suggested assignment
is provided with worked solutions, and a potential laboratory for
strengthening concrete beams in flexure with externally-bonded
FRP sheets is outlined.

Modul e 5 Introduction to Structural Health
Monitoring

The overall motivation behind, and the benefits, design,
application, and use of, structural health monitoring (SHM)
systems for infrastructure are presented and discussed at the
introductory level. The motivation and goals of SHM are first
presented and discussed, followed by descriptions of the various
components, categories, and classifications of SHM systems.
Typical SHM methodologies are outlined, innovative fibre optic
sensor technology is briefly covered, and types of tests which can
be carried out using SHM are explained. Finally, a series of SHM
case studies is provided to demonstrate four field applications of
SHM systems in Canada.

Modul e 6 Application & Handling of FRP
Reinforcements for Concrete

Important considerations in the handling and application of FRP
materials for both reinforcement and strengthening of reinforced
concrete structures are presented in detail. Introductory
information on FRP materials, their mechanical properties, and
their applications in civil engineering applications is provided.
Handling and application of FRP materials as internal
reinforcement for concrete structures is treated in detail, including
discussions on: grades, sizes, and bar identification, handling and
storage, placement and assembly, quality control (QC) and quality
assurance (QA), and safety precautions. This is followed by
information on handling and application of FRP repair materials
for concrete structures, including: handling and storage,
installation, QC, QA, safety, and maintenance and repair of FRP
systems.

Modul e 7 Introduction to Life Cycle Costing for
Innovative Infrastructure

Life cycle costing (LCC) is a well-recognized means of guiding
design, rehabilitation and on-going management decisions
involving infrastructure systems. LCC can be employed to enable
and encourage the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) and
fibre optic sensor (FOS) technologies across a broad range of
infrastructure applications and circumstances, even where the
initial costs of innovations exceed those of conventional
alternatives. The objective of this module is to provide
undergraduate engineering students with a general awareness of
the principles of LCC, particularly as it applies to the use of fibre
reinforced polymers (FRPs) and structural health monitoring
(SHM) in civil engineering applications.

Modul e 8 Durability of FRP Composites for
Construction

Fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs), like all engineering materials,
are potentially susceptible to a variety of environmental factors
that may influence their long-term durability. It is thus important,
when contemplating the use of FRP materials in a specific
application, that allowance be made for potentially harmful
environments and conditions. It is shown in this module that
modern FRP materials are extremely durable and that they have
tremendous promise in infrastructure applications. The objective of
this module is to provide engineering students with an overall
awareness and understanding of the various environmental factors
that are currently considered significant with respect to the
durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials in civil
engineering applications.


ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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Section 1
I nt r oduc t i on and Over vi ew

WHY USE FRPs?

The population of the modern developed world depends on
a complex and extensive system of infrastructure for
maintaining economic prosperity and quality of life. The
existing public infrastructure of Canada, the United States,
Europe, and other countries has suffered from decades of
neglect and overuse, leading to the accelerated deterioration
of bridges, buildings, and municipal and transportation
systems, and resulting in a situation that, if left unchecked,
may lead to a global infrastructure crisis. Much of our
infrastructure is unsatisfactory in some respect, and public
funds are not generally available for the required
replacement of existing structures or construction of new
ones.



Fig. 1-1. Severely corroded reinforcing steel in this
bridge column has resulted in spalling of the
concrete cover and exposure of the steel
reinforcement.

One of the primary factors which has led to the current
unsatisfactory state of our infrastructure is corrosion of
reinforcing steel inside concrete (Fig. 1), which causes the
reinforcement to expand, and results in delamination or
spalling of concrete, loss of tensile reinforcement, or in
some cases failure. Because infrastructure owners can no
longer afford to upgrade and replace existing structures
using the same materials and methodologies as have been
used in the past, they are looking to newer technologies,
such as non-corrosive FRP reinforcement, that will increase
the service lives of concrete structures and reduce
maintenance costs.
FRPs have, in the last ten to fifteen years, emerged as a
promising alternative material for reinforcement of concrete
structures. FRP materials are non-corrosive and non-
magnetic, and can thus be used to eliminate the corrosion
problem invariably encountered with conventional
reinforcing steel. In addition, FRPs are extremely light,
versatile, and demonstrate extremely high tensile strength,
making them ideal materials for reinforcement of concrete
(refer to Figure 1-2).



Fig. 1-2. FRP Reinforcing bars being installed in
the concrete deck of the Salmon River Bridge,
British Columbia prior to pouring of the concrete.
FRPs are particularly useful for reinforcing
concrete bridge decks which are highly
susceptible to corrosion.










ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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Section 2
FRP Mat er i al s

This section provides a brief overview of FRP materials and
some of their important characteristics and properties when
used as reinforcing materials for concrete. A more complete
discussion of FRP materials and their applications in civil
engineering can be obtained from ISIS EC Module 2: FRP
Composites for Civil Engineering Applications, or from one
of a number currently available composite materials
textbooks.

GENERAL

FRP materials, originally developed for use in the
automotive and aerospace sectors, have been considered for
use as reinforcement of concrete structures since the 1950s.
However, it is really only in the last 10 years or so that
FRPs have begun to see widespread use in large civil
engineering projects, likely due to drastic reductions in FRP
material and manufacturing costs, which have made FRPs
competitive on an economic basis.
Many types and shapes of FRP materials are now
available in the construction industry. For the purposes of
tensile reinforcement of concrete, the currently available
reinforcing products include unidirectional FRP bars, which
have fibres oriented along the axis of the reinforcement
only, and orthogonal grids, which have unidirectional bars
running in two (or sometimes 3) orthogonal directions. In
this document, the focus is on unidirectional FRP
reinforcing bars, since they are the most widely used of the
FRP reinforcing products currently available in North
America. Also, although it has been demonstrated through
research that FRP materials can be effectively used for
prestressed reinforcement of concrete structures, this is a
specialized topic and is beyond the scope of this module.
Fig. 2-1 shows various types and shapes of currently
available FRP materials.

Const i t uent s
FRP materials are composed of high strength fibres
embedded in a polymer matrix. The fibres, which have very
small diameters and are generally considered continuous,
provide the strength and stiffness of the composite, while
the matrix, which has comparatively poor mechanical
properties, separates and disperses the fibres. The primary
function of the matrix is to transfer loads to the fibres
through shear stresses that develop at the fibre-matrix
interface, although it is also important for environmental
protection of the fibres. In concrete reinforcing
applications, the fibres are generally carbon (graphite),
glass, or aramid (Kevlar), and the matrices are typically
epoxies or vinyl esters. Fig. 2-2 shows typical stress-strain
curves for fibres, matrices, and the FRP materials that result
from the combination of fibres and matrix. The reader is
referred to ISIS EC Module 2 (ISIS, 2003) for further
information on fibres and matrices.



Fig. 2-1. Various types and shapes of FRPs used in
the construction industry




Fig. 2-2. Stress-strain relationships for fibres,
matrix, and FRP.

Manuf ac t ur i ng Pr oc ess
Although a variety of techniques can be used to manufacture
FRP shapes, a technique called pultrusion is used almost
exclusively for the manufacture of FRP reinforcing rods. In
this technique, continuous strands of the fibres are drawn
from creels (spools of fibres) through a resin tank, where
they are saturated with resin, pulled through a number of
wiper rings, and finally pulled through a heated die. This
process simultaneously forms and heat cures the FRP into a
matrix
Strain
[%]
fibres
FRP
0.4 4.8 > 10
Stress
[Mpa]
1800-4900
600-3000
34-130
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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reinforcing rod. To ensure a strong bond with concrete, a
surface treatment is normally applied consisting of a spiral
or braided wrap, or a coating of sand embedded in the outer
surface of the polymer matrix. The pultrusion process is
illustrated schematically below.



Fig. 2-3. The pultrusion process.

Various FRP reinforcing products are currently available in
industry. Figs. 2-4 to 2-6 show some of the different
products currently being produced for use in North-
America.

Pr oper t i es
Unidirectional FRP materials used in concrete reinforcing
applications are linear elastic up to failure, and they do not
exhibit the yielding behaviour that is typically displayed by
conventional reinforcing steel. This is shown in Fig. 2-7,
which demonstrates the significant differences in the tensile
behaviour of FRPs as compared with steel. FRP materials
generally have much higher strengths than the yield strength
of steel, although they do not exhibit yield, and have strains
at failure that are much less. The differences in behaviour
between FRPs and steel have important consequences for
the design of FRP-reinforced concrete members, as we shall
see, since yielding of reinforcement in steel-reinforced
concrete members is used implicitly to provide ample
warning of impending failure.
The specific properties of FRP materials vary a great
deal from product to product, and depend on the fibre and
matrix type, the fibre volume content, and the orientation of
the fibres within the matrix, among other factors. It is
beyond the scope of this module to discuss different FRP
reinforcing materials in detail. However, Table 2-1 and Fig.
2-7 give material properties for a number of typical FRP
reinforcing products. It is thus becomes important in the
design of FRP-reinforced concrete members to specify
which FRP material is to be used and what minimum
mechanical properties are required.



Fig. 2-4. ISOROD glass FRP reinforcement.



Fig. 2-5. Leadline
TM
carbon FRP reinforcement.


Fig. 2-6. NEFMAC

grid-shaped FRP reinforcement.



resin tank
shaping and
heating die
puller
creel
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
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Table 2-1. Selected Properties of Typical Currently Available FRP Reinforcing Products
Reinforcement Type Designation
Diameter
[mm]
Area
[mm
2
]
Tensile Strength
[MPa]
Elastic Modulus
[GPa]
Deformed Steel #10 11.3 100 400* 200
V-ROD CFRP Rod 3/8 9.5 71 1431 120
V-ROD GFRP Rod 3/8 9.5 71 765 43
NEFMAC GFRP Grid G10 N/A 79 600 30
NEFMAC CFRP Grid C16 N/A 100 1200 100
NEFMAC AFRP Grid A16 N/A 92 1300 54
LEADLINE
TM
CFRP Rod -- 12 113 2255 147
* specified yield strength


Strain [%]
0 1 2 3
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Steel
ISOROD CFRP
ISOROD GFRP
NEFMAC GFRP
NEFMAC CFRP
NEFMAC AFRP
Leadline
TM
CFRP


Fig. 2-7. Stress-strain plots for various reinforcing
materials

Advant ages and Di sadvant ages
FRP materials for use in concrete reinforcing applications
have a number of key advantages over conventional
reinforcing steel. Some of the most important advantages
include:
FRP materials do not corrode electrochemically, and
have demonstrated excellent durability in a number of
harsh environmental conditions;
FRP materials have extremely high strength-to-
weight ratios. FRP materials typically weigh less than
one fifth the weight of steel, with tensile strengths that
can be as much as 8 to 10 times as high; and
FRP materials are electromagnetically inert. This
means that they can be used in specialized structures
such as buildings to house magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) or sensitive communications equipment, etc.
There are, however, some disadvantages to using FRPs, as
opposed to conventional reinforcing steel, as reinforcement
for concrete. The main disadvantage is the comparatively
high initial cost of FRP materials. Although prices have
dropped drastically in recent years, most FRP materials
remain more expensive than conventional reinforcing steel
on an initial material cost basis. However, because of the
high strength of these materials, they are often competitive
on a cost-per-force basis. Furthermore, the excellent
durability of FRP reinforcing materials in concrete, which
has the potential to increase the service lives of structures
while reducing inspection and maintenance costs, makes
them cost-effective when the entire life-cycle cost of a
structure is considered, rather than the initial construction
cost alone.
Another often cited potential disadvantage of FRP
materials is their relatively low elastic modulus as compared
with steel. This means that FRP-reinforced concrete
members are often controlled by serviceability (deflection)
considerations, rather than strength requirements.

ADDI TI ONAL CONSI DERATI ONS

Coef f i c i ent of Ther mal Ex pansi on
The thermal properties of FRP reinforcing products are
substantially different than those of conventional reinforcing
steel and concrete, and can also vary a great deal in the
longitudinal and transverse directions. The characteristics
are highly variable among different FRP products, and it is
difficult to make generalizations regarding thermal
expansion or other properties. The thermal properties of
any FRP reinforcing material should be thoroughly
investigated before it is used as reinforcement for concrete,
since differential thermal expansion of FRPs inside concrete
has the potential to cause cracking and spalling of the
concrete cover.

Table 2-2. Typical Coefficients of Thermal
Expansion for FRP Reinforcing Bars [10
-6
/C]
Material
Direction
Steel GFRP CFRP AFRP
Longitudinal 11.7 6 to 10 -1 to 0 -6 to 2
Transverse 11.7 21 to 23 22 to 23 60 to 80

Ef f ec t of El evat ed Temper at ur e or Fi r e
Elevated temperatures, as may be experienced in some
industrial settings or in the case of fire, adversely affect the
mechanical and bond properties of FRP reinforcing
materials in concrete. Thus, special precautions are required
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
7
when FRPs are used in structures where elevated
temperatures or fire are concerns. In most cases, the
temperature or the FRP reinforcement should be maintained
below the glass transition temperature (GTT) of the polymer
matrix. For currently available FRP reinforcing products
the GTT is generally in the range of 65 to 150C.

Bond Pr oper t i es
The properties of the bond between FRP reinforcing bars
and concrete depend on the surface treatment applied to the
FRP reinforcing bar during manufacturing, the mechanical
properties of the FRP, and the environmental conditions to
which the bar is subjected during its lifetime. Again,
generalizations are difficult to make, although the bond
between currently available FRP reinforcing materials and
concrete appears equivalent (or superior in some cases) to
that between steel reinforcement and concrete. The bond of
FRP bars to concrete does not depend on the concrete
strength, as it does for steel reinforcement.

Cr eep and Rel ax at i on
When FRP materials are subjected to a constant elevated
stress level they can fail suddenly and unexpectedly. This
type of failure is referred to as creep-rupture and is highly
undesirable. The larger the ratio of the sustained (dead
load) stress to the transient (live load) stress in an FRP
reinforcing bar, the more likely creep-rupture becomes.
Susceptibility to creep rupture is also influenced by UV
radiation, high temperature, alkalinity, and weathering.
Different FRP types have different susceptibilities to
creep-rupture. Carbon FRPs are the least susceptible,
followed by aramid FRPs. Glass FRPs are the most
susceptible. To protect against creep-rupture, the material
resistance factors suggested by ISIS Canada (ISIS, 2001) for
FRP reinforcements have been adjusted to account for the
effect of sustained load. These resistance factors,
frp
, are
given in Table 3-1.

Dur abi l i t y
The durability of FRP reinforcing bars in concrete is a
complex topic and research in this area is ongoing. Readers
seeking additional information on the durability of FRP
materials are encouraged to consult ISIS Educational
Module #8, also available from ISIS Canada at
www.isiscanada.com. To date, FRP reinforcing applications
in concrete structures have performed well, and no failures
due to durability problems have been reported.



Section 3
Desi gn f or Fl ex ur e

PHI LOSOPHY AND ASSUMPTI ONS

The design of FRP-reinforced concrete in Canada should be
conducted under the unified limit-states philosophy
currently used by the existing design codes. For buildings,
loads and load combinations for FRP-reinforced concrete
members should be determined in accordance with CSA-
S806-02. For bridges, the Canadian Highway Bridge Design
Code, CSA-S6-05, should be used. Serviceability checks
for cracking and deflection must also be performed.

Resi st anc e Fac t or s
Following the recommendations of ISIS Canada Design
Manual No. 3, the material resistance factor for concrete is
taken as
c
= 0.60 for buildings, 0.65 for precast concrete,
and 0.75 for bridges. The material resistance factor for
FRPs depends on the type of FRP material, and is based on
the variability of material characteristics, the effect of
sustained load, and various durability considerations. Table
3-1 provides resistance factors for steel, concrete, and FRP
materials as specified by relevant Canadian codes.

Assumpt i ons
It is assumed that FRPs are perfectly linear-elastic materials.
Thus, failure of an FRP-reinforced section in flexure can be
due to FRP rupture or concrete crushing. The ultimate
flexural strength for both of these failure modes can be
calculated using a similar methodology as that used for
steel-reinforced sections. Hence, the following additional
assumptions are required:
1. the failure strain of concrete in compression is
3500 10
-6
;
2. the strain in the concrete at any level is proportional to
the distance from the neutral axis (plane sections
remain plane);
3. FRPs are linear elastic to failure;
4. concrete compressive stress-strain curve is parabolic
and concrete has no strength in tension;
5. perfect bond exists between FRP reinforcement and
concrete; and
6. neglect FRPs strength in compression.




ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
8
Table 3-1. Resistance Factors for FRP Bars
Material Notation Factor
Building Components: CSA-S806-02
Concrete cast in situ
c
0.60
Precast concrete
c
0.65
Steel reinforcement
s
0.85
Carbon FRP
f
0.75
Glass FRP
f
0.75
Aramid FRP
f
0.75
Bridge Components: CSA-S6-05
Concrete
c
0.75
Carbon FRP
f
0.75
Aramid FRP
f
0.60
Glass FRP
f
0.50


Fig. 3-1. Assumed stress-strain behaviour of FRP.


Fig. 3-2. Assumed stress-strain behaviour of
concrete.

FAI LURE MODES

There are three potential flexural failure modes for FRP-
reinforced concrete sections:
Balanced failure simultaneous FRP tensile rupture
and concrete crushing
Compression failure concrete crushing prior to FRP
tensile rupture
Tension Failure tensile rupture of the FRP prior to
concrete crushing
Compression failure is the most desirable of the above
failure modes. This failure mode is less violent than tension
failure, and is similar to the failure of an over-reinforced
section when using steel reinforcement.
Tension failure is less desirable, since tensile rupture of
FRP reinforcement will occur with less warning. Tension
failure will occur when the reinforcement ratio is below the
balanced reinforcement ratio for the section. This failure
mode is permissible with certain safeguards.

Bal anc ed Fai l ur e
As mentioned above, balanced failure will occur when
concrete crushing occurs simultaneously with FRP tensile
rupture. It is important to remember that the balanced
failure condition is drastically different for FRP-reinforced
concrete than it is for members reinforced with steel.
Because FRPs will not yield at the balanced condition, an
FRP-reinforced concrete member at the balanced condition
will fail suddenly, although accompanied by cracking and a
significant amount of deflection. At balanced failure, the
strain in the concrete reaches its ultimate value,
cu
=
0.0035, while the FRP reinforcement simultaneously
reaches its ultimate strain,
frpu
. The ultimate strain of the
FRP depends on the specific FRP reinforcing material being
used (refer to Table 2-1), and is determined from the FRP
ultimate stress, f
frpu
, and tensile elastic modulus, E
frp
, using:

frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
= (Eq. 3-1)

Using strain compatibility, for a rectangular cross-section
with a single layer of FRP reinforcement, the distribution of
strains across the member can be illustrated as shown in Fig.
3-3a. Thus, the ratio of the balanced neutral axis depth, c
b
,
to the effective depth of the section, d, at the balanced
reinforcement ratio,
frpb
, can be expressed in terms of
known quantities as follows:

frpu cu
cu b
d
c


+
= (Eq. 3-2)

To determine the balanced reinforcing ratio, force
equilibrium over the cross-section is utilized, and the
compressive and tensile stress resultants, C and T, are
equated as follows:

T C = (Eq. 3-3)

The true distribution of stress in the concrete in the
compression zone is non-linear, as shown in Figure 3-3a.
However, as is the case for steel-reinforced concrete
members, we can replace the non-linear stress distribution
with an equivalent rectangular stress-block. To do this, the
f
frpu

Strain

frpu

Stress
E
frp

1
f
c

Strain

cu

Stress
1
E
c

c

c

f
c

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
9
same stress-block parameters,
1
and
1
, are used as those
suggested in CSA A23.3-94/CHBDC for steel-reinforced
concrete, namely:

67 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
=
c
f (Eq. 3-4)
67 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0
1
=
c
f (Eq. 3-5)

Thus, the compressive stress resultant is:

b c f C
b c c 1 1
' = (Eq. 3-6)

The tensile stress resultant is determined from the FRP
ultimate stress and the cross-sectional area of FRP
reinforcement:

frp frp frpu frp
A E T = (Eq.3-7)

Now, equating the compressive and tensile stress resultants
and rearranging, the balanced failure reinforcement ratio,

frpb
, is obtained:

+
= =
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frp
c
frpb
frpb
f
f
bd
A


'
1 1
(Eq. 3-8)

For a given FRP-reinforced concrete member, an FRP
reinforcement ratio less than
frpb
will result in tension
failure, and an FRP reinforcement ratio greater than
frpb

will result in compression failure. Next, we will examine
the two potential failure modes that are of practical interest.

Compr essi on Fai l ur e
If an FRP-reinforced concrete section contains sufficient
tensile reinforcement, then failure of the section will be
induced by crushing of the concrete in the compression zone
before the FRP reaches its ultimate strain. This type of
failure is highly unlikely for a T-section in positive bending,
since the width of the compression zone, b, is very large,
and so only rectangular sections are considered.
For the case of compression failure, the strains in the
cross-section can be illustrated as shown in Figure 3-3b.
Again, the strain in the extreme compression fibre is
assumed to be
cu
= 0.0035, and the non-linear stress
distribution in the concrete can be replaced by the CSA
A23.3-94/CHBDC equivalent rectangular stress block
(using parameters
1
and
1
as defined previously).
The compressive and tensile stress resultants can be
determined as follows:

cb f C
c c 1
'
1
= (Eq. 3-9)

frp frp frp
f A T = (Eq. 3-10)

A complication in the analysis arises from the fact that FRP
reinforcement does not yield, and hence the stress in the
FRP at compression failure of the member, f
frp
, is unknown.
Equating the tensile and compressive stress resultants
yields:

b f
f A
a c
c c
frp frp frp
'
1
1

= = (Eq. 3-11)

And from strain compatibility (refer to Fig. 3-3b) we can
derive the following:

a
a d
E f
c
c d
c
c d
cu frp frp
cu frp
cu
frp

=
1
1
1 1

(Eq. 3-12)

Now, substituting Eq. 3-11 into Eq. 3-12, and solving for
the stress in the FRP reinforcement at compressive failure,
gives:

+ = 1
4
1
2
1
2
1
'
1 1
cu
frp
frp frp
c c
cu frp frp
E
f
E f


(Eq. 3-13)

Once the stress in the FRP reinforcement is known, Eq. 3-11
can be used to determine the depth of the equivalent
rectangular stress block, a, and the flexural capacity, M
r
, can
be obtained in a similar fashion as for steel-reinforced
concrete:

=
2
a
d f A M
frp frp frp r
(Eq. 3-14)

NOTE:
Rather than using Eq. 3-13 to determine the stress in the
FRP at compressive failure, an iterative procedure can be
performed using Eqs. 3-9, 3-10, and 3-11 by assuming a
neutral axis depth, calculating the compressive and tensile
stress resultants using strain compatibility, and checking if
C = T. If C T, the neutral axis depth is updated and the
procedure is repeated until convergence of the neutral axis
depth is achieved within a suitable tolerance.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
10













































Fig. 3-3. Flexural failure modes for FRP-reinforced concrete beams.

Tensi on Fai l ur e
If the FRP reinforcement ratio is less than the balanced
failure reinforcement ratio, then the section will fail by FRP
tensile rupture before the concrete in the compression zone
crushes (Fig. 3-3c). This situation is different from an
under-reinforced concrete member with steel reinforcement
in that there is no yielding of the FRP. In this case, the
strain in the concrete at failure is less than
cu
= 0.0035, and
the strain in the FRP reinforcement is given by:

frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
= (Eq. 3-15)

Because the concrete in the compression zone is not at
ultimate, the stress distribution in the concrete cannot be
Cross-section Strain Distribution Stress Distribution
Equivalent
Stress Distribution
b
d
A
frpb

c
b

cu

frpu

c
f
c

C
T f
frpu

a =
1
c
b

d
A
frp

c

cu

frp
<
frpu

c
f
c

C
T f
frp

a =
1
c
d
A
frp

c

c
<
cu

frpu

c
f
c

C
T f
frpu

a = c
(a)

BALANCED
FAILURE

c
=
cu

frp
=
frpu

(b)

COMPRESSION
FAILURE

c
=
cu

frp
<
frpu

(c)

TENSION FAILURE

c
<
cu

frp
=
frpu

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
11
described using the equivalent rectangular stress block
parameters used previously. The
1
and
1
parameters
suggested by CSA A23.3-94/CHBDC are valid only for the
case of
c
=
cu
. Thus, modified stress block parameters are
required. These modified parameters, and , can be
determined either from tabulated values available in ISIS
Design Manual No. 3, or from Figs. 3-2 and 3-3 below,
which give and as functions of the strain in the concrete
for a variety of concrete strengths.



Fig. 3-2. Equivalent stress-block parameter for
concrete.



Fig. 3-3. Equivalent stress-block parameter for
concrete.

Once and have been determined, the tensile and
compressive stress resultants can be determined for an
assumed value of the neutral axis depth using:

frp frpu frp frp frpu frp frp
E A f A T = = (Eq. 3-16)

cb f C
c c

'
= (Eq. 3-17)

Again, for equilibrium it is required that:

T C = (Eq. 3-18)

If the above equation is not satisfied, then a new value of the
neutral axis depth is assumed, and are reevaluated, and
Eq. 3-18 is checked. This process is repeated in an iterative
fashion until Eq. 3-18 is satisfied. For each iteration, the
updated neutral axis depth, c, can be determined using:

b f
E A
c
c c
frp frpu frp frp


'
= (Eq. 3-19)

where and are determined at the following concrete
strain (from strain compatibility, Fig. 3-3c):

c d
c
frpu c

= (Eq. 3-20)

Once the tensile and compressive stress resultants are
known, the moment resistance of the member can be
determined by taking moments about the compressive stress
resultant. Thus:

=
2
c
d f A M
frpu frp frp r

(Eq. 3-21)

Due to the brittle failure associated with failure by rupture
of the FRP reinforcement, it is recommended that and
additional safety requirement of:

f
M
r
M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-22)

be applied when failure is by tensile rupture of the FRP.

MI NI MUM FLEXURAL RESI STANCE

Three criteria are suggested by ISIS Canada Design Manual
No. 3 to provide minimum tensile reinforcement for an
FRP-reinforced concrete member.
Failure of a member immediately after cracking, which
occurs suddenly and without warning, should be avoided.
Thus, the moment resistance of an FRP-reinforced concrete
member, M
r
, should be at least 50% greater than the
cracking moment, M
cr
. Hence:

cr r
M M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-23)

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
12
The cracking moment is determined from the modulus of
rupture of the concrete, f
r
, the moment of inertia of the
transformed section, I
t
, and the distance from the centroidal
axis of the transformed section to the extreme tension fibre,
y
t
, using:

t
t r
cr
y
I f
M = where
c r
f f ' 6 . 0 = (Eq. 3-24)

As the minimum reinforcement condition is usually
governed by tensile rupture of the FRP reinforcement, the
moment resistance, M
r
, must be at least 50% greater than
the moment due to the factored loads, M
f
. Thus:

f
M
r
M 5 . 1 (Eq. 3-25)

ADDI TI ONAL CONSI DERATI ONS

Beams w i t h FRP Rebar s i n Mul t i pl e
l ayer s
For the case of FRP-reinforced concrete beams with
reinforcement in two or more layers, the strain in the outer
layer of FRP reinforcement is the critical strain. This means
that lumping of reinforcement, as is commonly performed
in the analysis of steel-reinforced concrete beams, is not
permitted (refer to Figure 3-4). Members can be easily
designed on the basis of the strain in the outermost layer of
FRP reinforcing bars by assuming strain compatibility.



Fig. 3-4. Lumping of reinforcement is not
permitted.

Beams w i t h Compr essi on
Rei nf or c ement
FRP reinforcing materials are generally weak in
compression. Although these materials may be used as
compression reinforcement, their contribution to the flexural
strength of FRP-reinforced concrete members should be
neglected.



Section 4
Ser vi c eabi l i t y

GENERAL

Serviceability considerations, relating both to cracking and
to deflection, are crucial factors in the design of FRP-
reinforced concrete flexural members. FRP reinforcing bars
generally have much higher strengths than the yield strength
of conventional steel reinforcement. However, the modulus
of elasticity of FRP materials is generally less than that of
reinforcing steel, and this can lead to the formation of large
cracks or to unserviceable deflections. The result is that, in
many cases, serviceability considerations may control the
design of FRP-reinforced concrete members.

CRACKI NG

In steel-reinforced concrete members, it is necessary to
control crack widths both for aesthetic reasons and to
prevent corrosion of reinforcing steel. For FRP-reinforced
members, there is no such corrosion requirement (FRP bars
are non-corrosive) and so cracking must be limited
primarily for aesthetic reasons, as well as to control service
load stresses in the reinforcement (to prevent creep-rupture).
If there is a need to calculate the crack width at service
load levels for an FRP-reinforced concrete member,
guidance is available in Section 7.4.1 of ISIS Design
Manual No. 3. The limiting crack width for FRP-reinforced
members is recommended by CHBDC (CSA, 2005) to be
0.7 mm, except for members subjected to aggressive
environments where 0.5 mm is recommended. Alternatively,
as a conservative approach, the ISIS design guidelines
suggest, to control cracking, that the maximum strain in
tensile FRP reinforcement at service should not exceed
0.2%. Thus:

002 . 0
frps
(Eq. 4-1)

The strain in the FRP at service load levels can be
determined using the concept of transformed sections in
either cracked or un-cracked sections.
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
13
If there is a need to calculate the crack width at service
load levels for an FRP-reinforced concrete member,
guidance is available in Section 7.3.1 of ISIS Design
Manual No. 3.

DEFLECTI ON

Since the modulus of elasticity of FRP reinforcement is
generally substantially lower than for conventional steel
reinforcement, FRP-reinforced members typically display
significantly more deflection than equivalent steel-
reinforced members. This means that the minimum
thickness (overall member depth) requirements used in CSA
A23.3-94 or CSA S6-05 for steel-reinforced concrete are
unconservative, and are thus not directly applicable to
members reinforced with FRPs. Furthermore, deflections
for FRP-reinforced concrete members must be checked
against the requirements of CSA A23.3-94 or CSA S6-05
using the effective moment of inertia, as described below.

MI NI MUM THI CKNESS

For steel-reinforced concrete structures, CSA A23.3-94
recommends span-to-depth ratios for a variety of member
types and end conditions to ensure adequate deflection
control. For FRP-reinforced concrete members, the
following equation should be used to ensure similar span to
deflection ratios as for steel-reinforced beams:

d
frp
s
s
n
frp
n
h h

l l
(Eq. 4-2)

where:
n
is the member length [mm]
h is the member thickness [mm]

s
is the maximum strain allowed in the steel
reinforcement in service

frps
is the maximum strain allowed in the FRP
reinforcement in service

d
is a dimensionless coefficient taken as 0.50 for
a rectangular section

The ratio (l
n
/h)
s
is the equivalent ratio for steel-reinforced
concrete and is obtained from Table 9-1 of CSA A23.3-94.

EFFECTI VE MOMENT OF I NERTI A

If a member remains uncracked under service loads, then
deflection requirements can be checked using the concept of
transformed sections. However, if the member is cracked
under service load, the effective moment of inertia should
be calculated (for a rectangular section) using the following
equation, which was empirically derived from test data on
FRP-reinforced concrete members:

( )
cr t
a
cr
cr
cr t
e
I I
M
M
I
I I
I

+
=
2
5 . 0 1
(Eq. 4-3)

where: I
cr
is the moment of inertia of the cracked section
transformed to concrete with concrete in tension
ignored, calculated using the Eq. 4-4 below [mm
4
]
I
t
is the moment of inertia of a non-cracked section
transformed to concrete [mm
4
]
M
cr
is the cracking Moment [Nmm]
M
a
is the maximum moment in a member at the
load stage at which deflection is being calculated
[Nmm]

2
3
) 1 (
3
) (
k d A n
kd b
I
frp frp cr
+ = (Eq. 4-4)

where: b is the width of the compression zone [mm]
d is the effective depth of the section [mm]
n
frp
is the modular ratio E
frp
/E
c


The neutral axis depth, kd, can be calculated using the
following equation:

( )

+ + =
frp frp frp frp frp frp
n n n k 2
2
(Eq. 4-5)

where:
frp
is the FRP reinforcement ratio.


ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
14
Section 5
Def or mabi l i t y

In the past, the concept of a balanced section was used to
implicitly design steel-reinforced concrete structures for
ductile behaviour. Traditionally, a balanced section is one
in which the steel reinforcement reaches the yield strain
simultaneously with the crushing strain being reached in the
concrete. It was recognized that an under-reinforced design,
having reinforcement less than the balanced condition, gave
ductile behaviour, with very large curvature observed prior
to failure. Conversely, an over-reinforced design, with
reinforcement above the balanced condition, gave a very
safe structure with comparatively less deformation observed
prior to failure. Thus, a trade-off between ductility and
safety was recognized.
Unlike steel, FRP reinforcement has a linear strain-
stress relationship. For FRP reinforcement there is no
plastic phase. However, because of the comparatively low
modulus of elasticity of FRP reinforcing materials, an FRP-
reinforced member will also exhibit sufficiently large
curvature at failure. Because of this important difference in
the characteristics of FRP reinforcement, in comparison
with steel, it is important that issues of deformability and
safety be thoroughly investigated.
ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3 suggests that the
FRP reinforcement ratio can be less than the balanced FRP
reinforcement ratio, provided that the curvature at service
loads is an acceptably low proportion of the curvature at
ultimate. This concept is referred to as deformability and
can be summarized, for rectangular and T-beams in flexure,
by the following equation:

=
s s
u u
M
M
DF

4 for rectangular sections (Eq. 5-1)


=
s s
u u
M
M
DF

6 for T-sections (Eq. 5-1)



In the previous expressions,
u
and M
u
are the curvature and
moment at ultimate conditions, respectively, and
s
and M
s

are the curvature and moment at service conditions, but not
exceeding the condition where the maximum concrete
compressive strain = 0.001.
The concept of deformability, while extremely
important, is rather complex and is not discussed further.
Deformability is discussed in significant detail in Chapter 9
of ISIS Design Manual No. 3.


Section 6
Spac i ng and Cover

Conc r et e Cover
Adequate concrete cover to the FRP-reinforcement is
required to prevent cracking due to thermal expansion,
swelling from moisture, and to protect the FRP
reinforcement from fire. Due to the wide variety of FRP
reinforcing products available, it is difficult to make
generalizations as to the required concrete cover for various
types of FRP reinforcing materials. CHBDC (CSA, 2005)
recommends that the minimum clear cover shall be 35 mm
with a construction tolerance of 10 mm. The overall
guidelines suggested by ISIS Canada Design Manual No. 3
are as follows;

Table 6-1. Cover to Flexural Reinforcement
Exposure Beams Slabs
Interior 2.5d
b
or 40mm 2.5d
b
or 20mm
Exterior 2.5d
b
or 50mm 2.5d
b
or 30mm
* d
b
is the bar diameter in mm

CSA-S806-02 provides additional information on concrete
cover requirements if fire rating requirements area design
consideration.

Bar Spac i ng
To ensure that concrete can be placed properly and that
temperature cracking will be avoided, the minimum bar
spacing for longitudinal reinforcing bars in FRP-reinforced
concrete members should be taken as the maximum of:
1.4 d
b

1.4 times the maximum aggregate size (MAS)
30 mm
the concrete cover obtained above
The maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement should
be taken, in the same manner as suggested by CSA A23.3-
94 for steel-reinforced concrete, as the smaller of:
5 times the slab thickness
500 mm
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
15
Const r uc t abi l i t y
The following are additional considerations which must be
accounted for when designing with FRP reinforcement:
All FRP materials should be protected against UV
radiation.
Storage and handling requirements for FRPs may vary
significantly depending on the specific product being
used.
FRPs should not come into contact with reinforcing
steel in a structure.
FRP reinforcement is light and must be tied, with
plastic ties, to formwork to prevent it from floating
during concrete placing and vibrating operations.
Care must be taken when vibrating concrete to ensure
that the FRP reinforcement is not damaged (plastic
protected vibrators should be used).
Additional information on the appropriate handling and
application of FRP materials is given in ISIS Educational
Module 6.



Section 7
Addi t i onal Topi c s

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND
ANCHORAGE

For concrete to be reinforced with FRPs, there must be force
transfer from the FRP to the concrete through bond. The
required development length for FRP reinforcement is
dependent on the bond between FRP and concrete, which in
turn depends on the bar diameter, surface condition,
embedment length, and bar shape. Because the bond of
FRP bars to concrete differs depending on the specific FRP
reinforcement being used, the development length for any
specific product should be determined from experimental
tests. Most FRP reinforcement manufacturers can provide
guidance in this regard for any specific FRP product.

FLEXURAL DESI GN AI DS

To assist in the flexural design of FRP-reinforced concrete
members, ISIS Canada has produced a series of designs
aids. The design aids consist of a series of charts that were
developed for rectangular sections with a specific type of
reinforcement in a single layer. They were developed based
on the serviceability requirement that the strain in the FRP
at service load levels should not exceed
frp
= 0.002, and
they can be used for the design of section dimensions and
reinforcement details to satisfy both serviceability and
ultimate limit states requirements. The design charts have
not been included herein, but are available in Chapter 10 of
ISIS Design Manual No. 3.

DESI GN FOR SHEAR

FRP are widely used in a variety of shapes and
configurations for flexural reinforcement of concrete
members. FRPs have been used successfully as shear
reinforcement in full-scale field applications, although the
topic is not covered in any significant detail in this manual.
If steel stirrups are used in an FRP reinforced concrete
member, and the shear design is conducted according to
existing standards, such as CSA A23.3-94, then no
problems with the shear capacity of the member are
expected.
Further information on the shear design of concrete
members reinforced with FRPs for both flexure and shear
can be found in Chapter 11 of ISIS Design Manual No. 3.



Fig. 7-1. CFRP stirrups for shear reinforcement of
a prestressed concrete bridge girder.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
16
Section 8
Ex ampl es

EXAMPLE 1
Moment Capac i t y Anal ysi s of a Rec t angul ar Beam w i t h FRP Rei nf or c ement
(Tensi on Fai l ur e)

Pr obl em:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, for a precast
(
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete section with the
following dimensions:
Section width b = 350 mm
Section depth h = 600 mm

The tensile reinforcement consists of eight 12.7 mm
diameter GFRP ISOROD bars (bundled in pairs) in a single
layer. Assume that the shear reinforcement consists of 5
mm diameter Leadline
TM
stirrups and that the beam has an
interior exposure condition.
Given information:
Concrete compressive strength, f
c
= 35 MPa.
ISOROD GFRP tensile strength, f
frpu
= 617 MPa
ISOROD GFRP tensile modulus, E
frp
= 42 GPa
The area of one 12.7 mm bar, A
bar
= 129 mm
2



Sol ut i on:

1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of
the section.

The required concrete cover to the flexural reinforcement is
(Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 32 ) 7 . 12 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =
b
d

40 mm governs.

The effective depth, d, is calculated from:

mm 554
2
7 . 12
40 600
2
cover = = =
b
d
h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:

00532 . 0
554 350
129 8
=

= =
bd
A
frp
frp


3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio (Eq. 3-8):

( )
0125 . 0
0146 . 0 0035 . 0
0035 . 0
617
35
4 . 0
65 . 0
88 . 0 80 . 0
'
1 1
=

+
=

+
= =
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frp
c
frpb
frpb
f
f
bd
A



Where:

80 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-4)
88 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-5)
0146 . 0
10 42
617
3
=

= =
frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or
compression failure. In this case:

0125 . 0 00532 . 0 = < =
frpb frp


Therefore, we have TENSION FAILURE, and the strain
distribution is as shown in Fig. 9-1.

5. Perform an iterative strain-compatibility analysis:

Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 50 mm. The value of 50
mm is arbitrary, but is likely a reasonable first guess. Now,
using strain compatibility:

c d c
frpu
c



which gives:

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
17
6
10 1448
50 554
0146 . 0
50

=

=
c





Fig. 9-1. Strain compatibility analysis.

The tensile stress resultant can be calculated directly using
Eq. 3-16:

( )( )
kN 255
N 254698 617 129 8 4 . 0
=
= =
=
frpu frp frp
f A T


where
frp
is determined according to Table 3-1.

The compressive stress resultant is more difficult to obtain.
It is given by Eq. 3-17:

cb f C
c c

'
=

Because the strain in the extreme concrete compression
fibre is less than ultimate, the equivalent rectangular stress
block factors, and , must be determined from Figs. 3-2
and 3-3.
From Fig. 3-2, with a concrete strain of
c
= 1448 10
-6

and interpolating between the curves for 30 and 40 MPa
concrete, we find that = 0.75. Using Fig. 3-3, with the
same concrete strain as above, we find = 0.69.
Now, the compressive stress resultant can be obtained:

( )( )( )( )( )
kN 206
N 030 06 2 350 50 69 . 0 35 65 . 0 75 . 0
'
=
= =
= cb f C
c c



Now we must check for equilibrium of the stress-resultants
on the cross-section:

255 206 = < = T C

Since C < T, further iteration is required. We will try
increasing (guessing) the neutral axis depth to 55 mm. In
the same manner as above, the following can be determined:

6
10 1674
57 554
0146 . 0
57

=

=
c



( )( )
kN 255
N 046 382 617 129 8 4 . 0
=
= = T


The stress block parameters, = 0.80 and = 0.69, are
again determined from Figs. 3-2 and 3-3. Giving:

( )( )( )( )( )
kN 251
N 505532 2 350 57 69 . 0 35 65 . 0 8 . 0
=
= = C


255 251 = = T C OK

This time, C and T are approximately equal, and we can
continue to determine the moment capacity using Eq. 3-21:

( )( )
m kN 1 . 136 mm N 10 1 . 136
2
57 69 . 0
554 617 129 8 4 . 0
2
6
= =

=
c
d f A M
frpu frp frp r



Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 136.1 kNm.
Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural
capacity requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r
M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )( )
m kN 0 . 74 mm N 10 0 . 74
302
10 30 . 6 35 6 . 0
6
9
= =

=
=
t
t r
cr
y
I f
M

where:
0.0146

c
<
cu

d= 554mm
c
350 mm
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
18

c r
f f ' 6 . 0 =
inertia of moment section ed transform =
t
I
fibre tension extreme to N.A. from distance =
t
y

Thus we have:

m kN 111 0 . 74 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 136 = = =
cr r
M M
OK

Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure
upon cracking.
The reader should note that the beam in the preceding
analysis may not be adequate with regard to serviceability
requirements, particularly given that the modulus of
ISOROD GFRP reinforcement is less than that of
conventional steel reinforcement. Serviceability
requirements for cracking and deflection should also be
investigated, although they are not covered here.

EXAMPLE 2
Moment Capac i t y Anal ysi s of a Rec t angul ar Beam w i t h Tensi on Rei nf or c ement
(Compr essi on Fai l ur e)

Pr obl em:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, for a precast
(
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete section with the
following dimensions:
Section width b = 300 mm
Section depth h = 500 mm

The tensile reinforcement consists of six #10 ISOROD
CFRP bars in a single layer. Assume that the shear
reinforcement consists of 5 mm diameter Leadline
TM

stirrups and that the beam has an interior exposure
condition.
Given information:
Concrete compressive strength, f
c
= 35 MPa.
ISOROD CFRP tensile strength, f
frpu
= 1596 MPa
ISOROD CFRP tensile modulus, E
frp
= 111 GPa
The area of one #10 bar, A
bar
= 71 mm
2

The diameter of one #10 bar, d
b
= 9.3 mm

Sol ut i on:

1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of
the section.

The required concrete cover to the flexural reinforcement is
(Table 6-1):

mm 40 or mm 23 ) 3 . 9 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =
b
d

The effective depth, d, is calculated from:

mm 455
2
3 . 9
40 500
2
cover = = =
b
d
h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:

( )
( )
% 312 . 0 00312 . 0
455 300
71 6
= =

= =
bd
A
frp
frp


3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio
(Eq. 3-8):
( )
% 245 . 0 00245 . 0
0144 . 0 0035 . 0
0035 . 0
1596
35
8 . 0
65 . 0
88 . 0 80 . 0
'
1 1
= =

+
=

+
= =
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frp
c
frpb
frpb
f
f
bd
A




Where:

80 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-4)

88 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-5)

0144 . 0
10 111
1596
3
=

= =
frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
(Eq. 3-1)

4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or
compression failure. In this case:

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
19
00245 . 0 00312 . 0 = > =
frpb frp


Therefore, we have COMPRESSION FAILURE, and the
strain distribution is as follows:


Fig. 9-1. Strain compatibility analysis.

5. Determine the tensile stress in the FRP reinforcement at
compressive failure of the section (Eq. 3-8):

( )( )
( )( )( )( )
( )( )( )
MPa 1396
1
0035 . 0 111000 8 . 0 10 12 . 3
35 65 . 0 88 . 0 80 . 0 4
1
0035 . 0 111000 5 . 0
1
4
1 5 . 0
2
1
3
2
1
'
1 1
=

+
=

+ =

cu
frp
frp frp
c c
cu frp frp
E
f
E f



6. Determine the stress block depth, a (Eq. 3-11):

( )( )
( )( )( )
mm 87
300 35 65 . 0 80 . 0
1387 71 6 8 . 0
'
1
1
=

=
= =
b f
f A
a c
c c
frp frp frp







7. Determine the flexural capacity, M
r
(Eq. 3-14):

( )( )
m kN 196 mm N 10 196
2
87
455 1396 71 6 8 . 0
2
6
= =

=
a
d f A M
frp frp frp r



Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 196 kNm.

Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural capacity
requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:

cr r
M M 5 . 1

The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:

( )( )
m kN 8 . 45 mm N 10 8 . 45
248
10 20 . 3 35 6 . 0
6
9
= =

=
=
t
t r
cr
y
I f
M


where:

c r
f f ' 6 . 0 =
inertia of moment section ed transform =
t
I
fibre tension extreme to N.A. from distance =
t
y

Thus we have:

m kN 7 . 68 8 . 45 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 196 = = =
cr r
M M

OK

Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure
upon cracking.
The reader should note that the beam in the preceding
analysis may not be adequate with regard to serviceability
requirements, particularly given that the modulus of
ISOROD CFRP reinforcement is less than that of
conventional steel reinforcement. Serviceability
requirements for cracking and deflection should also be
investigated, although they are not covered here.

frp
<
frpu

cu
= 0.0035
d= 455 mm
c
300 mm
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
20
Section 9
Fi el d Appl i c at i ons

The following case studies provide examples of field
applications where FRP reinforcement has been used
successfully for reinforcement of concrete. Further
information on a variety of additional field applications can
be obtained from the ISIS Canada website
(www.isiscanada.com).

TAYLOR BRI DGE

A significant research milestone was achieved on October 8,
1998 when Manitobas Department of Highways and
Transportation opened the Taylor Bridge in Headingley,
Manitoba. The two-lane, 165.1-metre-long structure has
four out of 40 precast concrete girders reinforced with
carbon FRP stirrups. These girders are also prestressed with
carbon FRP cables and bars. Glass FRP reinforcement has
been used in portions of the barrier walls.



Fig. 10-1. The Taylor Bridge, in Headingly
Manitoba, during construction.

As a demonstration project, it was vital the materials be
tested under the same conditions as conventional steel
reinforcement. Thus only a portion of the bridge was
designed using FRPs.
Two types of carbon FRP reinforcements were used in
the Taylor bridge. Carbon fibre composite cables produced
by Tokyo Rope, Japan, were used to pretension two girders,
while the other two girders were pretensioned using
Leadline bars produced by Mitsubishi Chemical
Corporation, Japan.
Two of the four FRP-reinforced girders were reinforced
for shear using carbon FRP stirrups and leadline bars in a
rectangular cross section. The other two beams were
reinforced for shear using epoxy coated steel reinforcement.
The deck slab was reinforced by Leadline bars similar
to those used for prestressing. Glass FRP reinforcement
produced by Marshall Industries Composites Inc. was used
to reinforce a portion of the barrier wall. Double-headed
stainless steel tension bars were used for the connection
between the barrier wall and the deck slab.
The bridge incorporates a complex embedded fibre
optic structural sensing system that will allow engineers to
compare the long-term behaviour of the various materials.
This remote monitoring is an important factor in acquiring
long-term data on FRPs that is required for widespread
acceptance of these materials through national and
international codes of practice.



Fig. 10-2. Placing the FRP-reinforced concrete
deck of the Taylor Bridge.

J OFFRE BRI DGE

Early in August of 1997, the province of Qubec decided to
construct a bridge using carbon FRP reinforcement. The
Joffre Bridge, spanning the Saint Francois River, was
another contribution to the increasing number of FRP-
reinforced bridges in Canada. A portion of the Joffre Bridge
concrete deck slab is reinforced with carbon FRP, as are
portions of the traffic barrier wall and the sidewalk.
The bridge is outfitted extensively with various kinds of
monitoring instruments including fibre optic sensors
embedded within the FRP reinforcement (these are referred
to as smart reinforcements). Over 180 monitoring
instruments are installed at critical locations in the concrete
deck slab and on the steel girders, to monitor the behaviour
of the FRP reinforcement under service conditions. The
instrumentation is also providing valuable information on
long-term performance of the concrete deck slab reinforced
with FRP materials.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
21


Fig. 10-3. Placement of FRP grid for Joffre Bridges
concrete deck reinforcement (yellow coils are
sensor lead wires).



Fig. 10-4. Aerial view of Joffre Bridge during
construction.

WOTTON BRI DGE

Wotton Bridge, in the municipality of Wotton, Qubec, is a
single span prestressed concrete girder bridge with a total
length of 30.6 metres and a width of 8.9 metres. The deck
slab rests on four prestressed concrete girders, spaced at 2.3
metres, with a cantilever slab of one metre on either side.
The deck slab is reinforced internally with ISOROD GFRP
and CFRP reinforcing bars with diameters of 15 mm and 10
mm respectively. FRP reinforcement is used both for top
and bottom slab reinforcement.

MORRI STOWN BRI DGE

The Morristown Bridge, in the State of Vermont, USA, is a
single-span integral abutment bridge with a total length of
43 metres and a width of 11.3 metres. The deck slab has a
thickness of 230 mm and rests on 5 steel girders spaced at
2.4 metres. The deck slab cantilevers on either side of the
bridge are 0.92 metres in length. Top and bottom deck
reinforcement consists of ISOROD GFRP reinforcing bars.



Fig. 10-5. Placement of GFRP and CFRP
reinforcement in the Wotton Bridge deck.



Fig. 10-6. The completed Wotton Bridge.



Fig. 10-7. The GFRP-reinforced Morristown Bridge
deck just before placement of the concrete deck
slab.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
22

Fig. 10-8. Close-up of the Morristown Bridge
decks GFRP reinforcement just before placement
of the concrete (bars were bundled in this
application).





Section 10
Ref er enc es and Addi t i onal Gui danc e

Additional information on the use of FRP materials can be obtained in various documents available from ISIS Canada:

ISIS Design Manual No. 4: Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures with Externally-Bonded Fiber Reinforced
Polymers.
ISIS Design Manual No. 5: Prestressing Concrete Structures with FRPs.
ISIS Educational Module 1: Mechanics Examples Incorporating FRP Materials.
ISIS Educational Module 2: An Introduction to FRP Composites for Construction.
ISIS Educational Module 4: An Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of Concrete Structures.

Due to the increasing popularity and use of FRP reinforcements in the concrete construction industry, a number of design
recommendations have recently been produced by various organizations for the design of concrete structures with internal
FRP reinforcement. The following documents should be consulted for additional information or if design with FRP materials
is being contemplated.

ISIS Design Manual No. 3: Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fiber Reinforced Polymers.
Published by Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures Canada, Winnipeg, MB. 2001
CAN/CSA-S806-02: Design and Construction of Building components with Fibre Reinforced Polymers.
Published by the Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, ON. 2002.
CAN/CSA-S6-05: Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code.
Published by the Canadian Standards Association, Ottawa, ON. 2005.
ACI 440.1R-03: Guide for the design and construction Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars.
Published by the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 2003.



Not at i on

A
frp
cross-sectional area of FRP reinforcement in tension (mm
2
)
A
frpb
cross-sectional area of FRP reinforcement at the balanced failure condition (mm
2
)
A
frpmin
minimum area of FRP required (mm
2
)
a depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block (mm)
b width of the compression zone for a rectangular section (mm)
C compressive stress resultant (N)
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
23
C
n
nominal compressive stress resultant (N)
c depth of neutral axis (mm)
c
b
depth of the neutral axis at the balanced failure condition (mm)
d effective depth of the section (mm)
d
b
diameter of the reinforcement (mm)
E
c
elastic modulus of the concrete (MPa)
E
frp
elastic modulus of the FRP (MPa)
f
c
compressive strength of the concrete (MPa)
f
frp
stress in the FRP reinforcement at failure (MPa)
f
frpu
ultimate tensile strength of the FRP (MPa)
f
r
modulus of rupture of the concrete (MPa)
h overall member depth (mm)
I
cr
moment of inertia of the cracked section transformed to concrete with concrete in tension ignored (mm
4
)
I
t
moment of inertia of the transformed section (mm
4
)

n
member length (mm)
M
a
maximum moment in a member at the load stage at which deflection is being calculated (Nmm)
M
cr
cracking moment of the cross-section (Nmm)
M
f
moment due to the factored loads (Nmm)
M
r
factored moment resistance of the cross-section (Nmm)
n
frp
modular ratio E
frp
/E
c

T tensile stress resultant (N)
T
n
nominal tensile stress resultant (N)
y
t
distance from the centroidal axis of the transformed section to the extreme tension fibre (mm)
stress-block parameter for concrete at a strain less than ultimate

1
CSA A23.3-94 stress-block parameter for concrete at ultimate

d
dimensionless coefficient taken as 0.50 for a rectangular section
stress-block parameter for concrete at a strain less than ultimate

1
CSA A23.3-94 stress-block parameter for concrete at ultimate

cu
ultimate concrete strain

frp
strain in the FRP reinforcement at compression failure

frps
strain in the tensile FRP reinforcement at service load

frpu
ultimate strain of the FRP in tension

s
maximum strain allowed in the reinforcement in service

c
material resistance factor for concrete

frp
material resistance factor of FRP reinforcement

frpb
balanced failure reinforcement ratio

frp
FRP reinforcement ratio
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
24
Appendi x A:
Suggested Student Assignment



Pr obl em #1:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, in positive
bending, for the precast (
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete
section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior
exposure condition:

Material Properties:
Concrete Compressive Strength, f
c
= 45 MPa
FRP Ultimate Strength, f
frpu
= 1596 MPa
FRP Elastic Modulus, E
frp
= 111 MPa
Area of FRP Bars, A
bar
= 71 mm
2






Pr obl em #2:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, in positive
bending, for the precast (
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete
section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior
exposure condition:

Material Properties:
Concrete Compressive Strength, f
c
= 40 MPa
FRP Ultimate Strength, f
frpu
= 2255 MPa
FRP Elastic Modulus, E
frp
= 147 MPa
Area of FRP Bars, A
bar
= 113 mm
2







5
0
0

m
m

250 mm
3 9.3 mm diameter
carbon ISOROD bars
2 9.3 mm diameter
carbon ISOROD bars
4
0
0

m
m

300 mm
6 12 mm diameter
carbon Leadline
TM
bars
in two layers
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
25
Appendi x B:
Assignment Solutions

Pr obl em #1:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, in positive
bending, for the precast (
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete
section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior
exposure condition:

Material Properties:
Concrete Compressive Strength, f
c
= 45 MPa
FRP Ultimate Strength, f
frpu
= 1596 MPa
FRP Elastic Modulus, E
frp
= 111 MPa
Area of FRP Bars, A
bar
= 71 mm
2


Sol ut i on:

1. First, note that we always assume FRP reinforcement is
ineffective in compression. Thus, we can completely ignore
the compression reinforcement for the purposes of this
problem. Next, determine the concrete cover and the
effective depth of the section.
The required concrete cover to the main reinforcement is
(Table 6-1):
mm 40 or mm 23 ) 3 . 9 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =
b
d
40 mm cover governs.
The effective depth, d, is thus:
mm 455
2
3 . 9
40 500
2
cover = = =
b
d
h d
2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio:
( )
( )
3
10 87 . 1
455 250
71 3

=

= =
bd
A
frp
frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio
(Eq. 3-8):
( )
3
1 1
10 02 . 3
0143 . 0 0035 . 0
0035 . 0
1596
45
8 . 0
65 . 0
86 . 0 78 . 0
'

+
=

+
= =
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frp
c
frpb
frpb
f
f
bd
A



Where:
78 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-4)
86 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-5)
0143 . 0
10 111
1596
3
=

= =
frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
(Eq. 3-1)
4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or
compression failure. In this case:
3 3
10 02 . 3 10 87 . 1

= < =
frpb frp

Therefore, we have TENSION FAILURE, and the strain
distribution is as follows:


5
0
0

m
m

250 mm
3 9.3 mm diameter
carbon ISOROD bars
2 9.3 mm diameter
carbon ISOROD bars
0.0143

c
<
cu
d
=

4
5
5

m
m
c
250
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
26
5. Perform an iterative strain-compatibility analysis:
Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 60 mm. Using strain
compatibility:
6
10 2172
60 455
0143 . 0
60

=

=
c
frpu
c
c d c


The tensile stress resultant can be calculated directly using
Eq. 3-16:
( )( )
kN 272
N 272000 1596 71 3 8 . 0
=
= =
=
frpu frp frp
f A T

where
frp
is determined according to Table 3-1.
The compressive stress resultant obtained using Eq. 3-17:
cb f C
c c

'
=
The strain in the extreme compression fibre is less than
ultimate, and , must therefore be determined from Figs.
3-2 and 3-3. From Fig. 3-2, with a concrete strain of
c
=
2172 10
-6
and interpolating between the curves for 40 and
50 MPa concrete, we find that = 0.90. Using Fig. 3-3 we
find = 0.70.
The compressive stress resultant can be obtained:
( )( )( )( )( )
kN 276
N 276412 250 60 70 . 0 45 65 . 0 90 . 0
'
=
= =
= cb f C
c c


Check for equilibrium of the stress-resultants on the cross-
section:
272 276 = = T C
Since C T, further iteration is not required.
6. Determine the moment capacity using Eq. 3-21:
( )( )
m kN 118 mm N 10 118
2
60 70 . 0
455 1596 71 3 8 . 0
2
6
= =

=
c
d f A M
frpu frp frp r


Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 118 kNm.
7. Check that the minimum flexural capacity requirements
are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:
cr r
M M 5 . 1
The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:
( )( )
m kN 42 mm N 10 42
250
10 88 . 2636 45 6 . 0
6
6
= =

=
=
t
t r
cr
y
I f
M

Thus we have:
m kN 63 42 5 . 1 5 . 1 m kN 118 = = =
cr r
M M
OK
Therefore, the flexural resistance of the carbon FRP-
reinforced concrete beam is 118 kNm.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
27
Pr obl em #2:

Calculate the factored moment resistance, M
r
, in positive
bending, for the precast (
c
= 0.65) FRP-reinforced concrete
section shown below. Assume that the beam has an interior
exposure condition:

Material Properties:
Concrete Compressive Strength, f
c
= 40 MPa
FRP Ultimate Strength, f
frpu
= 2255 MPa
FRP Elastic Modulus, E
frp
= 147 MPa
Area of FRP Bars, A
bar
= 113 mm
2
Maximum aggregate size, MAS = 14 mm










Sol ut i on:
1. Determine the concrete cover and the effective depth of
the section. The required concrete cover to the flexural
reinforcement is (Table 6-1):
mm 40 or mm 30 ) 12 )( 5 . 2 ( 5 . 2 = =
b
d
The bar spacing requirements dictate that the spacing
between layers of reinforcement must be the greater of:
mm 17 ) 12 )( 4 . 1 ( 4 . 1 = =
b
d ;
mm 20 ) 14 )( 4 . 1 ( 4 . 1 = = MAS ;
mm 30 ; or
the concrete cover of mm 40 Governs
The effective depth to the bottom layer of reinforcement, d,
is (note that we may not lump the reinforcement as we
would normally do for steel reinforced concrete):
mm 354
2
12
40 400
2
cover = = =
b
bottom
d
h d
The depth to the top layer of reinforcement is:
mm 314 40
2
12
40 400
40
2
cover
= =
=
b
top
d
h d

2. Calculate the FRP reinforcement ratio (here we will use
the average value of effective depth, THIS STEP ONLY!):
( )
( )
3
10 76 . 6
334 300
113 6

=

= =
bd
A
frp
frp

3. Calculate the balanced FRP reinforcement ratio
(Eq. 3-8):
( )
3
1 1
10 84 . 1
0153 . 0 0035 . 0
0035 . 0
2255
40
8 . 0
65 . 0
87 . 0 79 . 0
'

+
=

+
= =
frpu cu
cu
frpu
c
frp
c
frpb
frpb
f
f
bd
A



Where:
79 . 0 ' 0015 . 0 85 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-4)
87 . 0 ' 0025 . 0 97 . 0
1
= =
c
f (Eq. 3-5)
0153 . 0
10 147
2255
3
=

= =
frp
frpu
frpu
E
f
(Eq. 3-1)
4. Check if the section will fail by tension failure or
compression failure. In this case:
3 3
10 84 . 1 10 76 . 6

= > =
frpb frp

Therefore, we have COMPRESSION FAILURE, and the
strain distribution is as follows:

4
0
0

m
m

300 mm
6 12 mm diameter
carbon Leadline
TM
bars
in two layers
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
28


5. Assume the neutral axis depth, c = 115 mm (educated
guess).
6. Now we must determine the actual stresses in the
different layers of FRP reinforcement (NO LUMPING) and
check that the compression and tensile forces are equal.
From the strain profile shown above:
( )
6
,
,
10 7274
115
0035 . 0
115 354

= =

=
bottom frp
bottom
bottom frp
cu
c d c


( )
6
,
,
10 6057
115
0035 . 0
115 314

= =

=
top frp
top
top frp
cu
c d c


Now, the tension force is calculated by summing the
contributions of both layers of FRP:
( )( )( )
kN 290 N 290000
147000 10 7274 113 3 8 . 0
6
,
= =
=
=

frp bottom frp frp frp bottom


E A T

( )( )( )
kN 241 N 241000
147000 10 6057 113 3 8 . 0
6
,
= =
=
=

frp top frp frp frp top


E A T

So the total tensile force is T = 290 + 241 = 531 kN. Now,
the compression force is
( )( )( )( )( )
kN 617 N 617000
300 115 87 . 0 40 65 . 0 79 . 0
'
1
= =
=
= cb f C
c c


Since C = 616 T = 531, we must try a different neutral
axis depth. Try c = 104 mm. As before:
( )
6
,
10 8436
104
0035 . 0
104 354

= =
bottom frp

( )
6
,
10 7088
104
0035 . 0
104 314

= =
top frp

Now, the tension force is calculated by summing the
contributions of both layers of FRP:
( )( )( )
kN 336 N 336000
147000 10 8436 113 3 8 . 0
6
= =
=

bottom
T

( )( )( )
kN 282 N 282000
147000 10 7088 113 3 8 . 0
6
= =
=

top
T

So the total tensile force is T = 336 + 282 = 618 kN. Now,
the compression force is
( )( )( )( )( )
kN 613 N 613000
300 104 87 . 0 40 65 . 0 87 . 0
= =
= C

Since C = 613 T = 618, we will use a neutral axis depth of
c = 104 mm.
7. We can now determine the flexural capacity, M
r
(Eq. 3-
14):
4
0
0

m
m

300 mm

frp
<
frpu

cu
= 0.0035
d
b
o
t
t
o
m

=

3
5
4

m
m

c
d
t
o
p

=

3
1
4

m
m

frp,top

frp,bottom

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
29
mm N 10 175
2
104
314 10 282
2
104
354 10 336
2
2
6
3
3
, ,
, ,
=

=
a
d f A
a
d f A M
top top frp top frp frp
bottom bottom frp bottom frp frp r


Thus, the moment capacity of the section is 175 kNm.
Finally, we must check that the minimum flexural capacity
requirements are satisfied. Using Eq. 3-23:
cr r
M M 5 . 1
The cracking moment is determined using Eq. 3-24:
( )
mm N 10 3 . 30
200
12
400 300
40 6 . 0
6
3
=


=
=
t
t r
cr
y
I f
M

Thus we have:
( ) 5 . 45 3 . 30 5 . 1 5 . 1 175 = = =
cr r
M M OK
Thus, the beam has satisfactory capacity to avoid failure
upon cracking.
Therefore, the flexural resistance of the carbon FRP-
reinforced concrete beam is 175 kNm.

ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
30
Appendi x C:
Suggested Laboratory


The following laboratory procedure is given as an example
of a reinforced concrete laboratory that can be given in
conjunction with an undergraduate course on reinforced
concrete design, and that includes both conventional
reinforcing steel and internal FRP reinforcement. Given the
wide variety of laboratory and testing facilities available at
various Canadian universities, this laboratory is given
primarily as an example for professors of what can be done
using FRP reinforcement to increase the impact and student
understanding of traditional reinforced concrete labs.
Inclusion of FRP reinforcement into traditional
reinforced concrete laboratories is advantageous for a
number of reasons, including:
it introduces students to a new and innovative material
which is gaining acceptance within the reinforced
concrete industry;
it increases student understanding of the fundamental
concepts and assumptions, including serviceability and
deflection, used in reinforced concrete beam design and
analysis;
it forces students to consider and understand important
mechanics concepts such as elasticity, plasticity, and
ductility; and
it exposes students to the state-of-the-art in reinforced
concrete design and thus increases student enthusiasm
for the course content, subsequently, in many cases,
increasing student participation and effort.
The laboratory presented herein suggests the use of
glass FRP reinforcing bars, ISOROD, manufactured by
Pultrall Inc. It is important to recognize that the laboratory
procedures can be adapted to include the use of any specific
type of FRP reinforcement, and this specific type of
reinforcement has been used here only as an example.



Caut i on:
FRP Materials

FRPs are linear elastic materials. As such, these materials
do not display the yielding behaviour observed when testing
steel and they provide little warning prior to failure. In
addition, beams which fail in shear or due to FRP rupture
may fail suddenly and with little warning. It is important
that instructors, students, laboratory demonstrators, and
technical staff be made aware of the specific failure modes
to be expected when testing FRP materials, and that
appropriate safety precautions be taken in addition to
those precautions that are normally enforced.










ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
31
Conc r et e Beam Labor at or y

OVERVI EW

This laboratory is intended to increase students
understanding of the effects of various amounts and types of
internal reinforcement, both steel and fibre reinforced
polymer (FRP), on the flexural and shear behaviour of
reinforced concrete beams. The laboratory consists of the
fabrication and testing of five concrete beams with varying
amounts and types of reinforcement. The laboratory
illustrates the following important concepts:
1. the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete
beams;
2. under-reinforced versus over-reinforced concrete
beams;
3. the effect of shear reinforcement on the load capacity,
deflection, ductility, and failure of reinforced concrete
beams;
4. the effect of reinforcement type (steel or FRP) on the
load capacity, deflection, ductility, and failure of
reinforced concrete beams; and
5. the concepts of cracking, yielding, and moment-
curvature.
The class will be divided into five groups, and each
group will be responsible for the fabrication and testing of
one of the five beams. Experimental data obtained during
testing for all beams will be made available to all groups for
use in writing the laboratory report. Each group will submit
one report only, but will comment on the results for all five
beams.

Beam Det ai l s
All beams will be fabricated from concrete with a specified
28-day concrete strength of 35 MPa (compression tests will
be conducted to determine the true 28-day strength of the
concrete). Steel reinforcement will consist of deformed
reinforcing bars with a specified yield strength of 400 MPa.
FRP reinforcement will consist of glass FRP reinforcing
bars with a specified ultimate strength of 691 MPa and a
tensile elastic modulus of 40 GPa. Note that the beams
suggested herein are given as an example only, since GFRP
bars should not directly contact steel bars in an actual field
application of GFRP reinforcement. The five beams to be
tested in this laboratory are:
1. an under-reinforced beam without shear reinforcement
(steel reinforcing bars);
2. an under-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement
(steel reinforcing bars);
3. an over-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement (steel
reinforcing bars);
4. an under-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement
(glass FRP reinforcing bars); and
5. an over-reinforced beam with shear reinforcement
(glass FRP reinforcing bars).
Dimensions and reinforcement details of the beams are
given on the following page.

I nst r ument at i on and Test i ng
All beams will be tested in four-point bending to failure, as
shown in the figure below. Strain gauges will be mounted
on the tensile reinforcement, prior to casting the concrete,
and on the concrete compression fibre. Load, deflection,
and reinforcement and concrete compressive strain will be
measured and recorded during testing. Cracking patterns
will also be marked and photographed during testing. Any
significant visual observations will be recorded throughout
the tests.

Labor at or y Repor t
The laboratory report should consist of the following:
1. A title page giving the group name and number.
2. An abstract, briefly stating the purpose and procedure
of the lab and the major conclusions drawn.
3. An introduction providing information on the material
properties, beam details, testing setup, instrumentation,
procedures, etc.
4. A calculations and analysis section detailing all
calculations performed for the laboratory. Where a
calculation has been performed more than once only a
sample calculation should be provided. A summary of
theoretical calculations should be presented in tabular
form.
5. An experimental results and discussion section,
summarizing the test results obtained for all beams
tested. This section should include photographs and
plots showing beam behaviour along with a thorough
comparison of theoretical and observed results, and a
comparison of the behaviour of the various beams.
6. A conclusion in which the major points of interest from
the above sections are highlighted. The focus in the
conclusion should be on the consequences of the
observed behaviour on the practical design of
reinforced concrete beams.
7. A list of references. All tests referenced during the
course of the laboratory project should be listed using
an accepted referencing format.



ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
32

200
4
0
0


100
25
2 20M bars
1 15M bar

40 mm cover
to reinforcement

* all dimensions
in millimeters
3000
200
4
0
0


100
25
25
150 150
Etc..
2 20M bars
1 15M bar
10M stirrups

30 mm cover
to stirrups

* all dimensions in
millimeters
200
4
0
0


100
25
25
150 150
Etc..
4 25M bars
10M stirrups

30 mm cover
to stirrups

35 mm vertical
spacing between
bars

* all dim. in mm
200
4
0
0


100
25
25
150 150
Etc..
2 25 mm
glass FRP bars
10M stirrups

30 mm cover
to stirrups

* all dimensions in
millimeters
200
4
0
0


100
25
25
150 150
Etc..
2 10 mm
glass FRP bars
10M stirrups

30 mm cover
to stirrups

* all dimensions in
millimeters
BEAM #1
BEAM #2
BEAM #3
BEAM #4
BEAM #5
100
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
33

CALCULATI ONS AND ANALYSI S

The calculation and analysis section of your report should
include calculations of the following parameters according
to traditional reinforced concrete theory, as presented in
class. Each group should perform the calculations for their
specific beam and then forward their results to all other
groups:
1. Issues related to flexural strength:
a. The bending moment at first cracking of the
concrete in tension (cracking moment, M
cr
).
b. The bending moment at an extreme fibre concrete
compressive stress of 0.4f
c
.
c. The nominal (predicted) moment capacity of the
section.
d. The design (ultimate) moment capacity of the beam
according to CSA A23.3-94 for steel-reinforced
beams and according to ISIS Design Manual No. 3
for FRP-reinforced concrete beams.
2. Issues related to strain and deformation:
a. The strain in the reinforcement and in the concrete
compression fibre at first cracking of the concrete
in tension.
b. The strain in the reinforcement and concrete at an
extreme fibre concrete compressive stress of 0.4f
c
.
c. The strain in the reinforcement and concrete
compression fibre at ultimate.
3. Issues related to curvature and deflection:
a. The midspan curvature and deflection at first
cracking of the concrete in tension.
b. The midspan curvature and deflection at twice the
cracking moment, 2 M
cr
.
c. The midspan curvature and deflection at a concrete
compressive stress of 0.4f
c
.
d. The midspan curvature at ultimate.




RESULTS AND DI SCUSSI ON

In addition to presenting, through the use of graphs and
tables, a summary of experimental data obtained for all five
beams, the results and discussion section of each report
should contain, for all five beams, discussions on the
following topics:
1. A comparison of the theoretical calculations versus the
results obtained during testing and a discussion of
discrepancies between theory and observation.
2. Plots showing:
a. Load versus deflection for all 5 beams.
b. Midspan bending moment versus deflection for all
5 beams.
c. Midspan moment versus strain in the reinforcement
for all 5 beams.
d. Midspan moment versus concrete extreme
compression fibre strain.
Each plot should include points showing: the cracking
moment, steel yielding (where applicable), a
compressive fibre concrete stress of 0.4f
c
, a
compressive fibre concrete strain of 0.0035, and the
maximum load/moment. A bar chart should also be
included showing a comparison of the five beams based
on selected important criteria (left to the discretion of
the student). Each plot should be followed by a brief
commentary and discussion.
3. A comparison should be made between the calculated
design ultimate load, the calculated nominal load
capacity, and the observed load capacity for all beams.
What does this imply for the design of actual reinforced
concrete beams in practice?
Students are expected to provide clear and concise
discussions of the above-listed topics and to add additional
commentary and calculations as they see fit. The reports
will be graded in part on the quality of independent thought
and discussion brought to bear on the various concepts
demonstrated in this laboratory, and on the students explicit
recognition of the greater significance of the results
obtained.
1
2
3
4
1000 mm 1000 mm 900 mm
1 Load cell
2 Concrete compression strain gauge
3 Reinforcement strain gauge
4 Displacement transducer
ISIS Canada Educational Module No. 3: An Introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
34