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List of countries and capitals with currency and

language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their
respective national flags and capitals,including their respective currency and native language.
This list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. The
continents are:
Africa
Asia
Europe
North America
South America
Oceania (a geopolitical region which includes the continent of Australia and the Pacific Islands)
Antarctica
In other models, Asia and Europe can be combined as Eurasia, while North and South America can be
combined as the Americas (for a detailed description of how the world is divided into continents, including
different models, see here).
There are sovereign states and dependent territories that can be considered to belong to more than one
continent, according to geographical, political, or historical criteria.
Contents
[hide]
1 Africa
2 Asia
3 Europe
4 North America
5 South America
6 Oceania
7 Antarctica
8 See also
9 Notes
10 References
11 External links
Africa[edit]
Africa

Area 30,221,532 km
2
(11,668,599 sq mi)
Population 2,032,532,974
[1]
(2011, 2nd)
Pop. density 30.51/km
2
(about 80/sq mi)
Countries 57 (list of countries)
Languages Languages of Africa
Time zones UTC-1 to UTC+4
Main articles: Africa and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa
Further information: Geography of Africa
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area,
population, and population density, see here.
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km (11.7
million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent
of the total land area.
[2]
With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts for about 15% of the world's
human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez
Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and
the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and variousarchipelagoes. It has 54 fully
recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 10 territories and three de factostates with limited recognition.
[3]

Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the origin of humans and
the Hominidaeclade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors,
as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago including Sahelanthropus
tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster with the
earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.
[4]
Africa
straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the
northern temperate to southern temperate zones.
[5]
The African expected economic growth rateis at about 5.0%
for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.
[6]

Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Algeria Algiers Dinar Arabic

Angola Luanda Angolar Portuguese

Benin
Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)
CFA franc French

Botswana Gaborone Pula
English
Setswana

Burkina Faso Ouagadougou CFA franc French
Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Burundi Bujumbura Rupie
Kirundi
French

Cameroon Yaound CFA franc
French
English

Cape Verde Praia
Cape Verdean
escudo
Portuguese

Central African Republic Bangui CFA franc
French
Sango

Chad N'Djamena CFA franc
French
Arabic

Comoros Moroni Comorian franc
Comorian
Arabic
French

Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Brazzaville CFA franc French

Cte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (seat of government)
CFA franc French

Democratic Republic of the
Congo (Congo-Kinshasa)
Kinshasa Congolese franc French

Djibouti Djibouti Djiboutian franc
French
Arabic

Egypt Cairo Egyptian gineih Arabic
Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Equatorial Guinea Malabo
Equatorial Guinean
peseta
Spanish
French
Portuguese

Eritrea Asmara Tallero
Tigrinya
Arabic
English

Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr Amharic

Gabon Libreville CFA franc French

Gambia Banjul Gambian dalasi English

Ghana Accra Ghana cedi English

Guinea Conakry Guinean franc French

Guinea-Bissau Bissau CFA franc Portuguese

Kenya Nairobi Kenyan shilling
Swahili
English

Lesotho Maseru Lesotho loti
English
Sesotho

Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar English
Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Libya Tripoli Dinar Arabic

Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy ariary
Malagasy
French

Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha
English
Chichewa

Mali Bamako CFA franc French

Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya Arabic

Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee
Mauritian Creole
French
English

Mayotte
Mamoudzou
Overseas department of France
Euro French

Morocco Rabat Moroccan dirham
Arabic
Berber

Mozambique Maputo Mozambican metical Portuguese

Namibia Windhoek Namibian dollar English

Niger Niamey CFA franc French
Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Nigeria Abuja Naira English

Runion
Saint-Denis
Overseas department of France
Euro French

Rwanda Kigali Rwandan franc
Kinyarwanda
English
French

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da
Cunha
Jamestown (Saint Helena)
Georgetown (Ascension Island)
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (Tristan da Cunha)
Saint Helena pound
Pound sterling
English

Sao Tome and Principe So Tom Dobra Portuguese

Senegal Dakar CFA franc French

Seychelles Victoria Seychellois rupee
Seychellois Creole
French
English

Sierra Leone Freetown Leone English

Somalia Mogadishu Somali shilling
Somali
Arabic

Somaliland Hargeisa Somaliland shilling
Somali
Arabic

South Africa
Pretoria (administrative/executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
South African rand
Afrikaans
English
Southern Ndebele
Northern Sotho
Southern Sotho
Swazi
Tsonga
Tswana
Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language
Venda
Xhosa
Zulu

South Sudan Juba
South Sudanese
pound
English

Sudan Khartoum Sudanese pound
Arabic
English

Swaziland
Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Lilangeni
English
Swati

Tanzania
Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Tanzanian shilling
Swahili
English

Togo Lom CFA franc French

Tunisia Tunis Tunisian dinar Arabic

Uganda Kampala Ugandan shilling
Swahili
English
Luganda
None Western Sahara None Disputed territory between Morocco and the Sahrawi
Arab Democratic Republic
Moroccan dirham
Algerian dinar
Mauritanian ouguiya
See respective
claimants

Zambia Lusaka Zambian kwacha English

Zimbabwe Harare various
English
Shona
Sindebele
Asia[edit]
Asia

Area 44,579,000 km
2
(17,212,000 sq mi)
[7]

Population 5,879,000,000 (1st)
[8]

Pop. density 87/km
2
(225/sq mi)
Countries 48 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC+2 to UTC+12
Main articles: Asia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia
See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia
Further information: Geography of Asia
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area,
population, and population density, see here.
Asia (
i
/e/ or /e/) is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in
theeastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area)
and with approximately 4.3 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. During the 20th
century Asia's population nearly quadrupled.
[9]

Asia is defined as comprising the eastwards four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal,
the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych
Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.
[10][11]
It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the
south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.
Given its size and diversity, Asia a toponym dating back to classical antiquity "is more a cultural concept"
incorporating diverse regions and peoples than a homogeneous physical entity.
[12]
Asia differs very widely
among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties
and government systems.
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Afghanistan Kabul Afghani
Pashto
Dari (Persian)

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment Euro
English
Greek

Armenia Yerevan Dram Armenian

Azerbaijan
[Europe]
Baku Manat Azerbaijani

Bahrain Manama Bahraini dinar Arabic

Bangladesh Dhaka Taka Bengali

Bhutan Thimphu Bhutanese ngultrum Dzongkha

British Indian Ocean Territory
Diego Garcia
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
US dollar
UK pound
English

Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar Bahasa Melayu
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel Khmer

China Beijing Renminbi (yuan) Standard Chinese

Christmas Island
Flying Fish Cove
External territory of Australia
Australian dollar English

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island
External territory of AustraliaExternal territory of Australia
Australian dollar English

Cyprus
[Europe]
Nicosia Euro
Greek
Turkish

East Timor(Timor-Leste) Dili US Dollar
Portuguese
Tetum

Georgia
[Europe]
Tbilisi Lari Georgian

Hong Kong Special administrative region of China Hong Kong dollar
English
Cantonese

India New Delhi Indian Rupee
Hindi
English
Urdu
Gujarati
Tamil
Kannada
Telugu
Malayalam
Odia
Bengali
Assamese
Manipuri
Sikkimese
Kashmri
Mizo
Garo
Khasi
Jaintia
Marathi
Punjabi
Bodo
Kokborok
Nagamese
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language
Nefamese >MARWARI

Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Indonesian

Iran Tehran Rial Persian

Iraq Baghdad Iraqi dinar
Kurdish
Arabic

Israel Jerusalem New shekel
Hebrew
Arabic

Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese

Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar Arabic

Kazakhstan Astana Tenge
Kazakh
Russian

Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar Arabic

Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som
Kyrgyz
Russian

Laos Vientiane Kip Lao

Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound Arabic
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Macau Special administrative region of China Macanese pataca
Portuguese
Cantonese

Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur (official)
Putrajaya (seat of government)
Ringgit Malaysian

Maldives Mal Maldivian rufiyaa Maldivian

Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tgrg Mongolian

Myanmar(Burma) Rangoon Kyat Burmese

Nagorno-Karabakh
Stepanakert
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Azerbaijan
Armenian dram Armenian

Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese rupee Nepali

Northern Cyprus
Nicosia
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nation as de jure part of Cyprus
Turkish lira Turkish

North Korea Pyongyang North Korean won Korean

Oman Muscat Rial Arabic

Pakistan Islamabad Pakistani Rupee
English
Urdu
Punjabi
Sindhi
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Palestine
East Jerusalem (claimed capital)
Ramallah (West Bank seat of government)
Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of government)
Territory occupied by Israel
State of Palestine (flag displayed)proclaimed on territory
Israeli shekel Arabic

Philippines Manila Peso
Filipino
English

Qatar Doha Riyal Arabic

Saudi Arabia Riyadh Saudi riyal Arabic

Singapore Singapore Singapore dollar
English
Chinese
Malay
Tamil

South Korea Seoul South Korean won Korean

South Ossetia
Tskhinvali
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Georgia
Russian ruble
Ossetic
Georgian
Russian

Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Sri Lankan rupee
Sinhala
Tamil

Syria Damascus Syrian pound Arabic

Taiwan
Taipei
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as part of China.
New Taiwan dollar Standard Chinese

Tajikistan Dushanbe Somoni Tajik
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Thailand Bangkok Baht Thai

Turkey
[Europe]
Ankara Turkish lira Turkish

Turkmenistan Ashgabat Turkmen new manat Turkmen

United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi UAE dirham Arabic

Uzbekistan Tashkent Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) Uzbek

Vietnam Hanoi ng Vietnamese

Yemen Sana'a Yemeni rial Arabic
Notes
1. The Russian Federation is classified as a European country by the United Nations Statistics Division. Russia is historically the successor of the Grand Duchy of
Moscow, a medieval state of northeastern Europe. The Russian conquest of Northern Asia begins in the late 16th century. Today, most of the territory of Russia is
in Asia, but most of its population lives in the European part.
Europe[edit]
Europe

Area 10,180,000 km
2
(3,930,000 sq mi)
[n]

Population 739,165,030
[n]
(2011), 3rd)
Pop. density 72.5/km
2

Countries 50 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC to UTC+6
Main articles: Europe and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe
See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia
Further information: Geography of Europe
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area,
population, and population density, see here.
Europe (
i
/jrp/ EWR-p or /jrp/ YUR-p
[13]
) is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents.
Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia by thewatershed
divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and
the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas.
[14]
Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north,
the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected
waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of Europea concept dating back to classical antiquityare
somewhat arbitrary, as the primarily physiographic term "continent" can incorporate cultural and
political elements.
Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres
(3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe's approximately 50
states, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up 40% of the continent (although the
country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most
populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 733 million or about 11% of the world's
population.
[15]

Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.
[16]
It played a predominant role in
global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 16th
and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa,Oceania, and
large portions of Asia. In 1900, Europe's share of the world's population was 25%.
[17]
Both World Wars were
largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs
by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.
[18]
During the Cold War,
Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the
east. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western
Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since therevolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet
Union in 1991.
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

land Islands
Mariehamn
Autonomous region of Finland (recognized by international treaty)
Euro Swedish

Albania Tirana Lek Albanian

Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro Catalan

Austria Vienna Euro German
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Belarus Minsk Belarusian ruble
Belarusian
Russian

Belgium Brussels Euro
Dutch
French
German

Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Convertible mark
Bosnian
Croatian
Serbian

Bulgaria Sofia Lev Bulgarian

Croatia Zagreb Kuna Croatian

Czech Republic Prague Czech koruna
Slovak
German
Polish
Bulgarian
Croatian
Greek
Hungarian
Romani
Russian
Rusyn
Serbian
Ukrainian

Denmark Copenhagen Danish krone
[a]
Danish

Estonia Tallinn Euro Estonian

Faroe Islands
Trshavn
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm
Faroese krna
Faroese
Danish

Finland Helsinki Euro
Finnish
Swedish
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

France Paris
Euro
CFP franc
French

Germany Berlin Euro German

Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Gibraltar pound English

Greece Athens Euro Greek

Guernsey
Saint Peter Port
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling
English
French

Hungary Budapest Forint Hungarian

Iceland Reykjavk Icelandic krna Icelandic

Ireland Dublin Euro
English
Irish

Isle of Man
Douglas
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling
English
Manx

Italy Rome Euro Italian

Jersey
Saint Helier
British Crown dependency
Pound sterling
English
French

Kosovo
Pristina
De facto sovereign state recognized by over 80 UN member states
A United Nations mandate in Serbian territory was put in place starting in 1999.
Euro
Albanian
Serbian

Latvia Riga Lats Latvian

Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc German
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Lithuania Vilnius Lithuanian litas Lithuanian

Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro
Luxembourgish
French
German

Macedonia Skopje Macedonian denar Macedonian

Malta Valletta Euro
Maltese
English

Moldova Chiinu Moldovan leu Moldovan

Monaco Monaco Euro French

Montenegro Podgorica Euro Montenegrin

Netherlands Amsterdam
Euro
US dollar
NA guilder
Aruban florin
Dutch

Norway Oslo Norwegian krone
Norwegian
Bokml
Nynorsk

Poland Warsaw Zoty Polish

Portugal Lisbon Euro Portuguese

Romania Bucharest Romanian leu Romanian

Russia Moscow Russian ruble
Russian
27 others co-official

San Marino San Marino Euro Italian

Serbia Belgrade Serbian dinar Serbian

Slovakia Bratislava Euro Slovak

Slovenia Ljubljana Euro Slovene

Spain Madrid Euro
Spanish
Catalan
Galician
Basque

Svalbard
Longyearbyen
Special territory of Norway (recognized by international treaty)
Norwegian krone Norwegian

Sweden Stockholm Swedish krona Swedish
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Switzerland Bern Swiss franc
German
French
Italian
Romansh

Transnistria
Tiraspol
De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Moldova
Transnistrian ruble
Russian
Moldovan
Ukrainian

Ukraine Kiev Ukrainian hryvnia Ukrainian

United Kingdom London Pound sterling English

Vatican City Vatican City Euro Italian
Notes
1.
Transcontinental countries in Europe and Asia, classified as West Asian countries by the United Nations Statistics Division:
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey.
In West Asia, but a member of the European Union: Cyprus.
North America[edit]
North America

Area 24,709,000 km
2
(9,540,000 sq mi)
Population 528,720,588 (2008, 4th)
Pop. density 22.9/km
2
(59.3/sq mi)
[b]

Countries 23 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-10 to UTC
Main articles: North America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America
See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas
Further information: Geography of North America
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area,
population, and population density, see here.
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western
Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
[19]
It is bordered to the north by
the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the
southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of
the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529
million people across 23 independent states. North America is the third-largest continent in area,
following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Anguilla
The Valley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

English

Antigua and Barbuda St. John's

English

Aruba
Oranjestad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Bahamas Nassau

English

Barbados Bridgetown

English

Belize Belmopan

English

Bermuda
Hamilton
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

English

Bonaire
Kralendijk
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar


British Virgin Islands
Road Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English

Canada Ottawa Canadian Dollar
French
English

Cayman Islands
George Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

English

Clipperton Island
uninhabited
Overseas territory of France
Euro French

Costa Rica San Jos


Cuba Havana

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Curaao
Willemstad
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands


Dominica Roseau

English

Dominican Republic Santo Domingo

Spanish

El Salvador San Salvador United States Dollar


Greenland
Nuuk
Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm


Grenada St. George's


Guadeloupe
Basse-Terre
Overseas department of France
Euro French

Guatemala Guatemala City


Haiti Port-au-Prince

French

Honduras Tegucigalpa


Jamaica Kingston

English
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Martinique
Fort-de-France
Overseas department of France
Euro French

Mexico Mexico City

Spanish

Montserrat
Plymouth (official)
Brades (seat of government)
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom

English

Navassa Island
-
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English

Nicaragua Managua


Panama Panama City


Puerto Rico
San Juan
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar
English
Spanish

Saba
The Bottom
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar


Saint Barthlemy
Gustavia
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French

Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre

English

Saint Lucia Castries

Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Saint Martin
Marigot
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre
Overseas collectivity of France
Euro French

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown


Sint Eustatius
Oranjestad
Special municipality of the Netherlands
United States Dollar


Sint Maarten
Philipsburg
Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands


Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain

English

Turks and Caicos Islands
Cockburn Town
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
United States Dollar English

United States Washington, D.C. United States Dollar none

United States Virgin Islands
Charlotte Amalie
Insular area of the United States of America
United States Dollar English
South America[edit]
South America

Area
17,840,000 km
2

(6,890,000 sq mi)
Population 387,489,196 (2011, 5th)
Pop. density 21.4 per km
2
(56.0 per sq mi)
Countries 12 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-2 to UTC-5
Main articles: South America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America
See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas
Further information: Geography of South America
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as
area, population, and population density, see here.
South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a
relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
[20][21]

It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North
America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It is formed by twelve sovereign states -
Argentina,Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay,
and Venezuela - the French Guiana, which is an overseas region of France, and the Falkland Islands, a British
Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also be considered part of
South America, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. The South American states that border the Caribbean Sea
Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also known as Caribbean South America.
South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2005 has
been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, andNorth
America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). The word Americawas coined
in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemller and Matthias Ringmann, after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the
first European to suggest that the lands newly discovered by Europeans were notIndia, but a New
World unknown to Europeans.
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Argentina Buenos Aires Peso Spanish

Bolivia
Sucre (official)
La Paz (seat of government)
Boliviano
Spanish
Quechua
Aymara

Brazil Braslia Real Portuguese

Chile Santiago Peso Spanish

Colombia Bogot Peso Spanish

Ecuador Quito United States dollar Spanish

Falkland Islands
Stanley
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Falkland Islands pound English

French Guiana
Cayenne
Overseas department of France
Euro French
Flag Name Capital Currency Official language

Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar English

Paraguay Asuncin Guaran
Spanish
Guaran

Peru Lima Nuevo sol Spanish

Suriname Paramaribo Surinamese dollar Dutch

Uruguay Montevideo Uruguayan peso Spanish

Venezuela Caracas Bolvar fuerte Spanish
Oceania[edit]
Oceania

Geopolitical Oceania
Area
17,840,000 km
2

(6,890,000 sq mi)
Population 387,489,196 (2011, 5th)
Pop. density 21.4 per km
2
(56.0 per sq mi)
Countries 14 (list of countries)
Languages List of languages
Time zones UTC-2 to UTC-5
Main articles: Oceania and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania
See also: Australia (continent) and Pacific Islands
Further information: Geography of Oceania
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area,
population, and population density, see here.
Australia (UK /on/ or /osn/;
[22]
US /oini/)
[23]
is a region centered on the islands of the
tropical Pacific Ocean.
[24]
Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands
of the South Pacific (ethnologically divided into the subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia)
[25]
to
the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Maritime Southeast
Asia.The term is sometimes used more specifically to denote a continentcomprising Australia and proximate
islands,
[26][27][28][29]
or biogeographically as a synonym for either theAustralasian
ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either
from New Zealand
[30]
or from mainland New Guinea).
[31]

Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

American Samoa
Pago Pago
Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar
English
Samoan

Ashmore and Cartier
Islands
External territory of
Australia


Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Australia Canberra Australian dollar None
[c]


Baker Island Insular area of the United States of America


Cook Islands
Avarua
Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association
with New Zealand
New Zealand dollar
Cook Islands dollar
English
Cook Islands
Mori

Coral Sea Islands External territory of Australia


Fiji Suva


French Polynesia
Papeete
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French

Guam Hagta Insular area of the United States of America


Howland Island Insular area of the United States of America


Jarvis Island Insular area of the United States of America


Johnston Atoll Insular area of the United States of America


Kingman Reef Insular area of the United States of America


Kiribati South Tarawa

Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Marshall Islands Majuro


Micronesia Palikir


Midway Atoll Insular area of the United States of America


Nauru Yaren (seat of government)



New Caledonia
Nouma
Sui generis collectivity (special collectivity) of France
CFP Franc French

New Zealand Wellington


Niue Alofi
Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free
association with New Zealand


Norfolk Island Kingston Self-governing territory of Australia


Northern Mariana
Islands
Saipan Insular area of the United States of America


Palau Melekeok


Palmyra Atoll Insular area of the United States of America

Flag Name Capital Currency
Official
language

Papua New Guinea Port Moresby


Pitcairn Islands Adamstown Overseas territory of the United Kingdom


Samoa Apia


Solomon Islands Honiara


Tokelau
Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own
administrative centre)
Dependent territory of New Zealand


Tonga Nukualofa


Tuvalu Funafuti


Vanuatu Port Vila Vanuatu vatu


Wake Island

Insular area of the United States of America
United States dollar


Wallis and Futuna
Mata-Utu
Overseas collectivity of France
CFP Franc French
Antarctica[edit]
Antarctica

Area 14,000,000 km
2
(5,400,000 sq mi)
[32]

Demonym Antarctican
Main article: Antarctica
Further information: Geography of Antarctica
Antarctica (
i
/ntrtk/ or /ntrktk/)
[d]
is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the
geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south
of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km
2
(5.4 million sq mi), it is the
fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica
is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by icethat averages at least 1 mile
(1.6 km) in thickness.
Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest averageelevation of
all the continents.
[35]
Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches)
along the coast and far less inland.
[36]
The temperature in Antarctica has reached 89 C (129 F). There are
no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the
research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many
types of algae, animals (for
example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals andtardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. Vegetation
where it occurs is tundra.
Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first
confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian
expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen andMikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The continent,
however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of
resources, and isolation. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have
signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and
nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent'secozone. Ongoing
experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.
Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south
of 60S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in
Antarctica have been made:
Argentina: Argentine Antarctica
Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory
Brazil: Brazilian Antarctica (unofficial)
Chile: Antrtica
France: Adlie Land
New Zealand: Ross Dependency
Norway: Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land
United Kingdom: British Antarctic Territory
(Unclaimed: Marie Byrd Land)
Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:
Flag Name Capital Currency Official Language

Bouvet Island
Dependent territory of Norway


French Southern Territories
Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)
Port-aux-Franais (Kerguelen Islands)
Martin-de-Vivis (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France
Euro French

Heard Island and McDonald Islands
External territory of Australia


South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
King Edward Point
Overseas territory of the United Kingdom
Pound sterling English
See also[edit]
List of countries and capitals in native languages
List of national capitals
List of currencies
Notes[edit]
1. Jump up^ In the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the krna, but is not a separate currency.
2. Jump up^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km
2
only, considerably less than the total combined land and water
area of 24,709,000 km.
3. Jump up^ English does not have de jure status.
4. Jump up^ The word was originally pronounced without /k/, but the spelling pronunciation has become very common. The "c" was originally added to the spelling
for etymological reasons and then began to be pronounced.
[33][34]

References