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23 1
Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction

Answers to Even-Numbered Conceptual Questions

2. The magnetic field will have little apparent effect, because the break in the ring will prevent a current from
flowing around its circumference. What the magnetic field will do, however, is produce a nonzero emf
between the two sides of the break.
4. The metal plate moving between the poles of a magnet experiences eddy currents that retard its motion.
This helps to damp out oscillations in the balance, resulting in more accurate readings.
6. Nothing. In this case, the break prevents a current from circulating around the ring. This, in turn, prevents
the ring from experiencing a magnetic force that would propel it into the air.
8. As the penny begins to tip over, there is a large change in the magnetic flux through its surface, due to the
great intensity of the MRI magnetic field. This change in magnetic flux generates an induced current in the
penny that opposes its motion. As a result, the penny falls over slowly, as if it were immersed in molasses.
10. When the angular speed of the coil in an electric generator is increased, the rate at which the magnetic flux
changes increases as well. As a result, the magnitude of the induced emf produced by the generator
increases. Of course, the frequency of the induced emf increases as well.
12. When the switch is opened in a circuit with an inductor, the inductor tries to maintain the original current.
(In general, an inductor acts to resist any change in the currentwhether the current is increasing or
decreasing.) Therefore, the continuing current may cause a spark to jump the gap.


Solutions to Problems and Conceptual Exercises


1. Picture the Problem: The image shows a ring of radius 3.1 cm oriented at an angle
of = 16 from a B = 0.055 T magnetic field.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-1 for the flux.

Solution: Calculate the flux:
( ) ( )
2
4
cos
0.055 T 0.031 m cos16
1.6 10 Wb
BA

=
=
=

Insight: The maximum flux through this coil, 1.6610
4
Wb, occurs when the angle is zero.




2. Picture the Problem: The image shows a box immersed in a vertical
magnetic field.

Strategy: Use equation 23-1 to calculate the flux through each side.

Solution: 1. The sides of the box are parallel to the field, so the magnetic
flux through the sides is zero .

2. Calculate the flux through the bottom:
( )( )( )
4
cos 0.0250 T 0.325 m 0.120 m cos 0 9.75 10 Wb . BA

= = =
Insight: The height of the box is not important in this problem.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 2

3. Picture the Problem: The image shows a rectangular loop oriented 42 degrees from a
magnetic field.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-1 for the magnetic field.

Solution: Calculate
the magnetic field:
( )( )
5 2
4.8 10 Tm
0.020 T
cos 0.051 m 0.068 m cos 47
B
A


= = =


Insight: The minimum magnetic field that would produce this flux would occur when the rectangle is parallel to the
magnetic field.


4. Picture the Problem: A house has a floor of dimensions 22 m by 18 m. The local magnetic field due to Earth has a
horizontal component 2.610
-5
T and a downward vertical component 4.210
-5
T.
Strategy: The horizontal component of the magnetic field is parallel to the floor, so it does not contribute to the flux.
Use equation 23-1 to calculate the flux using the vertical component.

Solution: Calculate the magnetic flux:
( )( )( )
5 2
cos 4.2 10 T 22 m 18 m 1.7 10 Wb BA B A

= = = =
Insight: The flux through the vertical walls of the house is determined by the horizontal component of the magnetic
field instead of the vertical component.


5. Picture the Problem: A solenoid of diameter 1.2 m produces a magnetic field of 1.7 T.
Strategy: Multiply the magnetic field by the cross-sectional area of the solenoid to calculate the magnetic flux.

Solution: Calculate the magnetic flux:
( )
2
1.2 m
cos 1.7 T cos 0 1.9 Wb
2
BA

= = =



Insight: Note that the length of the solenoid does not affect the flux through the solenoid.


6. Picture the Problem: A magnetic field of magnitude 5.910
5
T is directed 72 below the horizontal and passes
through a horizontal region 130 cm by 82 cm.
Strategy: Use equation 23-1 to calculate the flux, where the angle from the vertical is = 90 72.

Solution: Calculate the flux:
( )( )( ) ( )
5 5
cos 5.9 10 T 1.30 m 0.82 m cos 90 72 6.0 10 Wb BA

= = =
Insight: Increasing the angle from the horizontal increases the flux through the desk top. For example, if the angle
were increased to 80 from the horizontal the total flux would increase to 6.210
-5
Wb.


7. Picture the Problem: When a current flows through a solenoid of diameter 15.0 cm and 375 turns per meter, a flux of
1.2810


4
Wb is generated in the core of the solenoid.
Strategy: Divide the flux by the cross-sectional area of the solenoid to calculate the magnetic field. Then use equation
22-12 to calculate the current in the solenoid.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the
magnetic field inside the solenoid:
( )
4 2
3
2
1.28 10 T m
5.64 10 T
0.0850 m
B
A


= = =

2. Calculate the current:
( )( )
0
3
7 1
0
5.64 10 T
11.7 A
4 10 T m/A 385 m
B nI
B
I
n

= = =


3. (b) Because the current is inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the solenoid, doubling the diameter
would multiply the answer to part (a) by a factor of one-fourth. Therefore, the current would be cut to a fourth.
Insight: If the diameter were 34.0 cm, the current would become 2.91 A, which is one-fourth that found in part (a).

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 3

8. Picture the Problem: A square loop of side is inside of a long solenoid and is oriented perpendicular to the axis of
the solenoid.
Strategy: Use equation 22-12 to calculate the magnetic field of the solenoid. Then use equation 23-1, with = 0 to
calculate the flux through the rectangle. Because the magnetic field is confined within the solenoid, the area will be the
smaller of the cross-sectional area of the solenoid or the area of the rectangle.
Solution: 1. Calculate the magnetic
field inside the solenoid:
( )( )( )
7 -1
0
4 10 T m/A 1250 m 2.50 A 3.926 mT B nI

= = =

2. (a) Find the flux when ( ) 3.00 cm : d = < ( )( )
2
6
3.926 mT 0.0300 m 3.53 10 Wb BA

= = =

3. (b) Repeat for ( ) 6.00 cm : d = = ( ) ( )
2
5
3.926 mT 0.0300 m 1.11 10 Wb BA

= = =

4. (c) Repeat for ( ) 12.0 cm : d = >
is the same as that found in part (b),
5
1.11 10 Wb



Insight: When the length is less than 2 , d the square will completely fit within the solenoid and the flux is
2
. B = When the length is greater than or equal to d, the solenoid will completely fit within the square and the flux
is
( )
2 1
4
. B d =

9. Picture the Problem: A coil of radius 15 cm and 53 turns is oriented perpendicular to a magnetic field. The magnetic
field changes from 0.45 T to zero in 0.12 s.
Strategy: Use equation 23-3 to calculate the induced emf, with the flux given by equation 23-1.
Solution: Calculate the emf:
( ) ( )
2
0.45 T 0.15 m
0
53 14 V
0.12 s
BA
N N
t t


= = = =


Insight: Note that the emf is inversely proportional to the time it takes for the magnetic field to change. In this case, if
it dropped to zero in only 0.060 seconds (half the time), the average emf would be twice as large, or 28 V.

10. Picture the Problem: The magnetic flux through a coil oscillates in time
as indicated by the graph at right.
Strategy: The magnitude of the flux is greatest when the flux is at a
maximum or a minimum on the graph. The magnitude of the emf is
greatest when the flux has the greatest positive or negative slope.
Solution: 1. (a) The magnetic flux has its greatest magnitude at
t = 0 s, 0.2 s, 0.4 s, and 0.6 s .
2. (b) The magnitude of the induced emf is greatest at
t = 0.1 s, 0.3 s, and 0.5 s .
Insight: Note that the magnitude of the induced emf is zero when the magnitude of the flux is a maximum and the
magnitude of the induced emf is a maximum when the flux is zero.

11. Picture the Problem: The figure shows the flux through a single loop coil
as a function of time.
Strategy: Use equation 23-3 to calculate the emf at the times
t = 0.05 s, 0.15 s, and 0.50 s. Use the graph to find the change in flux.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate
the emf at t = 0.05 s:
10 Wb 0
0.1 kV
0.1 s
N
t


= = =


2. (b) Calculate the
emf at t = 0.15 s:
0 =

3. (c) Calculate the
emf at t = 0.50 s:
5Wb 10 Wb
0.04 kV
0.6 s 0.2 s


= =


Insight: When the slope of the flux is constant, the emf is constant. The emf is 0.04 kV from t = 0.2 s to t = 0.6 s.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 4

12. Picture the Problem: A wire loop is placed in a magnetic field that is
perpendicular to its plane. The field varies with time as shown at right.
Strategy: Faradays Law states that the magnitude of the induced emf is
proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux. In this case, the
magnetic flux is proportional to the field magnitude because the area of the
loop and its orientation remain constant. The rate of change of the flux is
therefore determined by the rate of change of the field, which in turn is
represented by the slope of the plot at the right. Use the slope of the plot to
determine the ranking of the magnitude of the induced emf.
Solution: The graph region with the steepest slope (E) corresponds to the
greatest induced emf, and the regions with zero slope (D and F) correspond
to zero emf. Using similar reasoning we arrive at the ranking:
D = F < A < B < C < E
Insight: Note that in regions D and F the field is nonzero (and so is the flux) but the induced emf is zero because it
depends on the rate of change of the flux, not the magnitude of the flux.




13. Picture the Problem: The figure at the right shows four different
situations in which a metal ring moves to the right with constant speed
through a region with a varying magnetic field. The intensity of the color
indicates the intensity of the field, and in each case the field either
increases or decreases at a uniform rate from the left edge of the colored
region to the right edge. The direction of the field in each region is
indicated.
Strategy: Lenzs Law states that an induced current always flows in a
direction that opposes the change that caused it. In each of the four cases
the magnetic flux through the ring changes because of its motion at
constant speed to the right. Use the Right-Hand Rule for the magnetic
field due to a current in order to determine in which direction the current
should flow in order to oppose the change in flux.
Solution: 1. Figure 1 indicates the flux out of the page and through the ring decreases as the ring moves to the right and
into a weaker field. The induced current in the ring will oppose this change and attempt to increase the out-of-the-page
flux through the ring. The Right-Hand Rule indicates the current will flow counterclockwise in order to do this.
2. Figure 2 indicates the flux out of the page and through the top half of the ring decreases as the ring moves to the right
and into a weaker field. However, the out-of-the-page flux through the bottom half of the ring increases as the ring
moves to the right and into a stronger field. The net flux through the ring stays approximately constant and there will be
no change of flux, so the induced emf in the ring is zero.
3. Figure 3 indicates the flux into the page and through the top half of the ring decreases as the ring moves to the right
and into a weaker field. Meanwhile, the out-of-the-page flux through the bottom half of the ring also decreases as the
ring moves to the right and into a weaker field. The net flux through the ring stays approximately constant (the flux is
approximately zero) and there will be no change of flux, so the induced emf in the ring is zero.
4. Figure 4 indicates the flux into the page and through the top half of the ring decreases as the ring moves to the right
and into a weaker field. Meanwhile, the out-of-the-page flux through the bottom half of the ring increases as the ring
moves to the right and into a stronger field. The net flux through the ring increases in the out-of-the-page direction.
The induced current in the ring will oppose this change and attempt to increase the into-the-page flux through the ring.
The Right-Hand Rule indicates the current will flow clockwise in order to do this.
Insight: If the ring in figure 4 were to move toward the top of the page, the bottom half of the ring would leave the out-
of-the-page field region and enter the into-the-page region. This would increase the into-the-page flux through the ring,
and the induced current would oppose this change and flow in the counterclockwise direction.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 5

14. Picture the Problem: The image shows the emf through a single loop as a
function of time.
Strategy: Use equation 23-3 to calculate the emf at the times t = 0.25 s and
t = 0.55 s
Solution: 1. (a) The flux at t = 0.25 s is about 8 Wb. This is greater than
the flux at t = 0.55 s, which is about 3 Wb.
2. (b) The two emf values are the same, because at those two times the flux
is changing at the same rate.

3. (c) Calculate the slope of
the flux between 0.2 s and 0.6 s:
5 Wb 10 Wb
37.5 Wb/s
0.6 s 0.2 s t

= =



4. Calculate the induced emf : ( ) 1 37.5 Wb/s 0.04 kV N
t


= = =


Insight: Note that the emf is zero for times 0.1 s < t < 0.2 s and t > 0.6 s. The voltage is not determined by the
magnitude of the flux but by the slope of the flux vs. time graph. For these two time periods the slope is zero.


15. Picture the Problem: The magnetic flux through a coil oscillates in time
as indicated by the graph at the right.

Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to estimate the magnitude of the emf from the
graph.

Solution: 1. (a) The magnitude of the induced emf is greater
near t = 0.5 s, because is changing more rapidly there. (In fact,
it is not changing at all at the instant t = 0.4 s.)
2. (b) The induced emf will have maximum magnitude where is changing most rapidly: 0.1 s, 0.3 s, 0.5 s, ...

3. (c) Estimate the emf at t = 0.3 s:
( ) ( ) 2 Wb 2 Wb
1 0.06 kV
0.333 s 0.267 s
N
t


= =





4. Estimate the emf at t = 0.4 s: 0 = because 0
t



5. Estimate the emf at t = 0.5 s:
( ) ( ) 2 Wb 2 Wb
1 0.06 kV
0.533 s 0.467 s
N
t


= =




Insight: The magnitude of the emf is the same at t = 0.3 s and t = 0.5 s, but the polarity is opposite.


16. Picture the Problem: The image shows a single loop of area 7.410
2
m
2
and
resistance 110 . The loop is perpendicular to a magnetic field.

Strategy: Solve Ohms Law (equation 21-2) for the necessary emf. Then insert the
emf into equation 23-4 to calculate the rate of change in the magnetic field.

Solution: 1. Calculate the emf : ( )( ) 0.32 A 110 35 V IR = = =

2. Solve equation 23-4 for the
change in magnetic field:
( )
2
2 2
35 V
4.9 10 T/s
1 7.2 10 m
A B
N N
t t
B
t


= =

= = =


Insight: The magnitude of the magnetic field (0.48 T) is not important, only the rate of change in the field.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 6

17. Picture the Problem: A coil with 120 loops is oriented perpendicular to a changing magnetic field.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-4 for the emf, where the magnetic flux is given by equation 23-1.

Solution: Calculate the emf :
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 0.20 T 0.050 m
2
120 7.1 V
0.34 s
BA BA BA
N N N
t t t


= = = = =


Insight: This emf is double the value the coil would experience if the magnetic field simply dropped to zero in the
same time period.

18. Picture the Problem: A square loop of wire is immersed in a magnetic field. The
square is rapidly changed into a circle with the same perimeter.
Strategy: Use equation 23-1 to calculate the flux through the circle and the
square. Then insert the fluxes into equation 23-4 to calculate the induced emf.

Solution: 1. Calculate
the radius of the circle:
1.22 m
2 0.194 m
2
C r r

= = =

2. Calculate the flux
through the circle:
( ) ( )
2
2
circle
0.125 T 0.194 m
0.0148 Wb
BA B r = = =
=


3. Find the side length
of the square:
1.22 m
4 0.305 m
4 4
P
P s s = = = =
4. Calculate the flux
through the square:
( )( )
2
2
square
0.125 T 0.305 m 0.0116 Wb BA Bs = = = =

5. Calculate the emf :
circle square 4
0.0148 0.0116 Wb
1 7.5 10 V
4.25 s
N
t




= = =


Insight: If the field points out of the page, the induced current will be clockwise because the out-of-the-page flux
through the coil is increasing. Note that there are only two significant figures in the answer because of the rules for
subtraction.

19. Picture the Problem: A number of circular loops of wire are oriented perpendicular to a changing magnetic field.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-4 for the number of coils, with the flux given by equation 23-1. The radius of the loops is
( )
1 1
2 2
0.12 m 0.060 m. r d = = =

Solution: Find the
number of coils:
( ) ( )
3
2
1.8 s
6.0 V 3.8 10
0.25 T 0.060 m
t t
N N
t BA



= = = = =


Insight: Note that the number of coils is proportional to the desired emf. To obtain an emf of 3.0 V, only half as many
(1.910
3
) coils would be needed.

20. Picture the Problem: A metal ring is dropped into a localized region of constant magnetic
field, as indicated in the figure at the right. The magnetic field is zero above and below the
indicated region.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction that the induced current must flow in
order to oppose the change in the magnetic flux through the ring.
Solution: 1. (a) At location 1 the magnetic flux through the ring is increasing in the out-of-the-page direction. The
induced current will flow clockwise in order to produce into-the-page flux to oppose this change. At location 2 the flux
through the ring is not changing so that the induced current is zero. At location 3 the out-of-the-page flux through the
ring is decreasing, so the induced current will flow counterclockwise to oppose this change by producing out-of-the-
page flux. In summary: Location 1, clockwise; location 2, zero; location 3, counterclockwise.
2. The best explanation is I. Clockwise at 1 to oppose the field; zero at 2 because the field is uniform; counterclockwise
at 3 to try to maintain the field. Statement II has the current directions reversed, and statement III does not properly
recognize the rate of change of the magnetic flux through the loop.
Insight: Statement II would be correct if the magnetic field pointed into the page.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 7

21. Picture the Problem: A metal ring is dropped into a localized region of constant magnetic
field, as indicated in the figure at the right. The magnetic field is zero above and below the
indicated region.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction that the induced current must flow in
order to oppose the change in the magnetic flux through the ring. Then use the Right-Hand
Rule for magnetic forces to determine the force on the ring.
Solution: 1. (a) From the previous problem we know that at location 1 the induced current will flow clockwise. There
is no magnetic force on the top of the ring where the field is zero, but at the bottom of the ring the force on a current
flowing from right to left will be in the upward direction. The forces on the sides of the ring cancel, so the net force on
the ring is upward. At location 2 no current flows (see previous problem) so there is no magnetic force. At location 3
the current is counterclockwise (see previous problem) and there is no force on the bottom of the ring because it is in the
field-free region. At the top of the ring the magnetic force on a current flowing from right-to-left is in the upward
direction. In summary: Location 1, upward; location 2, zero; location 3, upward.
2. The best explanation is III. Upward at 1 to oppose entering the field; zero at 2 because the field is uniform; upward at
3 to oppose leaving the field. Statement I has the force direction at location 3 reversed and statement II does not
recognize that the induced current (and therefore the magnetic force) is zero at location 2.
Insight: The action of the magnetic force will be to reduce the downward acceleration of the ring both when it enters
and when it leaves the field region. At all other times the acceleration of the ring is 9.81 m/s
2
downward.


22. Picture the Problem: The figure at the right shows two metal disks of the same
size and material oscillating in and out of a region with a magnetic field. One disk is
solid; the other has a series of slots.
Strategy: Note that the action of the slots will be to suppress the induced currents in
the disk that result from the changing magnetic field through the disk. The disk
with slots will therefore experience a much smaller magnetic force than will the
solid disk.
Solution: 1. (a) The slots in the second disk will tend to suppress the clockwise and counterclockwise currents that are
induced by the change in the magnetic field through the disk. The diminished currents through the disk will result in a
diminished magnetic force on the disk, so we conclude that the retarding effect of eddy currents on the solid disk is
greater than the retarding effect on the slotted disk.
2. The best explanation is I. The solid disk experiences a greater retarding force because eddy currents in it flow freely
and are not interrupted by the slots. Statement II does not recognize that the field penetration through the disk is not
affected by the slots, and statement III ignores the importance of the eddy currents in explaining the motion of the disks.
Insight: In this common classroom demonstration the motion of the two disks are dramatically different. The motion of
the solid disk is quickly damped to zero while the slotted disk continues to swing nearly unimpeded.


23. Picture the Problem: The figure at the right shows two metal disks of the same
size and material oscillating in and out of a region with a magnetic field. One disk is
solid; the other has a series of slots.
Strategy: Consider the solid disk as it swings into and out of the magnetic field.
Note that whenever the magnetic flux through the disk changes, a circulating eddy
current is induced in the disk that opposes the change in the flux.
Solution: When the solid disk has swung to the right as far as it can go, it is fully immersed in the magnetic field. At
that point the magnetic flux through the disk is not changing. According to Faradays Law, there is no induced current
if the magnetic flux is not changing, so we conclude that the induced current in the disk is at a minimum at that
location.
Insight: A current is only induced in the disk during the times when part of the disk is immersed in the magnetic field
and part is not. It is at those times that the magnetic flux through the disk is changing.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 8

24. Picture the Problem: The figure at the right shows two metal disks of the same
size and material oscillating in and out of a region with a magnetic field. One disk is
solid; the other has a series of slots.

Strategy: Consider the solid disk as it swings into the magnetic field from left to
right. Note that whenever the magnetic flux through the disk changes, a circulating
eddy current is induced in the disk that opposes the change in the flux.
Solution: 1. (a) As the disk enters the field, which points into the page, a current
will be induced that produces a field pointing out of the page. Therefore, the induced current circulates in the
counterclockwise direction.
2. The best explanation is II. The induced current is counterclockwise to generate a field within the disk that points out
of the page. Statement I does not agree with Lenzs Law, and statement III is false.
Insight: If the disk swings from right to left, exiting the field region, a current will flow that attempts to sustain the into-
the-page magnetic flux through the disk. This current will thus flow in the clockwise direction.

25. Picture the Problem: The image shows a bar magnet, with north pole pointing downward, falling
toward the center of a coil.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of induced current.
Solution: The magnetic flux due to the bar magnet increases in the downward direction as viewed
from above. According to Lenzs Law, the current in the loop will flow such that it opposes the
change in flux. Therefore, the current in the loop flows counterclockwise as viewed from above.
Insight: If the bar magnet were moving upward, the downward flux would be decreasing so the
induced current would be clockwise.

26. Picture the Problem: The image shows a loop of wire dropping between the poles
of a magnet.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced current.
Solution: 1. (a) When the loop is above the magnet, the magnetic field is increasing
and directed out of the page. The current in the loop will oppose the increasing field
by flowing clockwise.
2. (b) When the loop is below the magnet, the magnetic field is decreasing and is
directed out of the page. The current in the loop will oppose the decreasing field by
flowing counterclockwise.
Insight: When the loop is directly between the two poles the flux is a maximum,
and therefore momentarily not changing. At this point the induced current is zero.

27. Picture the Problem: The image shows a coil lowered at constant speed between
the two poles of a magnet.

Strategy: From Lenzs Law note that the current in the loop opposes the change in
the flux through the loop. The result is an upward (retarding) force on the loop as
it is lowered (see section 23-4).
Solution: 1. (a) The loop resists moving downward toward the magnet. (The poles
of the loops field line up with the magnet poles north-to-north and south-to-south,
causing repulsion.) So the string tension is less than the loops weight.
2. (b) The loop resists moving downward away from the magnet. (The poles of the
loops field line up with the magnet poles north-to-south and south-to-north,
causing attraction.) So the string tension is again less than the loops weight.
Insight: If the string were used to pull the ring upward through the magnet the tension would be greater when the loop
is both below and above the magnet.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 9

28. Picture the Problem: The image shows a coil raised at constant speed between
the two poles of a magnet.

Strategy: From Lenzs Law note that the current in the loop opposes the change
in the flux through the loop. The result is a downward (retarding) force on the
loop as it is raised (see section 23-4).
Solution: 1. (a) The loop resists moving upward toward the magnet. (The poles
of the loops field line up with the magnet poles north-to-north and south-to-
south, causing repulsion.) So the string tension is greater than the loops weight.
2. (b) The loop resists moving upward away from the magnet. (The poles of the
loops field line up with the magnet poles north-to-south and south-to-north,
causing attraction.) So the string tension is again greater than the loops weight.
Insight: Because the induced current increases with the speed of the ring, the faster the ring is pulled upward, the
greater the tension in the string.

29. Picture the Problem: The image shows a loop with resistance R to the left of an
upward current.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced current in the
loop.
Solution: 1. (a) Because the current in the wire is constant, the magnetic field
through the circuit does not vary with time, so the induced current is zero.
2. (b) The magnetic field through the circuit is increasing because the current in the wire is increasing. And, since the
magnetic field is directed out of the page, the induced current in the circuit will induce a magnetic field into the page.
So, the current in the circuit flows clockwise.
Insight: If the current were decreasing, the outward magnetic field would decrease, inducing a counterclockwise
current.

30. Picture the Problem: The image shows a loop with resistance R to the left of a
current that switches from upward to downward.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced current in the
loop.
Solution: When the current in the wire changes direction, the direction of the
magnetic field is reversed, changing its direction from out of the page to into the
page (it is shown in its final condition). According to Lenzs Law, the current induced in the circuit will oppose this
change by flowing counterclockwise, generating a field that is directed out of the page.
Insight: If the current were to switch back to the upward direction, the induced current would flow clockwise.

31. Picture the Problem: The image shows a long, straight current passing through the
center of a wire coil.
Strategy: Use Faradays Law (equation 23-4) to determine the emf.
Solution: 1. (a) The induced emf is zero because the magnetic field is parallel to the
plane of the loop.
2. (b) If the current in the wire increases, the induced emf is still zero because the field due to the wire is still parallel to
the plane of the loop, and there is no time-varying flux through the loop to generate an emf.
3. (c) If the wire no longer passes through the center of the coil but is still perpendicular to its plane, the answer to part
(b) does not change because the magnetic field is still parallel to the plane of the loop.
Insight: A component of the magnetic field must be perpendicular to the loop in order to induce a current.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 10

32. Picture the Problem: The image shows a circuit containing a resistor and
capacitor. A magnetic field initially pointing into the page reverses to
point out of the page.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of current flow. As
the current flows onto the capacitor plate it becomes positively charged.
Solution: Because the field changes from in to out of the page, the induced
current in the circuit will flow clockwise to generate a field directed into
the page. Therefore, the top plate will become positively charged.
Insight: As the capacitor plate becomes charged it opposes the induced current. The emf around the loop is still the
same as given by equation 23-3, but the voltage across the capacitor (V Q C = ) must be subtracted to calculate the
current through the resistor.


33. Picture the Problem: The image shows a circuit containing a resistor and
capacitor. A magnetic field pointing into the page increases in magnitude.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of current flow. As
the current flows onto the capacitor plate it becomes positively charged.
Solution: If the magnetic field increases into the page, the current in the
circuit will flow counterclockwise to generate a field to oppose the
increase. So, the bottom plate will become positively charged.
Insight: As the capacitor plate becomes charged it opposes the induced current. The emf around the loop is still the
same as given by equation 23-3, but the voltage across the capacitor (V Q C = ) must be subtracted out to calculate the
current through the resistor.


34. Picture the Problem: The image shows three rings near a wire with a
current that is increasing with time.

Strategy: The increasing current in the wire generates an increasing
magnetic field that is directed out of the page above the wire and into
the page below. Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the
induced current in each loop.
Solution: 1. Loop A: The induced emf is clockwise in order to oppose the change in the magnetic flux, which is
increasing out of the page.
2. Loop B: Although the field through the loop is varying with time, the net flux through the plane of the loop is zero,
so the induced emf is zero.
3 Loop C: The induced emf is counterclockwise in order to oppose the change in the magnetic flux, which is increasing
into the page.
Insight: If the current were decreasing, the direction of the induced emf in rings A and C would be reversed. Ring B
would still have zero emf.


35. Picture the Problem: A conducting rod slides on two wires in a region with a magnetic field. The two wires are not
connected.
Strategy: Consider Faradays Law and the magnetic force on a current when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: No. The fact that the two wires are not connected means that no current can flow through the rod. As a result,
the magnetic field exerts zero force on the rod. If the system is frictionless, no force will be required to keep the rod
moving with a constant speed.
Insight: If the wires were connected, as in Figure 23-11, Faradays Law predicts an emf will drive a current that flows
through the conducting rod in the direction specified by Lenzs Law, and a magnetic force will be experienced by the
rod.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 11

36. Picture the Problem: The image shows a 0.76 m rod moving at 2.0 m/s
perpendicular to a magnetic field. An emf of 0.45 V is induced between the ends of
the rod.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-5 for the magnetic field.
Solution: Solve equation 23-5 for B:
( )( )
0.45 V
0.30 T
2.0m/s 0.76 m
vB
B
v

=
= = =

Insight: Rotating the rod by an angle decreases the effective length of the rod to
cos = . If the rod were rotated by 25 the magnetic field would have to be
increased to 0.34 T to produce the same emf.





37. Picture the Problem: The image shows an airplane with wingspan 39.9 m flying
northward at 850 km/h through a magnetic field with vertical component of
B
v
= 5.010
6
T.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-5 for the induced emf.
Solution: Calculate the
induced emf :
( )( )
km 1 h
850 5.0 T 39.9 m
h 3600 s
47 mV
vB

= =


=


Insight: Because the plane is flying horizontally northward, the horizontal
component of Earths magnetic field does not contribute to the emf between the
wing tips. If this were a rocket accelerating upward, then the horizontal component
of the magnetic field would determine the emf.




38. Picture the Problem: The image shows a frictionless rod sliding
across two rails separated by 0.45 m. A magnetic field of 0.750 T
points out of the page.
Strategy: Calculate the emf using Ohms Law (equation 21-2).
Insert the emf into equation 23-3 and solve for the speed of the
rod.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate :
( )( ) 0.155 A 12.5
1.94 V
I R

=
=
=


2. Solve for v:
( )( )
1.94 V
5.75 m/s
0.750 T 0.450 m
v
B

= = =


3. (b) No, the answer to part (a) would not change because the equation for v is independent of the direction of motion
of the bar.
Insight: Lenzs Law says that as the bar moves to the right, the current flows upward in the resistor. If the bar moved at
the same speed to the left, the same current would flow downward through the resistor.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 12

39. Picture the Problem: The image shows a frictionless rod sliding
across two rails separated by 0.45 m. A magnetic field of 0.750 T
points out of the page.
Strategy: The external force must be equal and opposite the
magnetic force to maintain the rods constant speed. Use equation
22-4 to calculate the magnetic force. Use equation 21-5 to
calculate the power dissipated by the resistor and equation 7-13 to
calculate the power generated by the external force. Note that the
speed of the rod is 5.75 m/s as found in problem 38.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the magnetic force: ( )( )( ) 0.155 A 0.750 T 0.450 m 52.3 mN F I B = = =

2. (b) Calculate the power dissipated:
( ) ( )
2
2
0.155 A 12.5 0.300 W P I R = = =
3. (c) Calculate the power generated
by the external force:
( )( ) 52.3 mN 5.75 m/s 0.300 W P F v = = =
Insight: The kinetic energy of the rod is constant because it moves at constant speed. The power generated by the
external force is completely dissipated by the resistor. The apparatus can be considered a generator because it converts
mechanical energy to electrical energy.


40. Picture the Problem: The image shows a frictionless rod moving
at constant speed along two rails connected to a 12- resistor. A
magnetic field of 2.0 T points out of the page. When the rod
moves at 3.1 m/s the light bulb consumes 5.0 W of power.


Strategy: Solve equation 21-5 for the current through the circuit.
Find the induced emf using Ohms Law (equation 21-2). Then
solve equation 23-5 for the speed of the rod when a current of
1.0 A passes through the circuit.

Solution: 1. (a) Solve equation 21-5 for I:
5.0 W
0.65 A
12
P
I
R
= = =



2. (b) Calculate the new speed to produce 1.0 A:
( )
( )( )
1.0 A 12
4.8 m/s
2.0 T 1.25 m
IR
v
BL BL


= = = =
Insight: The new circuit in part (b) has a higher current and it will dissipate more power than the original circuit.


41. Picture the Problem: The image shows a light bulb of resistance
12 that consumes 7.9 W of power. The moving rod is 1.25 m
long, and a magnetic field of 2.0 T is directed out of the page.
Strategy: Solve equation 21-5 for the current through the circuit.
Find the induced emf using Ohms Law (equation 21-2). Then
solve equation 23-5 for the speed of the rod.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate
the current:
8.9 W
0.86 A
12
P
I
R
= = =



2. (b) Calculate the
speed of the rod:
( )( )
( )( )
0.86 A 12
4.1 m/s
2.0 T 1.25 m
I R
v
BL B L


= = = =
Insight: Because this circuit dissipates more power than the circuit of Example 23-3, this circuit must have a higher
current and the rod must move with a higher speed.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 13

42. Picture the Problem: The emf produced by a rotating coil is proportional to the speed of the coil rotation.
Strategy: Use equation 23-11 to determine the maximum emf as a function of the rotation speed. Place all of the
constants on the right side of the equation and develop a ratio for the maximum emf and rotation speed. Solve the
resulting ratio for the unknown rotation speed.

Solution: 1. Create a ratio using equation 23-11:
max1 max 2
max
1 2
NBA NBA


= = =

2. Solve for the final rotation speed: ( )
max 2
2 1
max1
55 V
210 rpm 260 rpm
45 V

= = =
Insight: The emf is linearly proportional to the rotation speed. Doubling the rotation speed will double the emf.

43. Picture the Problem: A rectangular coil 25 cm by 35 cm of 120 turns rotates at a 190 rad/s in a magnetic field. The
rotation creates an emf of 65 volts across the coil.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-11 for the magnetic field.

Solution: Calculate the magnetic field:
( )( )( )( )
max
65 V
33 mT
120 0.25 m 0.35 m 190 rad/s
B
NA

= = =
Insight: If the rotation speed were to decrease to 95 rad/s, the magnetic field would need to increase to 66 mT to
maintain the same emf.

44. Picture the Problem: A 3.2-cm-radius coil made from a 1.6-m-long wire creates an emf by rotating at 95 rpm in a
0.070-T magnetic field.
Strategy: Divide the length of the wire by the circumference of the coil to determine the number of loops. Then solve
equation 23-11 for the maximum emf.

Solution: 1. Calculate
the number of loops:
( )
1.6 m
8
2 2 0.032 m
L L
N
C r
= = = =

2. Calculate
max
:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
max
2 rad 1 min
8 0.075 T 0.032 m 85 rev/min 17 mV
rev 60 s
NBA



= = =



Insight: The emf is proportional to the loop radius because the number of turns is inversely proportional to the radius of
the loop and the emf is proportional to the square of the radius. Creating a single loop from the coil would produce the
largest emf.

45. Picture the Problem: A coil with 155 turns of diameter 22.0 cm rotates at 1250 rpm in Earths magnetic field.
Strategy: Use equation 23-11 to calculate the maximum emf.
Solution: 1. (a) Only the horizontal component of the magnetic field is important. The vertical component is parallel to
the plane of the circular coil at all times. Thus, it does not contribute to the flux through the coil.

2. (b) Calculate
max
:
( ) ( )
2
5
max
rev 2 rad 1 min
155 3.80 10 T 0.11 m 1250 29.3 mV
min 1 rev 60 s
NBA




= = =



Insight: If the coil rotated about a horizontal axis, the maximum emf would be 22.0 mV.

46. Picture the Problem: A set of coils with area 0.016 m
2
rotates at 3600 rpm in a 0.050-T magnetic field. The coils
produce an emf of 170 V.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-11 for the number of turns N.

Solution: Calculate
the number of turns:
( )( )( )
max
2
170 V rev 60 s
560 turns
2 rad min 0.050 T 0.016 m 3600 rev/min
N
BA


= = =


Insight: Note that the magnetic field and number of turns are inversely proportional. To produce the same emf at the
same frequency with half the number of coils it would be necessary to double the magnetic field.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 14

47. Picture the Problem: The current through a 45.0-mH inductor increases from zero to 515 mA in 16.5 ms.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-12 for the emf.

Solution: Calculate the emf:
( )
3
515mA
45.0 10 H 1.40 V
16.5ms
I
L
t

= = =

Insight: The sign of the emf shows that the induced current opposes the increasing current in the circuit.


48. Picture the Problem: A solenoid is 0.22 m long and has a 0.035 m
2
cross-sectional area. Its inductance is 45 mH.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-14 for the number of turns.

Solution: Calculate the number of turns:
( )
( )
2
0
3
7 2
0
0.22 m 45 10 H
470 turns
4 10 T m/A 0.035 m
N
L A
L
N
A

= = =


Insight: The number of turns is proportional to the square root of the inductance. To double the inductance to 90 mH,
the number of turns would increase by a factor of 2 to 670 turns.


49. Picture the Problem: A 7.3-mH solenoid has 450 turns and a length of 24 cm.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-14 for the cross-sectional area of the solenoid. Use equation 23-12 to calculate the emf
across the solenoid as the current drops to zero.



Solution: 1. (a) Solve for the cross-sectional area:
( )( )
( )( )
3
3 2
2 2
7
0
0.24 m 7.3 10 H
6.9 10 m
4 10 T m/A 450
L
A
N

= = =



2. (b) Calculate the emf:
3.2 A
7.3 mH 0.42 V
55 ms
I
L
t


= = =



Insight: Because the current is decreasing, the solenoid produces a positive emf in order to oppose the decrease in
current.


50. Picture the Problem: A solenoid has 640 turns, is 24 cm long, and has a radius of 4.3 cm.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-14 for the inductance.

Solution: Calculate the inductance:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
7
0
640
4 10 T m/A 0.043 m 12 mH
0.25 m
N
L A

= = =



Insight: To double the inductance, you could increase either the radius or the number of turns by 2 , or you could cut
the length in half while keeping the number of turns the same.


51. Picture the Problem: A solenoid has 455 turns per meter, a length of 0.75 m, and a cross-sectional area of
1.8110
3
m
2
. The current through this solenoid increases from zero to 2.00 A in 45.5 ms.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-14 for the inductance. Then insert the inductance into equation 23-12 to calculate the emf.

Solution: 1. Calculate L:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
2 7 3 2
0
4 10 T m/A 455 /m 0.750 m 1.81 10 m 353.2 H L n A

= = =

2. Calculate the emf:
( )
4
3
2.00 A
3.532 10 H 15.5 mV
45.5 10 s
I
L
t

= = =


Insight: Because the current is increasing through the solenoid, the emf across the solenoid is negative in order to
oppose the change in current.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 15

52. Picture the Problem: An induced emf of 75 mV is created across an inductor when the current increases at 2.0 A/s.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-12 for the inductance. Then use equation 23-14 to calculate the inductance when the
length has doubled ( 2 = ) but all other parameters have remained the same. Use the new inductance in equation
23-12 to calculate the emf.

Solution: 1. (a) Solve equation 23-12 for L:
75 mV
38 mH
2.0 A/s
L
I t

= = =


2. (b) Because the induced emf is directly proportional to the inductance, and since the inductance of the solenoid is
inversely proportional to its length, the induced emf is inversely proportional to the length of the solenoid. So, if the
length of the solenoid is doubled, the induced emf will be less than 75 mV.

3. (c) Calculate the new inductance:
2 2
0 0
37.5 mH
18.75 mH
2 2 2
N N L
L A A

= = = = =





4. Use the inductance to calculate the emf: ( )( )
2 2
18.75 mH 2.0 A/s 38 mV L I t = = =
Insight: Because the inductance is inversely proportional to the solenoid length, doubling the length cuts the inductance
in half, and thus cuts the induced emf in half also.



53. Picture the Problem: An RL circuit consists of a 130 resistor and a 63 mH inductor.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-16 for the time, where the current is equal to half the final current.

Solution: 1. Set
1
final 2
I I = in equation 23-16:
( )
/
final
1
1
2 2
tR L
I I e
R R


= = =

2. Solve for the time t:
3
4 1
2
68 10 H
ln 2 ln 2 3.6 10 s
130
t R L
L
e t
R

= = = =


Insight: After a time of 2t = 7.210


4
s, the current will equal of its final value. For each time step of 3.610


4
s, the
current will increase by one-half the remaining difference between the maximum current and the actual current.



54. Picture the Problem: The four electrical circuits shown in
the figure at the right have identical batteries, resistors, and
inductors.
Strategy: A long time after the switch is closed each inductor
will act like an ideal wire. Use this principle and the rules of
adding resistors in series and in parallel to determine the
ranking of the currents supplied by the batteries.
Solution: Let each battery have emf and each resistor
have resistance R. For circuit A the inductor will act like an
ideal wire when the switch has been closed for a long time,
and the current supplied by the battery will be . R For
circuits B and C the resistors in parallel with the inductor are
shorted out, and make no contribution to the current in the
circuit. The current supplied by the battery in those circuits is
also . R For circuit D the equivalent resistance of the two
resistors in parallel is 2, R so the current supplied by the
battery after a long time, when the inductor acts as an ideal wire, is 2 . R The ranking of the currents, therefore, is
A = B = C < D.
Insight: While inductors act like ideal wires in DC circuits, capacitors act like open switches (see Chapter 21). If each
inductor were replaced by a capacitor, the currents in each circuit would be A, zero; B, 2 ; R C, 2 3 ; R and D, zero.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 16

55. Picture the Problem: A circuit is constructed of four 55- resistors
and a 37-mH inductor connected to a 6.0-V battery.
Strategy: Use the rules of series and parallel circuits (equations 21-7
and 21-10) to calculate the effective resistance. Insert the effective
resistance into equation 23-15 to calculate the characteristic time
constant and into equation 23-16 to calculate the current.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the effective resistance: ( )
1
eq
1 1 2 5 5
55 91.7
2 3 3 3
R
R R R R
R R


= + + = + = = =




2. Insert the resistance into equation 23-15:
3
4
eq
37 10 H
4.0 10 s 0.40 ms
91.7
L
R

= = = =



3. (b) Calculate I after two time constants:
( ) ( )
2 2
eq
6.0 V
1 1 57 mA
91.7
I e e
R


= = =



4. (c) Calculate the current after a long time:
( ) ( )
eq
6.0 V
1 1 0 65 mA
91.7
I e
R


= = =


Insight: After two time constants the current is 86% of its maximum value. After five time constants the current is
99.3% of its maximum value, which is indistinguishable from the maximum value when rounded to two digits.


56. Picture the Problem: The image shows the current as a function of time for the
RL circuit. After 2.24 s the current reaches 95% of its maximum value.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-16 for the time constant, given that 0.95 I R =
at t = 2.24 s. Then insert the inductance into equation 23-15 to calculate the
resistance.
Solution: 1. (a) Set the current equal
to 95% its maximum value:
( ) 2.24 s
final final
0.95 1 I I e


=



2. Solve for the time constant:
2.24 s
0.75 s
ln 0.05
= =

3. (b) Calculate the resistance:
0.275 H
0.37
0.748 s
L
R

= = =
Insight: If the resistance of this circuit were decreased to 0.25 , the current would reach only 87% of its maximum in
2.24 s. However, since the maximum current would be 50% greater than when the resistance is 0.37 , at 2.24 s more
current will be flowing when the resistance is 0.25 than when it is 0.37 .


57. Picture the Problem: The image shows an RL circuit with a 5.5- resistor.
When the switch is closed, the current rises from zero to 0.32 A in 0.15 s.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-16 for the inductance. Then insert the inductance
into equation 23-16 and solve for the time at which the current is 0.50 A.
Finally, divide the voltage by the resistance to calculate the maximum current.



Solution: 1. (a) Solve for the inductance:
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
1
0.15 s 5.5
3.8 H
ln 1 ln 1 5.5 0.32 A / 9.0 V
tR L
I e
R
tR
L
RI


=

= = =



Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 17

2. (b) Solve for the time when I = 0.50 A:
( )( ) 5.5 0.50 A 3.79 H
ln 1 ln 1 0.25 s
5.5 9.0 V
L RI
t
R


= = =






3. (c) Calculate the maximum current:
max
9.0 V
1.6 A
5.5
I
R

= = =


Insight: The time constant for this circuit is 0.69 s.


58. Picture the Problem: The number of turns per meter in a solenoid of fixed length is doubled. At the same time, the
current in the solenoid is halved.
Strategy: Use equations 23-14 and 23-19 to determine the effect of the described changes on the energy stored in the
solenoid.
Solution: The energy stored in the inductor remains the same. Doubling the number of turns per length quadruples the
inductance of the solenoid, as we can see from equation 2314. The energy stored in an inductor, however, depends on
both the inductance of the inductor and the current it carries, as we see in equation 2319. In fact, the energy stored in
an inductor depends on the square of the current. Therefore, halving the current reduces the stored energy by a factor of
four. We conclude that the energy stored in the inductor will stay the same.
Insight: We can also arrive at the solution using a ratio:
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 1
0 new new 2
new new old new new new old 2 2
2 2 2 1 1
old old old old old old old 2 0 old old 2
2
1
n A I
L I I U n I n
U n I n I L I n A I


= = = = =






59. Picture the Problem: The image shows an RL circuit with a 5.5- resistor, a
6.1-mH inductor, and 9.0-V battery.

Strategy: Use equation 23-19 to calculate the maximum energy stored in the
inductor, where the current is given by the battery emf divided by the resistance
(Ohms Law).

Solution: Calculate the stored energy:
( )
2 2
2 3
1 1 1 9.0 V
6.1 10 H 8.2 mJ
2 2 2 5.5
U LI L
R



= = = =



Insight: Increasing the inductance will increase the stored energy, but will not affect the maximum current in the
circuit. However, it would increase the time required for the current in the circuit to reach its maximum value.


60. Picture the Problem: A 1.5-m-long solenoid with 470 turns stores 0.31 J of energy when it carries 12 A of current.
Strategy: Use equation 23-19 to calculate the inductance of the solenoid. Then solve equation 23-14 for the area.

Solution: 1. Calculate the inductance:
( )
( )
2
2 2
1
2
2 0.31 J 2
0.0043 H
12 A
U LI
U
L
I
=
= = =


2. Calculate the area:
( )( ) ( )
2
0
2
2 2
7 1
0
0.0043 H
0.010 m
4 10 T m/A 470 m 1.5 m
L n A
L
A
n



=
= = =


Insight: Note that the energy stored in the solenoid is linearly proportional to both the cross-sectional area and to the
length of the solenoid. Because the area multiplied by the length is the volume, the energy stored is linearly
proportional to the volume of the solenoid.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 18

61. Picture the Problem: A magnetic field of 50.0 T is generated in the Alcator fusion experiment at MIT.
Strategy: Calculate the energy density of the magnetic field using equation 23-20. Set this energy equal to the electric
field energy density (equation 20-19) and solve for the electric field.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the energy density:
( )
( )
2
2
8 3
B
7
0
50.0 T
9.95 10 J/m
2 2 4 10 T m/A
B
u


= = =



2. (b) Set
E B
u u = and solve equation 20-19 for E:
( )
2
0
E B
8 3
10 B
12 2 2
0
2
2 9.95 10 J/m
2
1.50 10 V/m
8.85 10 C /N m
E
u u
u
E


= =

= = =


Insight: Note that the electric field is equal to the magnetic field multiplied by the speed of light (3.0010
8
m/s). We
will discover in Chapter 25 that this is not just a coincidence!




62. Picture the Problem: A circuit is constructed with a 62.0-mH inductor in
series with two parallel resistors and a 12-V battery. A long time after the
switch is closed the inductor stores 0.110 J of energy.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-19 for the current through the battery. Then
use Ohms Law (equation 21-2) to calculate the current through the 7.50-
resistor and subtract that current from the total to calculate the current
through the unknown resistor. Divide the voltage across the battery by the
current to calculate the resistance.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the
current through the inductor:
( )
2
1
2
2 0.110 J
2
1.884 A
62.0 mH
U LI
U
I
L
=
= = =


2. Calculate the current through the 7.50- resistor:
12 V
1.60 A
7.50
V
I
R
= = =



3. Calculate the current through the unknown resistor:
7.5
1.884 A 1.600 A= 0.284 A
R L
I I I = =

4. Divide the voltage by the current:
12 V
42
0.284 A
V
R
I
= = =
5. (b) The energy stored in the inductor is proportional to the square of the total current. Decreasing the resistance will
increase the current, thereby increasing the energy stored. Therefore, in order to store more energy in the inductor the
value of R should be less than the value found in part (a).
Insight: If the resistance is decreased to 20 the energy stored in the inductor increases to 0.150 J.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 19

63. Picture the Problem: A circuit is constructed with a 62.0-mH inductor in
series with two parallel resistors and a 12-V battery. In this problem the
right-hand resistor has the value R = 14 .

Strategy: Use equation 21-10 to calculate the effective resistance. Then
insert the effective resistance into equation 23-16 to calculate the current at
times t = and 2 . t = Substitute these currents into equation 23-19 in order
to calculate the stored energy.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the effective resistance:
1
eq
1 1
4.88
7.5 14
R


= + =





2. Calculate the current at : t =
( ) ( )
/ 1
eq
12 V
1 1 1.554 A
4.88
I e e
R


= = =



3. Calculate the stored energy:
( )( )
2
2 1 1
2 2
62.0 mH 1.554 A 0.075 J U LI = = =

4. (b) Calculate the current at 2 : t = ( ) ( )
2 / 2
eq
12 V
1 1 2.126 A
4.88
I e e
R


= = =



5. Calculate the stored energy:
( )( )
2
2 1 1
2 2
62.0 mH 2.126 A 0.14 J U LI = = =
6. (c) Because
eq
/ L R = and
eq
R increase when R increases, increasing R causes the characteristic time to decrease.
Insight: In this problem the characteristic time is 12.7 ms. Increasing R to 21 would increase the effective resistance
to 5.53 and decrease the time constant to 11.2 ms.


64. Picture the Problem: A circuit is constructed with four 55- resistors
and a 37-mH inductor connected to a 6.0-V battery.


Strategy: Use the rules of series and parallel circuits (equations 21-7
and 21-10) to calculate the effective resistance. Use equation 23-16 to
calculate the current after one time constant and equation 23-19 to
calculate the stored energy. Repeat the above for t = .
Solution: 1. (a) The current through the inductor starts at zero and rises after the switch is closed. Because energy
stored in the inductor is proportional to the square of the current, more energy is stored long after the switch is closed.

2. (b) Calculate the effective resistance: ( )
1
eq
1 1 2 5 5
55 91.7
2 3 3 3
R
R R R R
R R


= + + = + = = =




3. Calculate the current after one time constant:
( ) ( )
1
eq
6.0 V
1 1 0.04138 A
91.7
I e e
R


= = =



4. Calculate the stored energy:
( )( )
2
2 1 1
1 2 2
37 mH 0.04138 A 32 J U LI = = =

5. (c) Calculate the current a long
time after the switch is closed:
( ) ( )
eq
6.0 V
1 1 0 0.06545 A
91.7
I e
R


= = =



6. Calculate the stored energy:
( )( )
2
2 1 1
2 2
37 mH 0.06545 A 79 J U LI

= = =
Insight: Decreasing the resistance will increase the total stored energy, but will not change the fraction of the maximum
energy stored after one time step.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 20

65. Picture the Problem: A 28-cm-long solenoid has 580 turns of wire and a diameter of 7.2 cm. The solenoid stores 9.9 J
of energy in its magnetic field.
Strategy: Use equation 23-14 to calculate the inductance of the solenoid, and then solve equation 23-19 for the required
current. Use equation 22-12 to calculate the magnetic field inside the solenoid and equation 23-20 to calculate the
energy density.


Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the inductance:
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
7 1
0 2
580
4 10 T m/A 0.072 m 0.0061 H
0.28 m
N
L A


= = =


2. Solve for the current:
( ) 2 9.9 J 2
57 A
0.0061 H
U
I
L
= = =

3. (b) Calculate the magnetic field:
( ) ( )
7
0
580
4 10 T m/A 57 A 0.148 T 0.15 T
0.28 m
B nI


= = = =




4. (c) Calculate the energy density:
( )
( )
2
2
3 3
B
7
0
0.148 T
8700 J/m 8.7 kJ/m
2 2 4 10 T m/A
B
u


= = = =


Insight: The energy density can also be calculated by dividing the stored energy by the volume of the solenoid:
( ) ( )
3
2 2
9.9 J
8.7 kJ/m
0.036 m 0.28 m
U
u
r

= = =

.




66.
Picture the Problem: Transformer 1 has a primary voltage V
p
and a secondary voltage

V
s
. Transformer 2 has twice
the number of turns on both its primary and secondary coils compared with transformer 1.
Strategy: Use the characteristics of transformers to answer the conceptual question.
Solution: The two transformers have the same ratio of the number of turns (N
p
/ N
s
) in their primary and secondary
circuits. Therefore, the ratio of their primary and secondary voltages must be the same as well. It follows that the
secondary voltage in transformer 2 is 2V
s
; that is,
p s p s
2 2 . V V V V =
Insight: When manufacturing a transformer, increasing the number of turns improves the magnitude of the magnetic
flux through each coil, which can be helpful for amplifying small voltages or currents. However, a large number of
turns also increases the electrical resistance of the device. A wide variety of transformers are available so that a user can
select one with optimal characteristics for the particular application.




67.
Picture the Problem: Transformer 1 has a primary current I
p
and a secondary current
s
. I Transformer 2 has twice as
many turns on its primary coil as transformer 1, and both transformers have the same number of turns on the secondary
coil.
Strategy: Use the characteristics of transformers to answer the conceptual question.
Solution: The secondary current in transformer 2 is 6 I
s
. The factor of 6 is the result of a factor of 3 in the primary
current, multiplied by a factor of 2 due to the doubling of the number of turns in the primary coil.
Insight: The result can also be obtained by calculating a ratio, remembering that the number of turns in the secondary
coil of each transformer is the same (that is,
s, 2 s
N N = ):
( )
( )
p, 2 p, 2 s, 2 p, 2 p, 2 p p s, 2
s p p p p p p s
3 2
6
I N N I N I N I
I I N I N I N N
= = = =

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 21

68. Picture the Problem: A transformer converts a primary voltage of
p
110 V V =
to a secondary voltage of
s
3.0 V. V =
Strategy: Solve equation 23-22 for the ratio primary turns to secondary turns.

Solution: Calculate the ratio of turns:
p p
s s
110 V
37
3.0 V
N V
N V
= = =
Insight: If the secondary coil has 75 turns, the primary coil would need 2800 turns.


69. Picture the Problem: A transformer converts a primary voltage of
p
120 V V =
to a secondary voltage of
s
9.0 V. V = It has 125 turns in the primary coil.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-22 for the number of turns in the secondary coil.
Solution: 1. (a) The voltage needs to be stepped down. To step down a primary
voltage to a secondary voltage, the number of turns on the secondary coil must
be less than the number of turns on the primary coil. So, the number of turns on
the secondary coil must be less than 125.

2. (b) Calculate the number of turns in the secondary coil:
s
s p
p
9.0 V
125 turns 9.4 turns
120 V
V
N N
V


= = =





Insight: To create a coil with an integer number of turns you should decrease the number of primary turns to 120.


70. Picture the Problem: A transformer that has a turns ratio of 1:13 is used to step down a 120-V voltage source.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-22 for the voltage in the secondary coil.

Solution: Calculate the secondary voltage:
s
s p
p
1
120 V 6.7 V
18
N
V V
N


= = =





Insight: If the transformer were connected backwards, the secondary voltage would become 120 V 18 = 2160 V.


71. Picture the Problem: A transformer converts a primary voltage
p
120 V V = to a secondary voltage
s
11, 000 V. V =
Strategy: Solve equation 23-22 for the ratio primary turns to secondary turns.

Solution: Calculate the ratio of turns:
s s
p p
11,000 V
92
120 V
N V
N V
= = =
Insight: If the transformer were connected backwards, it would provide only a voltage of 1.3 V to the neon sign.


72. Picture the Problem: A transformer converts a primary voltage
p
120 V V = to a secondary voltage
s
6.0 V. V =
Strategy: Use equation 23-22 to calculate the ratio of the primary turns to secondary turns when the primary is 120 V
and the secondary is 6.0 V. Then solve the equation for the primary voltage if the secondary voltage is 120 V.

Solution: 1. Calculate the turn ratio:
p p
s s
120 V
20
6.0 V
N V
N V
= = =

2. Solve for the primary voltage:
( )( )
p
p s
s
120 V 20 2.4 kV
N
V V
N

= = =



Insight: Care must be taken to ensure that the transformer is properly installed. A reversed transformer will easily
damage the circuit and possibly start a fire!

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 22

73. Picture the Problem: The image shows a step up transformer with 25 turns
in the primary and 750 turns in the secondary.
Strategy: Solve equation 23-22 for the primary current and voltage.

Solution: 1. Calculate
p
I :
s
p s
p
750
12 mA
25
360 mA 0.36 A
N
I I
N


= =




= =


2. Calculate
p
V :
( )
p
p s
s
25
4800 V 160 V 0.16 kV
750
N
V V
N


= = = =




Insight: Note that the power on both sides of the transformer is 57.6 W. The energy is conserved across the
transformer.


74. Picture the Problem: An airplane flies through the Earths magnetic field, level to the ground toward the north pole.
Strategy: Use the expression for motional emf (equation 23-5) to answer the conceptual question.

Solution: 1. (a) The wing-tip-to-wing-tip emf is given by Bv = , where B is the downward component of the Earths
magnetic field, is the wingspan of the airplane, and v is the planes speed. At the equator the field is horizontal;
hence, B = 0 and 0. = At the latitude of New York B, v, and are nonzero and so is . We conclude that the induced
emf from wing tip to wing tip when the plane is at the equator is less than the wing-tip-to-wing-tip emf when it is at the
latitude of New York.
2. (b) The best explanation is II. The induced emf is greater at New York because the vertical component of the Earths
magnetic field is greater there than at the equator. Statement I ignores the fact that flux depends on the direction of the
magnetic field, and statement III ignores the fact that the magnetic field points both northward and down at New York.
Insight: The emf generated for a typical jet is small (less than 1 V, see Problem 37) because the Earths magnetic field
is fairly weak.


75. Picture the Problem: There is magnetic flux through a circular loop of wire at the north magnetic pole of the Earth.
Strategy: Consider the expression for magnetic flux (Equation 23-1) when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: The magnetic flux through the loop of wire is greatest when its normal points vertically downward, because
in this case the normal points in almost the same direction as the magnetic field. There is little magnetic flux through the
loop if its normal is horizontal; that is, when its normal is essentially at right angles to the field. We conclude that the
flux when the normal to the loop points horizontally is less than the flux when the normal points vertically downward.
Insight: Rotating a loop of wire in the Earths magnetic field will change the flux passing through the loop and generate
an emf. Doing this would convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, characteristic of any electric generator.


76. Picture the Problem: There is magnetic flux through a circular loop of wire at the equator of the Earth.
Strategy: Consider the expression for magnetic flux (Equation 23-1) when answering the conceptual question.
Solution: The magnetic flux through a loop is greatest when the normal to the loop points in the direction of the field.
At the equator the field points to the north. We conclude that the flux when the normal to the loop points north is
greater than the flux when the normal points vertically upward.
Insight: Rotating a loop of wire in the Earths magnetic field will change the flux passing through the loop and generate
an emf. Doing this would convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, characteristic of any electric generator.


77. Picture the Problem: The inductor shown in the figure at the right is connected to an
electrical circuit with a changing current. At the moment in question, the inductor has an
induced emf with the indicated direction.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to answer the conceptual question.
Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 23
Solution: The induced emf in an inductor acts in a direction that opposes the change in current. The inductor shown in
figure 23-29 has an emf that would result in a current flowing to the left (that is, out of the + terminal and into the
terminal; treating the inductor like a battery). Because this induced emf opposes the change in current, it follows that
the appropriate changes are either increasing and to the right or decreasing and to the left. In the former case the
inductor acts to oppose the increase in current; and in the latter case it acts to oppose the decrease in current.
Insight: Note that the + and signs in the figure indicate the sign of the emf (as for the terminals of a battery), not the
potential difference across the inductor (as for the potential drop across a resistor). If they were indicating the potential
drop across a resistor we would conclude the current is flowing from left (higher potential) to right (lower potential).


78. Picture the Problem: The spacecraft with an antenna 5.0 m long travels through a 2.010
10
T magnetic field at
8.010
3
m/s. The antenna, velocity, and magnetic field are all perpendicular to each other.
Strategy: Use equation 23-5 to calculate the emf.

Solution: Calculate the emf:
( )( )( )
10 3
2.0 10 T 8.0 10 m/s 5.0 m 8.0 V Bv

= = =
Insight: The spacecraft could use this magnetic field to convert some of its kinetic energy to electrical energy.


79. Picture the Problem: A coil of wire has a diameter of 2.0 mm and is perpendicular to a 0.15 mT magnetic field.
Strategy: Use equation 23-1 to calculate the flux, with = 0.

Solution: Calculate the maximum flux:
( ) ( )
2
3 3 10
max
cos 0.15 10 T 1.0 10 m cos 0 4.7 10 Wb BA

= = =
Insight: As the blowfly changes orientation, the flux varies between 4.710
10
Wb and 4.710
10
Wb.


80. Picture the Problem: The image shows a bar magnet on a patients jaw with the
north pole pointing to her right as it moves to her right.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced currents.
Solution: 1. (a) As the bar magnet approaches the right coil, the magnetic flux,
pointing toward the right, increases. The induced magnetic field will point to her
left, so she would observe a counterclockwise current, from her point of view.
2. (b) As the bar magnet moves away from the left coil, the magnetic flux, pointing
to the right, decreases. The induced magnetic field will point to her right.
However, because the disk is on her left side, from her point of view the current is
counterclockwise.
Insight: To the technician standing on the patients right, the current on her right side is clockwise and the current on
the left side is counterclockwise.


81. Picture the Problem: The image shows a rectangular loop bent into a horizontal
piece 24 cm by 36 cm and a vertical piece 24 cm by 36 cm. A 0.035-T magnetic
field passes through the loop at an angle 25 below the horizontal.
Strategy: Sum the fluxes through the vertical and horizontal parts of the loop
using equation 23-1 to calculate the flux.

Solution: Calculate
the flux through both
portions of the loop:
( )
( )( )( )
x y x y x z x z
x y x z
cos cos
cos cos
0.035 T 0.24 m 0.36 m cos 65 cos 25
4.0 mWb
BA BA
BA


= +
= +
= +
=
Insight: The maximum flux through the loop occurs when the magnetic field is rotated 45 from the horizontal.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 24

82. Picture the Problem: A coil of wire with radius 3.7 cm lies in the xy plane in a region where the magnetic field is
( ) ( ) ( )
0.43 T 0.11 T + 0.52 T = + B x y z

.

Strategy: Only the vertical component of B

contributes flux because the loop lies in the xy plane. Use equation 23-1
to calculate the flux through the loop, where cos .
z
B B =

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the flux through the loop: ( ) ( )
2
2
0.52 T 0.037 m 2.2 mWb
z z
B A B r = = = =
2. (b) Because the x component does not contribute to the flux, the flux stays the same.
3. (c) Because the z component is the source of all the flux, the magnitude of the flux increases.
Insight: When the flux is increased as in part (c), a clockwise current (as viewed from above) will be induced in the
loop.



83. Picture the Problem: A rectangular loop is rotated in a uniform magnetic field from a position of zero magnetic flux to
a position of maximum flux in a short period of time.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the emf, where the flux is given by equation 23-1.

Solution: Calculate the induced emf:
( )( )( )
av 3
1.3 T 0.058 m 0.082 m 0
(1) 0.29 V
21 10 s
BA
N
t t



= = = =


Insight: If the loop were rotated by 180 from minimum flux back to minimum flux, the average emf would be zero.
For the first half of the rotation a positive emf would be produced, as shown in the problem. For the second half of the
rotation, the emf would be equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction. The overall average would be zero.



84. Picture the Problem: The image shows an 85-cm-long antenna moving east (out of the page)
at 25 m/s in a region where Earths magnetic field points north and 72 below the horizontal.

Strategy: Use equation 23-5 to calculate the emf, using the horizontal component of the
magnetic field,
H
cos 72 sin18 B B B = = .
Solution: 1. (a) According to the Right-Hand Rule, the magnetic force on a positive charge in
the wire points up and to the right, perpendicular to both and . v B

That means the component


of the electric field that can push charges along the length of the antenna points upward. The
electric field points toward smaller potential, so we conclude the bottom of the antenna is
initially at the higher potential.

2. (b) Calculate the induced emf: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
5
sin18 5.9 10 T sin18 25 m/s 0.85 m 0.39 mV B v

= = =
Insight: The electric field depicted in the figure is the initial, magnetically induced electric field. Once the mobile
negative charges (electrons) in the antenna have migrated to the bottom, they produce a downward-pointing electric
field that counteracts the magnetically induced one, with the final result that the antenna is at a constant potential along
its entire length.



85. Picture the Problem: A 305-turn rectangular coil rotates at 525 rpm in a 0.45-T magnetic field. The coil measures
14 cm by 17 cm.
Strategy: Use equation 23-11 to calculate the maximum emf.

Solution: Calculate
the maximum emf:
( )( )( )( )
max
rev 2 rad 1min
325 0.45T 0.11m 0.17m 525 0.15 kV
min rev 60 s
NBA



= = =


Insight: To use the same coil to generate a maximum emf of 200 V, the coil would need to rotate at 309 rev/min.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 25

86. Picture the Problem: The image shows a cubical box in a uniform magnetic field.

Strategy: Compare the flux through each side of the box by analyzing the field lines
that enter and exit the box.
Solution: Because all magnetic field lines that enter the box also exit, the net
magnetic flux through the box is zero.
Insight: The net magnetic flux through a closed surface is always zero. This is
sometimes called Gausss Law for Magnetism (refer to Chapter 19).


87. Picture the Problem: A magnetic field changes at a rate of 3.0010
4
T/s over a region of 1.1310
2
m
2
.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the emf, where the flux is defined in equation 23-1.

Solution: Calculate the induced emf:
( )
2 2 4
1.13 10 m 3.00 10 T/s 339 V
A B B
A
t t t



= = = = =


Insight: The rate at which the magnetic field produced by the loop can be changed is limited by the self-induction of
the current loop. That is, if you wish to suddenly push more current through the loop, the rapid change in the magnetic
flux through the loop induces a back emf that must be overcome by the power supply that is driving the current.




88. Picture the Problem: The graph depicts the magnetic field as a function
of time in the region of 155-turn circular coil that has a diameter of 3.75
cm.
Strategy: Use equation 23-3 to calculate the emf, where the flux is
given in equation 23-1.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the
area of the coil:
( )
2
2
2
0.01875 m
0.00110 cm
A r = =
=

2. Calculate the emf at 2.50 ms: t = ( )( )( )
2
155 0.00110 m 0 0
B
N NA
t t


= = = =



3. (b) Calculate the emf at 7.50 ms: t = ( )( )
2
3
0.01 T 0.02 T
155 0.00110 m 1 V
5 10 s



= =




4. (c) Calculate the emf at 15.0 ms: t = ( )( )( )
2
155 0.00110 m 0 0 = =

5. (d) Calculate the emf at 25.0 ms: t = ( )( )
( )
2
3
0.01 T 0.01 T
155 0.00110 m 0.3 V
10 10 s



= =



Insight: The emf does not depend upon the value of the magnetic field, but on its rate of change (or in other words, the
slope of the B vs. t graph).

B

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 26

89. Picture the Problem: A 50.0 mH inductor is created by closely wrapping copper wire around a tube that has a radius of
2.67 cm. Each wire has a diameter of 0.0332 cm.

Strategy: The self-inductance of the coil is given by
2
0
L n A = (equation 23-17), where n is the number of turns per
length, A is the cross-sectional area, and is the length of the coil. There are two unknowns, n and , but we can
determine n because the diameter of the wire d limits the maximum number of turns per length. Set 1 n d = because
there can only be one turn per wire diameter. Solve equation 23-14 for the length of the tube. Divide the length by the
diameter of the wire to determine the number of loops. Finally, multiply the number of loops by the circumference of
the loop to determine the total length of wire that is needed.

Solution: 1. Calculate the number
of turns per meter:
1 1
3012 turns/m
0.000332 m
n
d
= = =

2. Calculate the length of the tube:
( )( ) ( )
2
0
3
2 2 2
7
0
50.0 10 H
1.958 m
4 10 Tm/A 3012 /m 0.0267 m
L n A
L
n A

= = =



3. Divide the length by the diameter:
1.958 m
5898 turns
0.000332 m
N
d
= = =



4. Multiply by the circumference:
( ) ( )( ) wire length = 2 5898 2 0.0267 m 0.990 km N r = =
Insight: The length of the inductor can be decreased by stacking the wires into multiple layers. If the wires were layered
10 turns deep, the length would decrease to 20 cm, with an increase in radius of 3.32 mm.



90. Picture the Problem: The time constant of an RL circuit with L = 25 mH is twice the time constant of an RC circuit
with C = 45 F. Both circuits have the same resistance.
Strategy: Set the time constant from equation 23-15 equal to twice the RC time constant and solve for the resistance.
Insert the resistance back into equation 23-15 to calculate the RL time constant.
Solution: 1. (a) Set the RL time constant
equal to twice the RC time constant:
2
L
RC
R
= =

2. Solve for the resistance:
( )
3
6
25 10 H
17
2 2 45 10 F
L
R
C

= = =



3. (b) Calculate the RL time constant:
3
25 10 H
1.5 ms
16.67
L
R

= = =


Insight: The RC time constant is half the RL time constant, so it must be 0.75 ms. This can be confirmed by calculating
( )( )
6
17 45 10 C 0.77 ms, RC

= = = which differs from 0.75 ms due to rounding error.



91. Picture the Problem: The figure shows a 29 mH inductor, 110 resistor, and
6.0 V battery connected in series with a switch.

Strategy: Solve equation 23-16 for the time at which the current will equal 12 mA.
Then use equation 23-19 to calculate the maximum energy stored in the inductor.
The maximum current is the voltage divided by the resistance.

Solution: 1. (a) Solve for the time:
( )
( )( )
3
1
12 10 A 110
29mH
ln 1 ln 1 66 s
110 6.0 V
tR L
I e
R
L IR
t
R

=



= = =




Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 27

2. (b) Calculate the maximum energy:
( )
2 2
2 3
1 1 1 6.0 V
29 10 H 43 J
2 2 2 110
U L I L
R



= = = =



Insight: When the current is 12 mA, the inductor stores 2.1 J, or about 5% of the maximum energy.



92. Picture the Problem: The figure shows a 9.0-V battery, 31-mH inductor, and
180- resistor in series with an open switch.

Strategy: Use equation 23-16 to calculate the current 0.120 ms after the switch is
closed. Then use equation 23-19 to calculate the energy stored at that time.

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the current:
( )
( )( ) ( )
3
0.120 10 s 180 0.031 H 9.0 V
1 1 0.025 A
180
tR L
I e e
R




= = =




2. (b) Calculate the stored energy: ( )( )
2
2 1 1
2 2
0.031 H 0.025 A 9.7 J U L I = = =
Insight: In this circuit the maximum energy stored in the inductor is 39 J, so after 0.120 ms about 25% of the
maximum energy is stored in the inductor.




93. Picture the Problem: Eighty-five turns of wire form a 2.0-mm diameter coil. The coil is in a 0.15-mT magnetic field
and the normal of the coil rotates from parallel (maximum flux) to perpendicular (zero flux) to the field lines in 37 ms.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the magnitude of the induced emf, where equation 23-1 defines the flux.

Solution: Calculate :
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
4
3
1.5 10 T 0.0010m 1
cos90 cos 0
85 1.1 V
37 10 s
BA
N N
t t



= = = =


Insight: Note that this same emf could be produced by the blowfly if it were to rotate the normal of its coil from parallel
to the field (maximum flux) to an angle of 60 in 18.5 ms.




94. Picture the Problem: The image shows a rod of mass m sliding as it falls along two
vertical rails that are connected by a resistor. The entire system is immersed in a
horizontal magnetic field.
Strategy: Use Newton's Second Law to describe how the force of gravity and the
upward force from the induced current affect the motion of the rod, noting that the
induced current depends upon velocity. Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of
current flow through the bar. Finally, set the induced force (equation 23-8) equal to
the gravitational force and solve for the terminal velocity of the rod.
Solution: 1. (a) Initially, the rod falls with the acceleration of gravity. As the rod falls,
the induced current begins to flow, and the upward magnetic force on the rod grows in
magnitude. This causes the acceleration to decrease. When the acceleration reaches
zero, the rod falls with constant speed.
2. (b) As the rod falls, the magnetic flux increases. The induced emf opposes the increase, resulting in a current that
flows clockwise in the circuit.

3. (c) Calculate the terminal speed:
2 2
2 2

B v L mgR
mg F v
R B L
= = =
Insight: The induced current has an effect on the rod that is similar to air resistance on a skydiver. At low speeds the
upward force is negligible, so that the object accelerates at g. As the speed increases, the upward force increases and
reduces the acceleration until it is zero when the rod reaches the terminal speed.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 28

95. Picture the Problem: The image shows a rectangular loop exiting a region
of magnetic field at constant speed.
Strategy: Use equation 23-1 to define the magnetic flux and examine how
moving through each of the three regions affects the flux. Any changes in
the flux through the loop will induce a current in the loop according to
Faradays Law. Set the time required for the flux to change equal to the
length of the loop divided by the speed. Use Lenzs Law to determine the
direction of current flow.
Solution: 1. (a) During the time before the loop enters the region of zero field, the rate of change of the flux is zero
because the magnetic field is uniform.

2. (b) Calculate the change in flux
as the rod exits the magnetic field:
0 BA BWL
vWB
t t L v

= = =


3. (c) Once the loop is fully in the region of zero field, the rate of change of the flux is zero.
4. (d) In parts (a) and (c), / 0, t = so
ind
I is zero. In part (b), the induced current flows counterclockwise, to
generate an out-of-the page field that compensates for the reduced flux as the loop exits the region of nonzero magnetic
field.
Insight: When the loop travels through a constant field (whether the field is zero or nonzero) the change in flux is zero
and no current flows. Current will only flow when the flux changes.




96. Picture the Problem: The image shows a light bulb (R
2
) in parallel with an
inductor. The two are in series with another resistor, a battery, and an open switch.
Strategy: A long time after the switch is closed, the inductor acts like a wire, so all
of the current will flow through the inductor and none through the light bulb. Use
Ohms Law (equation 21-2) to calculate the current a long time after the switch is
closed. After the switch is opened, use Ohms Law again to calculate the voltage
across the light bulb, where the current is the same as that found in part (a).

Solution: 1. (a) Calculate the current in the circuit:
eq 1
I
R R

= =
2. (b) Just after the switch is closed, the current begins to increase. Back emf from the inductor prevents current from
flowing in the inductor, so most of the current flows through the light bulb and it glows brightly. As time goes by, the
back emf decreases, most of the current flows through the near-zero resistance of the inductor, and the light bulb no
longer glows.
3. (c) After the switch is opened, the current continues to flow for a finite time due to the back emf of the inductor. This
temporary current flows through the light bulb, causing it to flash and then go out.

4. (d) Calculate
bulb
V just before the switch is opened:
before 2 2
(0) 0 V IR R = = =

5. Calculate
bulb
V just after the switch is opened:
2
after 2 2
1 1
R
V IR R
R R



= = =



Insight: This type of circuit could be used as an alarm system to let you know that power has been cut to the circuit.
When the power is initially turned on, the lamp lights momentarily to let you know it is not burnt out. When the circuit
is running continuously, the light is not lit. When the power is cut, the light briefly shines brightly.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 29

97. Picture the Problem: The energy densities of an electric and magnetic field are equal.
Strategy: Set equation 23-20 equal to equation 20-19 and solve for the ratio of electric to magnetic field amplitude.

Solution: 1. (a) Set
E B
u u = :
2 2
0
0
2 2
E B

=

2. Solve the above expression for : E B
2
2
0 0
0 0
2 1
2
1
o o
E
B
E
B


= =
=


3. (b) Insert numerical values:
( )( )
8
12 2 2 7
1
3.00 10 m/s
8.85 10 C /N m 4 10 T m/A
E
c
B


= = =


Insight: This relationship led James Clerk Maxwell to propose that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon (see
Chapter 25).



98. Picture the Problem: The flux through a horizontal loop detector changes when a car drives over it.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced current in the loop.
Solution: Because the downward magnetic field is increasing, the induced current will create an upward magnetic field
to oppose the change. From the Right-Hand Rule we see that the induced current must be counterclockwise.
Insight: The induced current triggers the switch in the traffic light control circuit.



99. Picture the Problem: A circular loop has four turns and a radius of 0.67 m. In 0.38 s a car changes the downward
magnetic field through the loop from 1.210
5
T to 2.610
5
T.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the magnitude of the induced emf, where equation 23-1 defines the flux.

Solution: Calculate :
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1
2
5 5
4
2.6 10 T 1.2 10 T 0.67 m
4 2.1 10 V
0.38 s
B B r B A B A
N N N
t t t


= = =


= =

Insight: Although this voltage is small, it is sufficient to trigger the signal light.



100. Picture the Problem: A circular loop has three turns and a radius of 0.67 m. A truck causes the magnetic flux through
the loop to change and induces an emf in the loop.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the magnitude larger field, where equation 23-1 defines the flux.

Solution: Calculate B
2
:
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1
4
5 5
2 1 2 2
8.1 10 V 0.38s
1.2 10 T 8.5 10 T
3 0.67 m
B B r B A B A
N N N
t t t
t
B B
N r




= = =

= + = + =

Insight: The larger truck creates a larger change in the magnetic flux than did the car in Problem 99.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 30

101. Picture the Problem: A square loop has four turns and is 0.75 m on a side. A motorcyle changes the downward
magnetic field through the loop from 1.210
5
T to 1.910
5
T.
Strategy: Use equation 23-4 to calculate the necessary time interval, where equation 23-1 defines the flux.

Solution: Calculate t:
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
2
2 1 2 1
2
5 5
2
2 1
4
1.9 10 T 1.2 10 T 0.75m
4 0.11 s
1.4 10 V
B B B A B A
N N N
t t t
B B
t N


= = =

= = =


Insight: The motorcycle must change the flux in a shorter period of time than did the car or the truck in order to
generate a large enough emf for the traffic control circuit to detect. Placing a strong magnet at the bottom of the
motorcycle increases the change in flux that the motorcycle produces, and thus increases the induced emf in the loop.




102. Picture the Problem: The image shows a ring traveling to the right toward
a region with an outward magnetic field.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced
current in the ring and the direction of the magnetic force.
Solution: 1. (a) Because the outward flux is increasing the induced current
will create a magnetic field into the page. The Right-Hand Rule shows that
this current is clockwise.
2. (b) The induced current opposes the change in flux, so the force will slow down the ring. The force points to the left.
Insight: Using the Right-Hand Rule for force on the portion of the ring inside the magnetic field also shows that the
force is to the left.




103. Picture the Problem: The image shows a ring traveling to the right exiting
a region with a magnetic field that points out of the page.

Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the induced
current in the ring and the direction of the magnetic force.
Solution: 1. (a) When the ring is completely inside the field, the flux does
not change. With no changing flux, the induced current is zero.

2. (b) With no induced current, the force is also zero.
3. (c) Because the flux out of the page is decreasing, the induced current will create a magnetic field that points out of
the page. By pointing your right thumb out of the page, the fingers of your right hand indicate that the induced current
must flow in the counterclockwise direction.
2. (b) The induced current opposes the change in flux, so the force will slow down the ring. The force points to the left.
Insight: Using the Right-Hand Rule for force on the portion of the middle rings current that is inside the magnetic field
also shows that the force points to the left. The current is downward in that portion of the ring, so you should start by
pointing the fingers of your right hand in the downward direction. When you then curl your fingers out of the page,
your right thumb points toward the left, indicating the direction of the magnetic force (refer to section 22-4).

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 31

104. Picture the Problem: A 1.25-m-long rod moves at 3.49 m/s
along two frictionless wires connected to a 12- light bulb. A
magnetic field of 2.0 T fills the region and points out of the page.
Strategy: Use equation 23-8 to calculate the external force.
Then use equation 23-7 to calculate the current.

Solution: 1. (a) Use
equation 23-8 to find F:
( ) ( )( )
2 2
2 2
2.0 T 3.49 m/s 1.25 m
12
1.8 N
B v
F
R
F
=
=


2. (b) Calculate I:
( )( )( ) 2.0 T 3.49 m/s 1.25 m
0.73 A
12
Bv
I
R
= = =


Insight: Because the speed in this problem is greater than the speed in example 23-3, the applied force and current must
also be greater than the force and current in the example.


105. Picture the Problem: A 1.25-m-long rod moves at 2.49 m/s
along two frictionless wires connected to a 12- light bulb. A
2.0-T magnetic field fills the region and points into the page.
Strategy: Use Lenzs Law to determine the direction of the
magnetic force and induced current. Then solve equation 23-8
for the magnetic field.
Solution 1. (a) The magnetic force will still oppose the change
in flux, so reversing the magnetic field will not change the
direction of the magnetic force. The magnetic force will still
point to the right.
2. (b) The motion of the rod is decreasing the flux through the circuit. The induced current will create a magnetic field
that points into the page in order to oppose this change in flux. By the pointing your right thumb into the page, the
fingers of your right hand indicate that the induced current must be in the clockwise direction.

3. (c) Solve equation 23-8 for B:
( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1.6 N 12
2.2 T
2.49 m/s 1.25 m
B v
F
R
FR
B
v
=

= = =


Insight: To decrease the speed while maintaining the same force, the magnetic field must be increased. This same
magnetic field would be needed whether the field points up or down.

Chapter 23: Magnetic Flux and Faradays Law of Induction James S. Walker, Physics, 4
th
Edition

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No
portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.
23 32