'.
o
J
L
Fig. 1. The control Equivalent Circuit of DC Motor using the Anature
ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31,2012 118
Voltage Control.
Where,
Ra : Armature resistance
La : Armature inductance
ia : Armature current
if : Field current
ea : Input voltage
eb : Back electromotive force (EMF)
T
m
: Motor torque
O. An angular velocity of rotor
J. Rotating inertial measurement of motor bearing
Kb : EMF constant
K
T
: Torque constant
B : Friction constant
Because the back EMF eb is proportional to speed U
directly, then
de
eb (t) = Kb = Kbc(t)
(1)
dt
Making use of the KCL voltage law can get
.
dia (t)
ea(t)=Ra
1
a(t)+La

+eb(t)
dt
(2)
From Newton law, the motor torque can be obtained as
T
m
(t) = J
d
2
e(t)
+ B
de
= K
T
ia (t) (3)
dt dt
Take (1), (2), and (3) into Laplace transform, respectively, the
equations can be formulated as
(4)
(5)
(6)
Figure 4 describes the DC motor armature control system
fnction block diagram fom equations (1) to (6).
Fig. 2. DC Motor Armature Voltage Control System Function Block
Diagram.
The transfer fnction of DC motor speed with respect to the
input voltage can be written as follows,
(7)
III. PID CONTROLLER
PROPORTIONALintegralderivative (PID) controllers [1]
[3] are widely used in industrial control systems because of the
reduced number of parameters to be tuned. They provide
control signals that are proportional to the error between the
reference signal and the actual output (proportional action), to
the integral of the error (integral action), and to the derivative
of the error (derivative action), namely
[ I
t
d 1
U(t)=
Kp e(t)+
 fe('r)dl+Td e(t)
J dt
!
U
(8)
Where a(t) 3nU e(t) denote the control and the error
signals respectively, and Kp, ' and Td are the parameters to
be tuned. The corresponding transfer fnction is given as
K(s)=K
p
+_
I
_+Td(S)] (9)
' (s)
These fnctions have been enough to the most control
processes. Because the structure of PID controller is simple, it
is the most extensive control method to be used in industry so
far. The PID controller is mainly to adjust an appropriate
proportional gain ( K p ), integral gain (K _ ), and differential
gain (K
D
) to achieve the optimal control performance. The
PID controller system block diagram of this paper is shown in
Figure 6.
c(t)
L(s)
lg. . IL LOnIlOl OCKLlaglam.
Transfer fnction can also be expressed as
U(s)
K(s)==K +' +K S
E(s)
p
S
d
u(t)
L(s)
(10)
The main features of PID controllers are the capacity to
eliminate steadystate error of the response to a step reference
signal (because of integral action) and the ability to anticipate
output changes (when derivative action is employed).
IV. ZIEGLERNICHOLS TUNING
. Ia!//oaoeo!
This method is applied to plants with step responses of the
form displayed in Figure 4. This type of response is typical of
a frst order system with transportation delay. The response is
characterized by two parameters, L the delay time and Ithe
time constant. These are found by drawing a tangent to the step
response at its point of infection and noting its intersections
ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31,2012 119
with the time axis and the steady state value. The plant model
is therefore
G(s) =
Ke
sL
(11)
TS+l
Ziegler and Nichols derived the following control
parameters based on this model.
!
1angenl Lncdl in!1ectonpon
Fig. 4. Response Curve for ZieglerNichols Method.
In realtime process control systems, a large variety of
plants can be approximately modeled by (11). If the system
model cannot be physically derived, experiments can be
performed to extract the parameters for the approximate model
(11). For instance, if the step response of the plant model can
be measured through an experiment, the output signal can be
recorded as sketched in Fig. 4, fom which the parameters of k,
L, and I(or , where = kLI ) can be extracted by the simple
approach shown. More sophisticated curve ftting approaches
can also be used. With L and a, the ZieglerNichols formula in
Table 1 can be used to get the controller parameters.
TABLE I
ZIEGLERNICHOLS TUNING FIRST METHOD
Controller type Kp Ti Td
P TIL
PI 0.9T/L LlO.3
PID 1.2T/L 2L 0.5L
!. Mo!ye!z/eeN/.osIa/Meo!
Modifed ZieglerNichols tuning using ChienHrones
Reswick (CHR) tuning algorithm emphasizes on setpoint
regulation. . In addition one qualitative specifcation on the
response speed and overshoot can be accommodated.
Compared with the traditional ZieglerNichols tuning formula,
the CRR method uses the time constant I of the plant
explicitly. The CRR PID controller tuning formulas are
summarized in Table 2 for setpoint regulation.
TABLE B
MODIFIED ZIEGLERNICHOLS TUNING SECOND METHOD
Controller type Kp Ti Td
P 0.7/a
PI 0.6/a T
PID 0.95/a I.4T 0.47T
Here the parameters k, L, and I are obtained fom the
response curve of fgure 4. With K[=Kp/Tjand
K
D
=Kp*Tc
Thus the values of Kp, Ki and Kd are obtain fom tables 1
and 2 to form the transfer fnction for PID controller as given
by (9).
V. SIMULA nON AND ANALYSIS
A standard test model as considered is taken for study of
DC motor with ZN tuning controller. The test model below
shown is completely designed in SISO tool. Fig. 3 shows the
block diagram of DC motor driving an inertial load.
Ac0a Spd
Fig. 5. Block Diagram of DC Motor Control System.
From the state equation (refer (1), (2), (3)) previously, we
can construct the model with the environment MA TLAB
(R201Oa) Simulink. The model of the DC motor in Simulink is
shown in Figure 1. The various parameters of the DC motor
are shown in Table 3.
TABLE B
DC MOTOR PARAMETERS
Parameters Motor 1 Motor 2 Motor3
Armature Resistance Ra
(O) 2 2 1
Armature Inductance La 0.5 0.5 0.5
(H)
Moment ofTnertia J 0.02 1.2 0.01
(Kgm
2
)
Friction constant B 0.2 0.2 0.00003
(ms)
Torque constant KT 0.015 0.2 0.023
(m/A)
EMF constant KB 0.01 0.2 0.023
(Vs/rad)
The system is simulated for the unit step response for
various parameter models for different motors as shown in
table 3.The Transfer fnction these three motors are given by
following equations.
Transfer fnction for motor 1,
G\(s)=
O.OIS
0.01S
2
+0.14S+0.4001S
Transfer fnction for motor 2,
G
2
(s)=
2
0.2
O.lS + 2.SS + 0.44
(12)
(13)
ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31,2012 120
Transfer fnction for motor 3,
G (s) =
0.023
0.005S
2
+0.010015S+0.000559
. Ia!//oaoeo!
(14)
Flow Chart as shown in fg 4 is used for MA TLAB coding
to fnd the PID controller parameters and to get DC motor
Close loop unit step response of the overall transfer fnction.
^,
zTART
Run hc Cmooropcn loop Transfer fcnclon
loreach SC oIParameters
lndthc opcn Ioopstep
rcsponscoIgi ven motot
1tanstcrJncIonand rw the
1angcnI iIncof open lop step
re ponsc ! Maxmum slope
nd L,Jaramctcrsand Calculate Parameters
kp,Ki and Kd] oI Ilcunlrollcraccordingto
1ahlc 
Find the lIDcontroller 1ransIcrl0nclIon by
equation v
lnaI!y,NuItlpyhc UL HOOl and PIDcontroller
Translcr!ancton and nd cIosc oopstcp
response
LNL
Fig. 6. The Flow Chart of ZieglerNichols Tuning Method.
The controller is connected in cascaded fashion and step
responses for different motors are shown by 8(a), 9(a) and
1O(a).
!. Mo!ye!z/eeN/.os Ia/oeo!
Using MATLAB R2010a we can design compensator by
ZieglerNichols open loop tuning method based on Chien
HronesReswick (CRR) tuning algorithm. The step responses
are shown by 8(b), 9(b) and 1 O(b).
Fig. 7. Matlab Simulink Model for Armature Control of DC Motor
VI. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
IJ
J
11
L3 
1"
.
(a)
1
'
(b)
Fig. 8.(a) Step response with Traditional ZieglerNichols method.
(b) Step response with Modifed ZieglerNicolas method.
ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE
I
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 121
"1
!.
O
J.
J
H]
(a)
(b)
.
Fig. 9.(a) Step response with Traditional ZieglerNichols method.
(b) Step response with Modifed ZieglerNichols method.
!mq
(a)

"
(b)
Fig. 10.(a) Step response with Traditional ZieglerNichols method.
(b) Step response with Modifed ZieglerN ichols method.
The step response of DC motor 1 with two methods is show in
fg. 8(a) and fg.8(b),the step response of DC motor 2 is shown
in the fg.9(a) and fg.9(b) and the step response of DC motor
3 is shown in the fg.lO(a) and fg.lO(b). From both Modeling
and MA TLAB coding a comparison between these two
methods have been made on the basis of Objective i.e Rise
time, Overshoot and Settling time as,
TALE IV
TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1
Method Rise time Maximum Settling
(sec) overshoot time
,) (sec)
Traditional ZN 0.312 27.9 2.27
tuning
Modifed 0.074 14.5 0.439
ZN tuning
TALE IV
TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1
Method Rise time Maximum Settling
(sec) overshoot time
,) (sec)
Traditional ZN 0.377 51.8 5.68
tuning
Modifed 0.359 7.7 1.07
ZN tuning
TALE IV
TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF MOTOR 1
Method Rise time Maximum Settling
(sec) overshoot time
,) (sec)
Traditional ZN 0.0508 5.84 0.527
tuning
Modifed 0.786 6.99 2.33
ZN tuning
ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31,2012 122
VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, PID controller is designed using Traditional
ZieglerNichols and Modifed ZieglerNichols (CHR) tuning
algorithms. The results of both the methods are checked by
MA TLAB coding as well as simulation. The speed of a three
different DC Motor parameters is controlled by means of these
two controllers. According to the results of the computer
simulation, the Modifed ZieglerNichols tuned PID controller
effciently is better than the traditional ZieglerNichols. The
Modifed ZieglerNichols is the best controller which
presented satisfactory performances for the objectives (i.e
Minimum rise time, Minimum overshoot, and Minimum
settling time) But, for higher power application DC motors
(Motor 1 and Motor 2) and for lower power application motor
traditional method found satisfactory.
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ISBN: 9788190904223 2012 IEEE