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Security Level:

How to analyze Coverage Issues in DT www.huawei.com
How to analyze Coverage
Issues in DT
www.huawei.com

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Huawei Confidential

Security Level: How to analyze Coverage Issues in DT www.huawei.com HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential

Coverage

• Downlink RxLevel and Coverage

• Coverage of single cell

• Coverage of whole network

Coverage

Network Coverage is evaluated by:

RxLev = EIRP(dBm) – L(dB)

EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

Where: L = Propagation Losses EIRP(dBm) L(dB) RxLev(dBm)
Where:
L = Propagation Losses
EIRP(dBm)
L(dB)
RxLev(dBm)

Good coverage

Unexpected coverage (overshooting)

In urban area, Lower Antenna Height (<=25m), Greater downtilt (>=6 degree), and Lower EIRP (<=41
In urban area, Lower Antenna Height (<=25m), Greater downtilt (>=6 degree),
and Lower EIRP (<=41 dBm) are used to control overshooting &
interference. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 3
interference.
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Coverage(one cell)

The following example shows the downlink RxLevel(Dedicated Mode) decreases when MS is driving away from BTS.

The RxLevel decrease faster when Antenna Downtilt increase.

Variation s due to Rayleigh fading Global Variation means due to RxLevel
Variation
s due to
Rayleigh
fading
Global
Variation
means
due to
RxLevel

Downtilt: 0 drgree

Downtilt: 8 drgree
Downtilt: 8 drgree
shadowing HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 4
shadowing
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Coverage(Network)

The picture shows the coverage of a city, which contains good and bad coverage areas.

The distribution of downlink RxLev concentrates from -80 to -95 dBm.

Good Coverage Bad Coverage
Good Coverage
Bad Coverage
concentrates from -80 to -95 dBm. Good Coverage Bad Coverage HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential

Coverage Issues

What is …

• Coverage hole

• Sudden Decrease on Signal Level

• Line of Sight Lost

• Lack of Dominant Server

• Coverage Overlapping

• Overshooting

Coverage Hole

Legend RxLevel Poor Coverage Areas Bad Call RxQuality Dro p RxQuality
Legend
RxLevel
Poor Coverage
Areas
Bad
Call
RxQuality
Dro
p
RxQuality
Coverage Areas Bad Call RxQuality Dro p RxQuality RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95

RxLevel(Serving Cell) is about (or less than) -95 dBm

RxLevel(Neighbours) are about (or less than) -95 dBm

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Huawei Confidential

Sudden Decrease on Signal Level

Sudden Decrease on Signal Level RxLev(Serving Cell and Neighbors) decrease in a short time. Check if

RxLev(Serving Cell and Neighbors) decrease in a short time.

Check if there is big change of testing environment, e.g. check if the test was performed on a highway and that particular area was a tunnel or not.

Signal level on the chart will make a curve rather than unstable changes.

This usually results in Ping Pong Handovers

unstable changes. This usually results in Ping Pong Handovers HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 8
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Line of Sight Lost

Line of Sight Lost Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to
Line of Sight Lost Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to
Line of Sight Lost Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to

Signal Strength of Serving cell make fast up and down due to far away server being blocked by obstacles from the terrain. The other way, signal from the server lose line of sight(LOS) to the mobile because of a hill of something.

RxQuality goes worse when the level drops down fast

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 9
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Lack of Dominant Server

Lack of Dominant Server Signal Level of more than one cell (Serving Cell and Neighbors) are

Signal Level of more than one cell (Serving Cell and Neighbors) are not high enough.

This might happen because the MS is located on the cell borders and there is no any best server to keep the call.

Lack of Dominant Server Causes too many Handovers Between the same Cells

Server Causes too many Handovers Between the same Cells HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page
Server Causes too many Handovers Between the same Cells HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 10
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Coverage Overlapping

Coverage Overlapping Signal Level of 3–4 cells are too closed to each other. This might point

Signal Level of 3–4 cells are too closed to each other.

This might point overlapping cells.

This will cause quality problems because of frequency reuse

Immediate action to optimize cell coverage should be taken by by power reductions, downtilts or other configuration changes.

by power reductions, downtilts or other configuration changes. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Huawei Confidential Page 11

Overshooting

MS is covered by the

serving cell, but is outside the cell BSC thinks that it is

neighbour cell A and makes a handover to cell A The MS is not near

cell A so the assigned TCH for the handover is not used Cell A will have

unused TCH (handover) The call might be dropped because it cannot make the handover

Serving cell Other cell B BSIC 1 Freq. A BTS Neighbour cell A BSIC 1
Serving
cell
Other cell B
BSIC 1
Freq. A
BTS
Neighbour cell A
BSIC 1
Freq. A
Coverage spot
(island effect)

Proposal of Coverage Issue

• Solution of low coverage

• Solution of overshooting and overlapping

Solutions of Low Coverage

Possible solution can be listed as below:

New Site Proposal

Sector Addition

Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes)

Loss or Attenuation Check ( Feeders, Connectors, Jumpers, etc )

Proposal

Remark

How to do

New Site Proposal

Most effective solution, but the cost is highest

Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the best locations to put new sites

Sector Addition

Effective solution but only for Omni-Site

Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended azimuth of new sectors

 

Height

Difficult, high cost

 

Type

Difficult, high cost

Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommended height, type, azimuth or down tilt of sector.

Antenna

Azimuth

Easy to operate

Downtilt

Easy to operate

 

Feeders

Only for troubleshooting

 

Hardware

Connectors

Only for troubleshooting

Jumpers

Only for troubleshooting

Referring to hardware checking guide

Solutions of overshooting or overlapping

Possible solution can be listed as below:

Site Configuration Change (Antenna Type, height, azimuth, tilt changes)

Cell Configuration Change (Carrier Power Type, Static TRX Power Class, Fine Tuning of Static TRX Power…)

 

Proposal

Remark

How to do

 

Height

Difficult, high cost

 

Antenna

Type

Difficult, high cost

Using prediction tool(U-net) to identify the recommmended height, type, azimuth or downtilt of sector.

Azimuth

Easy to operate

 

Downtilt

Easy to operate

Parameter

Output Power related

Easy to operate, but with risk of coverage reduction

Referring to Data Configuration Reference Help

Thank you

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Thank you www.huawei.com