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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

NONRESIDENT
TRAINING
COURSE

April 1994
Electronics Technician
Volume 5Navigation Systems
NAVEDTRA 14090

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Although the words he, him, and
his are used sparingly in this course to
enhance communication, they are not
intended to be gender driven or to affront or
discriminate against anyone.
i
PREFACE
By enrolling in this self-study course, you have demonstrated a desire to improve yourself and the Navy.
Remember, however, this self-study course is only one part of the total Navy training program. Practical
experience, schools, selected reading, and your desire to succeed are also necessary to successfully round
out a fully meaningful training program.
COURSE OVERVIEW: In completing this nonresident training course, you should be able to: Identify
the primary navigation systems used by Navy surface vessels; identify the basic components of and explain
the basic operation of the Ships Inertial Navigation System (SINS); identify the basic components of and
explain the operation of the U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS); identify the basic components
of and explain the operation of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS); and identify the basic
components of and explain the operation of the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) system.
THE COURSE: This self-study course is organized into subject matter areas, each containing learning
objectives to help you determine what you should learn along with text and illustrations to help you
understand the information. The subject matter reflects day-to-day requirements and experiences of
personnel in the rating or skill area. It also reflects guidance provided by Enlisted Community Managers
(ECMs) and other senior personnel, technical references, instructions, etc., and either the occupational or
naval standards, which are listed in the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower Personnel Classifications
and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068.
THE QUESTIONS: The questions that appear in this course are designed to help you understand the
material in the text.
VALUE: In completing this course, you will improve your military and professional knowledge.
Importantly, it can also help you study for the Navy-wide advancement in rate examination. If you are
studying and discover a reference in the text to another publication for further information, look it up.
1994 Edition Prepared by
ETC(SW/AW) James R. Branch
Published by
NAVAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER
NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number
0504-LP-026-7560
ii
Sailors Creed
I am a United States Sailor.
I will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States of
America and I will obey the orders
of those appointed over me.
I represent the fighting spirit of the
Navy and those who have gone
before me to defend freedom and
democracy around the world.
I proudly serve my countrys Navy
combat team with honor, courage
and commitment.
I am committed to excellence and
the fair treatment of all.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Page
1. SURFACE NAVI GATI ON SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
2. TACTI CAL AI R NAVI GATI ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
APPENDI X
I . Li st of Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AI -1
I I . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AI I -l
I NDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ndex-1
iii
SUMMARY OF THE ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN
TRAINING SERIES
Thi s seri es of trai ni ng manual s was devel oped to repl ace the El ectroni cs
Technician 3 & 2 TRAMAN. The content i s di rected toward personnel worki ng
toward advancement to El ectroni cs Techni ci an Second Cl ass.
The ni ne vol umes i n the seri es are based on major topi c areas wi th whi ch the
ET2 shoul d be fami l i ar, Vol ume 1, Safety, provi des an i ntroducti on to general safety
as i t rel ates to the ET rati ng. I t al so provi des both general and speci fi c i nformati on
on el ectroni c tag-out procedures, man-al oft procedures, hazardous materi al s (i .e.,
sol vents, batter i es, and vacuum tubes), and r adi ati on hazar ds. Vol ume 2,
Administration, di scusses COSAL updates, 3-M documentati on, suppl y paperwork,
and other associ ated admi ni strati ve topi cs. Vol ume 3, Communications Systems,
provi des a basi c i ntroducti on to shi pboard and shore-based communi cati on systems.
Systems covered i ncl ude man-pat radi os (i .e., PRC-104, PSC-3) i n the hf, vhf, uhf,
SATCOM, and shf ranges. Al so provi ded i s an i ntroducti on to the Communi cati ons
Li nk I nter oper abi l i ty System (CLI PS). Vol ume 4, Radar Systems, i s a basi c
i ntroducti on to ai r search, surface search, ground control l ed approach, and carri er
control l ed approach radar systems. Vol ume 5, Navigation Systems, i s a basi c
i ntr oducti on to navi gati on systems, such as OMEGA, SATNAV, TACAN, and
man-pat systems. Vol ume 6, Digital Data Systems, i s a basi c i ntroducti on to di gi tal
data systems and i ncl udes di scussi ons about SNAP I I , l aptop computers, and desktop
computers. Vol ume 7, Antennas and Wave Propagation, i s an i ntroducti on to wave
propagati on, as i t pertai ns to El ectroni cs Techni ci ans, and shi pboard and shore-based
antennas. Vol ume 8, System Concepts, di scusses system i nterfaces, troubl eshooti ng,
sub-systems, dry ai r, cool i ng, and power systems. Vol ume 9, Electro-Optics, i s an
i ntroducti on to ni ght vi si on equi pment, l asers, thermal i magi ng, and fi ber opti cs.
iv
v
INSTRUCTIONS FOR TAKING THE COURSE
ASSIGNMENTS
The text pages that you are to study are listed at
the beginning of each assignment. Study these
pages carefully before attempting to answer the
questions. Pay close attention to tables and
illustrations and read the learning objectives.
The learning objectives state what you should be
able to do after studying the material. Answering
the questions correctly helps you accomplish the
objectives.
SELECTING YOUR ANSWERS
Read each question carefully, then select the
BEST answer. You may refer freely to the text.
The answers must be the result of your own
work and decisions. You are prohibited from
referring to or copying the answers of others and
from giving answers to anyone else taking the
course.
SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS
To have your assignments graded, you must be
enrolled in the course with the Nonresident
Training Course Administration Branch at the
Naval Education and Training Professional
Development and Technology Center
(NETPDTC). Following enrollment, there are
two ways of having your assignments graded:
(1) use the Internet to submit your assignments
as you complete them, or (2) send all the
assignments at one time by mail to NETPDTC.
Grading on the Internet: Advantages to
Internet grading are:
you may submit your answers as soon as
you complete an assignment, and
you get your results faster; usually by the
next working day (approximately 24 hours).
In addition to receiving grade results for each
assignment, you will receive course completion
confirmation once you have completed all the
assignments. To submit your assignment
answers via the Internet, go to:
http://courses.cnet.navy.mil
Grading by Mail: When you submit answer
sheets by mail, send all of your assignments at
one time. Do NOT submit individual answer
sheets for grading. Mail all of your assignments
in an envelope, which you either provide
yourself or obtain from your nearest Educational
Services Officer (ESO). Submit answer sheets
to:
COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC N331
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
Answer Sheets: All courses include one
scannable answer sheet for each assignment.
These answer sheets are preprinted with your
SSN, name, assignment number, and course
number. Explanations for completing the answer
sheets are on the answer sheet.
Do not use answer sheet reproductions: Use
only the original answer sheets that we
providereproductions will not work with our
scanning equipment and cannot be processed.
Follow the instructions for marking your
answers on the answer sheet. Be sure that blocks
1, 2, and 3 are filled in correctly. This
information is necessary for your course to be
properly processed and for you to receive credit
for your work.
COMPLETION TIME
Courses must be completed within 12 months
from the date of enrollment. This includes time
required to resubmit failed assignments.
vi
PASS/FAIL ASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES
If your overall course score is 3.2 or higher, you
will pass the course and will not be required to
resubmit assignments. Once your assignments
have been graded you will receive course
completion confirmation.
If you receive less than a 3.2 on any assignment
and your overall course score is below 3.2, you
will be given the opportunity to resubmit failed
assignments. You may resubmit failed
assignments only once. Internet students will
receive notification when they have failed an
assignment--they may then resubmit failed
assignments on the web site. Internet students
may view and print results for failed
assignments from the web site. Students who
submit by mail will receive a failing result letter
and a new answer sheet for resubmission of each
failed assignment.
COMPLETION CONFIRMATION
After successfully completing this course, you
will receive a letter of completion.
ERRATA
Errata are used to correct minor errors or delete
obsolete information in a course. Errata may
also be used to provide instructions to the
student. If a course has an errata, it will be
included as the first page(s) after the front cover.
Errata for all courses can be accessed and
viewed/downloaded at:
http://www.advancement.cnet.navy.mil
STUDENT FEEDBACK QUESTIONS
We value your suggestions, questions, and
criticisms on our courses. If you would like to
communicate with us regarding this course, we
encourage you, if possible, to use e-mail. If you
write or fax, please use a copy of the Student
Comment form that follows this page.
For subject matter questions:
E-mail: n315.products@cnet.navy.mil
Phone: Comm: (850) 452-1001, Ext. 1713
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FAX: (850) 452-1370
(Do not fax answer sheets.)
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For enrollment, shipping, grading, or
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Address: COMMANDING OFFICER
NETPDTC N331
6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
NAVAL RESERVE RETIREMENT CREDIT
If you are a member of the Naval Reserve, you
may earn retirement points for successfully
completing this course, if authorized under
current directives governing retirement of Naval
Reserve personnel. For Naval Reserve retire-
ment, this course is evaluated at 2 points. (Refer
to Administrative Procedures for Naval
Reservists on Inactive Duty, BUPERSINST
1001.39, for more information about retirement
points.)
vii
Student Comments
Course Title: Electronics Technician, Volume 5Navigation Systems
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NETPDTC 1550/41 (Rev 4-00
CHAPTER 1
SURFACE NAVI GATI ON SYSTEMS
I NTRODUCTI ON
Todays Navy uses vari ous navi gati onal systems
i n the fl eet. As an ET, you wi l l be responsi bl e for
mai ntai ni ng these systems.
I n th i s v ol u me, we wi l l cov er n av i gati on
fundamental s, the Shi ps I nerti al Navi gati on System,
Navy Satel l i te Navi gati on System, NAVSTAR Gl obal
Posi ti oni ng System, fathometers, and TACAN. Lets
start wi th navi gati on fundamental s.
NAVI GATI ON FUNDAMENTALS
I n si mpl e terms, navi gati on i s a method of getti ng
from one known poi nt to some di stant poi nt. Pi l oti ng,
cel esti al navi gati on, and radi o navi gati on are the
commonl y used methods. I n thi s chapter, we wi l l
di scuss radi o navi gati on and i ts components: dead
reckoni ng, el ectr oni c navi gati on, and tacti cal
navi gati on. The tacti cal use of NTDS data (tacti cal
navi gati on) was cover ed i n v ol u m e 3 ,
Communications Systems. However, we wi l l revi ew
i t bri efl y here to hel p you see how i t fi ts i nto radi o
navi gati on. We wi l l then di scuss dead reckoni ng and
el ectroni c navi gati on i n more detai l .
TACTI CAL NAVI GATI ON
You must under stand the di ffer ence between
navi gati on i n the tr adi ti onal sense and tacti cal
navi gati on. Tradi ti onal navi gati on and pi l oti ng are
concerned pri mari l y wi th safe maneuveri ng of the
shi p wi th respect to hazards such as shoal s, reefs, and
so forth. Tacti cal navi gati on i s not di rectl y concerned
wi t h maneuveri ng the shi p i n navi gabl e waters. For
the purposes of tacti cal navi gati on, absol ute posi ti on
i s uni mportant except to the extent that i t supports
determi ni ng the rel ati ve posi ti on of hosti l e targets and
fri endl y cooperati ng pl atforms.
Remember , tacti cal navi gati on deal s pr i mar i l y
wi th fi xi ng the l ocati on of the pl atform to (1) enabl e
i nstal l ed weapon systems to functi on agai nst i ntended
targets, (2) prevent ownshi p l oss to or i nterference
wi th fr i endl y weapon systems, and (3) coor di nate
ownshi p weapons systems wi th those of other
pl atforms to achi eve maxi mum effect.
I n tacti cal navi gati on, navi gati on data i s used by
combat systems, i ncl udi ng NTDS, to ensure accuracy
i n tar get tr ack i n g. Sh i ps mov emen ts ar e
automati cal l y r ecor ded by computer pr ogr ams for
appl i cati ons such as gun l ayi ng cal cul ati ons and Li nk
11 posi ti on reporti ng. Shi ps atti tudes (pi tch, rol l , and
headi ng) are transmi tted to vari ous di spl ay and user
poi nts, and el ectr oni c or mathemati cal computer
stabi l i zati on i s accompl i shed, dependi ng on the
system. For exampl e, pi tch and r ol l ar e used by
NTDS, mi ssi l e, sonar, gun, and TACAN systems for
stabi l i zati on data and reference. Headi ng i s used by
the EW di recti on fi ndi ng, sonar, and radar systems for
true and rel ati ve beari ng di spl ay. Shi ps navi gati on
and atti tude data are provi ded by vari ous equi pment,
dependi ng on shi p cl ass.
DEAD RECKONI NG
Dead reckoni ng i s the esti mati ng of the shi ps
posi ti on between known navi gati onal poi nts or fi xes.
Radi o navi gati on, consi sti ng of terrestri al systems
such as OMEGA and LORAN, and space-based
s y s t e ms , s u ch a s SATN AV, TRAN SI T, a n d
NAVSTAR GPS, pr ovi des accur ate posi ti ons at
speci fi c fi xes. However, wi th the excepti on of some
gunfi re support systems that provi de nearl y constant
posi ti onal updates wi th respect to a fi xed beacon or
promi nent l andmark, there i s a l i mi t to how often
fi xes can be obtai ned. Thi s requi res us to dead reckon
(DR) between the fi xes. Dead reckoni ng can be as
basi c as a DR l i ne for course and speed on a pl otti ng
sheet or as sophi sti cated as an esti mate made by an
l -l
i nerti al navi gati on system that measures the shi ps
moti on i n several pl anes and i ntegrates the resul ts
wi th a hi gh degr ee of accur acy. Al though the
methods of dead reckoni ng may vary, they al l share
the fol l owi ng characteri sti cs: (1) the accuracy of the
esti mated posi ti on never exceeds the navi gati on
method used to obtai n the l ast fi x, and (2) the
accuracy of the esti mated posi ti on deteri orates over
ti me.
ELECTRONI C NAVI GATI ON
Si mpl y put, el ectr oni c navi gati on i s a for m of
pi l oti ng. Pi l oti ng i s the branch of navi gati on i n whi ch
a shi ps posi ti on i s deter mi ned by r efer r i ng to
l andmarks wi th known posi ti ons on the earth. These
reference poi nts may be beari ng and di stance to a
si ngl e object, cross beari ngs on two or more objects,
or two bear i ngs on the same object wi th a ti me
i nterval i n between.
Posi ti on i n el ectroni c navi gati on i s determi ned i n
practi cal l y the same way as pi l oti ng, though there i s
one i mportant di fferencethe l andmarks from whi ch
the shi ps posi ti on i s determi ned do not have to be
vi si bl e from the shi p. I nstead, thei r beari ngs and
ranges are obtai ned by el ectroni c means.
The advantages of el ectr oni c navi gati on ar e
obvi ous. A shi ps posi ti on maybe fi xed el ectroni cal l y
i n fog or heavy weather that makes i t i mpossi bl e to
take vi sual fi xes. Al so, an el ectroni c fi x can be based
on stati ons far beyond the range of any l ocal bad
weather .
Si nce el ectroni c navi gati on i s the pri mary form of
navi gati on i n todays Navy, the rest of thi s chapter
wi l l deal wi th el ectroni c navi gati on and the rol es
pl ayed by the fol l owi ng systems:
1. Long Range Ai d to Navi gati on (LORAN)
2. VLF Radi o Navi gati on (OMEGA)
3. Shi ps I nerti al Navi gati on System (SINS)
4. Navy Navi gati on Satel l i te System (NNSS)
5. NAVSTAR Gl obal Posi ti oni ng System (GPS)
We wi l l al so br i efl y di scuss navi gati on r adar ,
surface search radar, and fathometers.
We wi l l cover TACAN i n chapter 2.
LORAN/OMEGATRANSI TI ON AND
BASIC OPERATION
LORAN and OMEGA have been the workhorse
systems for many years. However, they are bei ng
phased out. Based on the DOD pol i cy statement
repri nted bel ow and because you may see a ci vi l i an
versi on aboard your shi p from ti me to ti me, we wi l l
si mpl y gi ve you an overvi ew of the two systems. I n
accordance with the 1992 Federal Radio navigation
Plan (FRP), NAVSTAR will become the primary
reference navi gati on system for surface shi ps,
submarines, and aircraft. The DOD requirement for
LORAN-C and OMEGA will end 31 December 1994
and TRANSI T will be terminated in DECEMBER
1996. Land-based TACAN and VOR/ DME are to be
phased out by the year 2000.
LORAN BASICS
LORAN i s a l ong-di stance r adi o navi gati on
system used by shi ps at sea to obtai n a posi ti on fi x,
The system i s based on the di fference i n the transi t
ti me requi red for pul sed radi o si gnal s to arri ve at the
L ORAN r ecei v er fr om mu l ti pl e, s y n ch r on i zed,
omni di recti onal ashore transmi tters. LORAN al so
takes advantage of the constant vel oci ty of radi o
si gnal s to use the ti me l apse between the arri val of
two si gnal s to measure the di fferences i n di stance
fr om the tr ansmi tti ng stati ons to the poi nt of
recepti on. The recei vi ng set provi des a di rect readi ng,
i n mi croseconds, of the ti me di fference i n the arri val
of the si gnal s. (Some sets automati cal l y convert the
readi ngs i nto l ati tude and l ongi tude.) When the ti me
di fference i s measured between si gnal s recei ved from
any two LORAN transmi tter stati ons, a shi ps l i ne-of-
posi ti on (LOP) can be determi ned.
1-2
OMEGA BASICS ADVANTAGES
OME GA i s a h y p er bol i c p h a s e-d i f f er en ce
measurement system. Hyperbol i c navi gati on i nvol ves
compari ng the phase angl es of two or more radi o
si gnal s that are synchroni zed to a common ti me base.
By mov i n g th e OME GA r ecei v er (by s h i p s
movement) and keepi ng the transmi tter stati ons on
fr equency wi th a constant di ffer ence i n ti me and
phase, the system can measure the rel ati ve phase
rel ati onshi p between two stati ons to determi ne a l i ne
of posi ti on (LOP) for the shi p. The rel ati ve phase
angl e measured between pai red transmi tti ng stati ons
depends upon the di stance of the recei ver from each
t r a n s m i t t e r .
I t i s i mportant to understand that a mi ni mum of
two transmi tters are requi red to obtai n a basi c posi ti on
fi x. Three or four are necessary to obtai n an accurate
fi x. Unfortunatel y, there are many ti mes i n whi ch
onl y two transmi tters are avai l abl e but three are
desi red. One way around thi s probl em i s to use the
r ecei v er os ci l l ator as a th i r d, or ph an tom,
transmi tter. By setti ng the recei ver osci l l ator to the
frequency transmi tted by each of the two OMEGA
transmi tters, the operator can compare the actual
transmi tted frequenci es to the frequenci es of the two
recei ved si gnal s. Thi s compar i son pr ovi des two
phase angl es. The operator can then compare the two
phase angl es to determi ne a thi rd phase angl e. The
three phase angl es wi l l yi el d a fi x as accurate as a fi x
determi ned from three actual transmi tters.
SHIPS INERTIAL
NAVI GATI ON SYSTEM
The Shi ps I nerti al Navi gati on System (SINS) i s
a navi gati on system that (after i ni ti al l ati tude,
l ongi tude, headi ng, and ori entati on condi ti ons are set
i nto the system) conti nuousl y computes the l ati tude
and l ongi tude of the shi p by sensi ng accel erati on.
Thi s i s i n contrast to OMEGA and LORAN, whi ch fi x
the shi ps posi ti on by measuri ng posi ti on rel ati ve to
some known object. SI NS i s a hi ghl y accurate and
sophi sti cated dead reckoni ng devi ce. Lets l ook at
some of the advantages of usi ng the SI NS.
SI NS has a major securi ty advantage over other
types of navi gati on systems because i t i s compl etel y
i ndependent of cel esti al , si ght, and radi o navi gati on
ai ds. I n addi ti on, SI NS has the fol l owi ng advantages:
1. I t i s sel f-contai ned.
2. I t requi res mi ni mal outsi de
i nformati on.
3. I t cannot be jammed.
4. I t i s not affected by adverse weather
condi ti ons.
5. I t does not radi ate energy.
6. I t i s not detectabl e by enemy sensors.
Now that we have seen the advantages of thi s
system, l ets l ook at i ts basi c components.
BASI C COMPONENTS
Look at fi gure 1-1. The basi c components of an
i ner ti al navi gati on system ar e accel er ometer s,
gyroscopes, servo systems, and the computers (not
shown). Accel erometers measure changes i n speed or
di r ecti on al ong the axi s i n whi ch they l i e. Thei r
output i s a vol tage, or ser i es of pul ses (di gi tal ),
proporti onal to whatever accel erati on i s experi enced.
Figure 1-1.Stable platform with inertial components.
1-3
Fi gure 1-2 shows an E-transformer accel erometer,
whi l e fi gure 1-3 shows a pul se counti ng
accel erometer. Two accel erometers (ori entated North-
South and East-West, respecti vel y) are mounted on a
gyro-stabi l i zed pl atform to keep them i n a hori zontal
posi ti on despi te changes i n shi ps movement. The
accel erometers are attached to the pl atform by an
equator i al mount (gi mbal ) whose ver ti cal axi s i s
mi sal i gned paral l el to the earths pol ar axi s. Thi s
permi ts the N-S accel erometer to be al i gned al ong a
l ongi tude meri di an and the E-W accel erometer to be
al i gned al ong a l ati tude meri di an.
Figure 1-2.E-transformer accelerometer.
A three-gyro stabi l i zed pl atform i s mai ntai ned i n
the hori zontal posi ti on regardl ess of the pi tch, rol l , or
yaw of the shi p. Fi gure 1-4 shows a gi mbal -mounted
gyro. Shi ps headi ng changes cause the gyro si gnal s
to operate servo system motors, whi ch i n turn keep
the pl atform stabi l i zed. Hi gh-per for mance ser vo
systems keep the pl atform stabi l i zed to the desi red
accur acy. (You wi l l fi nd i n-depth i nfor mati on on
accel erometers, gyros, and servo systems i n NEETS
Modul e 15, Pri nci pl es of Synchros, Servos, and
Gyros.).
Mai ntai ni ng thi s accuracy over l ong peri ods of
ti me requi res that the system be updated peri odi cal l y.
Thi s i s done by resetti ng the system usi ng i nformati on
from some other navi gati on means; i .e., el ectroni c,
cel esti al , or dead reckoni ng.
Figure 1-3.Pulse counting accelerometer.
Several model s of SI NS are i n use. I n general ,
AN/WSN-2 systems are i nstal l ed on auxi l i ary shi ps,
AN/WSN-2A systems are i nstal l ed on submari nes,
and AN/WSN-5 systems ar e i nstal l ed or bei ng
i nstal l ed on sur face combatants. I n the fol l owi ng
paragraphs, you wi l l be i ntroduced to the AN/WSN-5
SI NS and i ts advantages over these earl i er systems.
Figure 1-4. Gimbal-mounted rate gyro.
1-4
AN/WSN-5 SINS Shi ps nor th, east, and ver ti cal vel oci ty
components
The AN/WSN-5 i s a stand-al one set that repl aces
the MK 19 MOD 3 gyr ocompass i n the fol l owi ng
cl ass shi ps: CG 16, CG 26, CGN 9, CGN 25, CGN
35, CGN 36, CGN 38 (except for CGN 41), DDG 37,
DD 963, and LHA 1. I t al so repl aces the AN/WSN-2
stabi l i zed gyrocompass set i n DDG 993, DD 997, and
CGN 41 cl ass shi ps.
Functional Description
The AN/WSN-5 has the same output capabi l i ti es
as th e AN/WSN-2. I t uses an accel er ometer -
contr ol l ed, thr ee axi s, gyr o-stabi l i zed pl atfor m to
provi de preci se output of shi ps headi ng, rol l , and
pi tch data i n anal og, dual -speed synchro format to
support shi ps navi gati on and fi re control systems.
Shi ps headi ng and atti tude data are conti nual l y and
automati cal l y deri ved whi l e the equi pment senses and
processes physi cal and el ectri cal i nputs of sensed
moti on (i nerti al ), gravi ty, earths rotati on, and shi ps
speed. The equi pment has an uni nterrupti bl e backup
power suppl y for use duri ng power l osses, and bui l t-
i n test equi pment (BI TE) to provi de faul t i sol ati on to
the modul e/assembl y l evel .
Characteristics
I n addi ti on to the common functi ons descri bed
above, the AN/WSN-5 adds an i ncr eased l evel of
performance to serve as an i nerti al navi gator and
pr ovi des addi ti onal anal og and di gi tal outputs.
Addi ti onal data provi ded i ncl udes posi ti on, vel oci ty,
atti tude, atti tude rates, and ti me data i n both seri al and
par al l el di gi tal for mats, pr ovi di ng a var i ety of
i nter faces. The AN/WSN-5 commonl y exi sts i n a
dual -system confi gur ati on on sur face combatants.
Some exampl es of AN/WSN-5 di gi tal data outputs
a r e :
1. Two Naval Tacti cal Data System (NTDS)
seri al channel s transmi tti ng:
Shi ps headi ng, rol l , and pi tch
Shi ps headi ng rate, rol l rate, and pi tch rate
Shi ps l ati tude, l ongi tude, and GMT
2. Two MI L-STD-1397 NTDS type D hi gh-l evel
channel s to an external computer
3. One MI L-STD-1397 NTDS type A sl ow, 16-
bi t, paral l el i nput/output channel to a Navi gati on
Satel l i te (NAVSAT) r ecei ver AN/WRN-5A, Gl obal
Posi ti oni ng System (GPS) r ecei ver AN/WRN-6, or
I /O consol e.
4. One seri al AN/WSN-5 to AN/WSN-5 di gi tal
l i nk that provi des al i gnment data, Navi gati on Satel l i te
(NAVSAT) fi x data, cal i brati on constant data, and
other navi gati on data to the remote AN/WSN-5.
5, An addi ti onal vari ety of i nput/output NTDS
channel s, dependi ng on whi ch fi el d changes ar e
i nstal l ed.
SATELLI TE NAVI GATI ON SYSTEMS
Sci enti sts r eal i zed that navi gati on based on
satel l i te si gnal s was possi bl e after l i steni ng to the
beep generated by Russi as fi rst arti fi ci al satel l i te,
Sputni k I . They noti ced a shi ft i n the recei ved radi o
frequency si gnal s as the satel l i te passed by. Thi s
shi ft, known as the Doppl er effect, i s an apparent
change i n a recei ved frequency caused by rel ati ve
moti on between a transmi tter and a recei ver. As the
di stance between the transmi tter and the recei ver
decreases, the recei ved frequency appears to i ncrease.
As the di stance i ncr eases, the r ecei ved fr equency
appears to decrease.
Wi th thi s di scovery, sci enti sts were abl e to show
that by accuratel y measuri ng a satel l i tes Doppl er shi ft
pattern, they coul d determi ne the satel l i tes orbi t.
They then determi ned that by usi ng a known satel l i tes
orbi t, a l i stener coul d determi ne hi s own posi ti on on
the earths surface by observi ng the satel l i tes Doppl er
patter n.
Fol l owi ng the fi rst successful satel l i te l aunch i n
Apr i l 1960, the U.S. Navy Navi gati on Satel l i te
1-5
System (NNSS) became operati onal . Thi s system i s an
al l -weather, hi ghl y accurate navi gati on ai d, enabl i ng
navi gators to obtai n accurate navi gati on fi xes from the
data col l ected duri ng a si ngl e pass of an orbi ti ng
satel l i te.
The fol l owi ng paragraphs descri be the NNSS, i ts
satel l i tes, Doppl er pri nci pl es, system accuracy , and two
common shi pboard equi pmentsthe AN-WRN-5( V) and
the AN/SRN-19(V)2.
NAVY NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
Thi s hi ghl y accurate, worl d-wi de, al l weather system
enabl es navi gators to obtai n fi xes approxi matel y every 2
hours, day or ni ght. Looki ng at fi gure 1-5, you can see
that i t consi sts of earth-orbi ti ng satel l i tes, tracki ng
stati ons, i njecti on stati ons, the U.S. Naval Observatory,
a computi ng center, and shi pboard navi gati on
equi pment.
System Satellites
Satel l i tes are pl aced i n a ci rcul ar pol ar orbi t, as
i l l ustrated i n fi gure 1-6, at an al ti tude of 500 to 700
(nomi nal l y 600) nauti cal mi l es. Each satel l i te orbi ts i n
approxi matel y 107 mi nutes, conti nual l y transmi tti ng
phase-modul ated data every 2 mi nutes on two r f
carri ers. Thi s data i ncl udes ti me synchroni zati on
si gnal s, a 400-Hz tone, and fi xed and vari abl e
parameters that descri be the satel l i tes orbi t.
The fi xed parameters descri be the nomi nal orbi t of
the satel l i te. Vari abl e parameters (smal l correcti ons to
the fi xed parameters) are transmi tted at two-mi nute
i nterval s and descri be the fi ne structure of the satel l i te
orbi t. The satel l i te memory stores suffi ci ent vari abl e
parameters to provi de the two-mi nute orbi t correcti ons
for 16 hours fol l owi ng i njecti on of fresh data i nto the
memory. Si nce data i njecti ons occur about every 12
hours, the satel l i te memory wi l l not
Figure 1-5.Navy Navigation Satellite System.
1-6
Figure 1-6.Satellite orbits.
run out. Each two-mi nute l ong satel l i te message i s
ti med so that the end of the 78th bi t, whi ch i s the l ast
bi t of the second synchroni zati on si gnal , coi nci des
wi th even 2 mi nutes of Greenwi ch mean ti me (GMT).
Thus the satel l i tes can al so be used as an accurate
ti me r efer ence by al l navi gator s equi pped wi th a
satel l i te navi gati on set.
Each satel l i te i s desi gned to recei ve, sort, and
stor e data tr ansmi tted fr om the gr ound and to
retransmi t thi s data at schedul ed i nterval s as i t ci rcl es
the earth. Each satel l i te tel l s users whi ch satel l i te i t
i s, the ti me accordi ng to the satel l i te cl ock, and i ts
present l ocati on. Wi th thi s i nformati on, the users
navi gati on set can deter mi ne exactl y wher e the
satel l i te i s, one of the necessar y steps towar d
determi ni ng a preci se navi gati onal posi ti on.
Tracking Stations
Tr acki ng s ta ti on s a r e l oca ted i n Ma i n e,
Mi nnesota, Cal i forni a, and Hawai i . As each satel l i te
passes wi thi n radi o l i ne-of-si ght (los) of each of these
tracki ng stati ons, i t i s tracked to accuratel y determi ne
i ts present and future orbi ts. Just before predi cted
satel l i te acqui si ti on, the tracki ng stati ons antenna i s
poi nted toward the satel l i te to acqui re i ts si gnal s. As
the satel l i te ri ses above the hori zon, the tracki ng
antenna conti nues to fol l ow the satel l i tes predi cted
path unti l the radi o recei ver i n the tracki ng stati on
l ocks on to the satel l i tes transmi tted si gnal . The
recei ver processor and data processi ng equi pment
decode and record the satel l i te message. The Doppl er
tracki ng si gnal i s di gi ti zed and sent wi th the satel l i te
ti me measurements to the computi ng center, vi a a
control center, where a refi ned orbi t i s cal cul ated.
The tracki ng stati ons mai ntai n hi ghl y stabl e osci l -
l ators that are conti nual l y compared agai nst a WWV
transmi tted frequency standard. I n addi ti on, the
Naval Observatory sends dai l y messages that gi ve the
er r or i n the tr ansmi tted standar d. The Naval
observatory error i s then added to the data obtai ned
fr om the fr equency standar d, and cor r ecti ons ar e
made to the stati on osci l l ators. The stati on osci l l ators
are used to dri ve stati on cl ocks, whi ch are compared
wi th the ti me marks recei ved from the satel l i te. Thi s
ti me data i s transmi tted by the tracki ng stati ons to the
contr ol center , wher e the satel l i te cl ock er r or i s
cal cul ated and the necessary ti me correcti on bi ts are
added or del eted i n the next i njecti on message to the
satel l i te.
Computing Center
The central computi ng center conti nual l y accepts
satel l i te data i nputs from the tracki ng stati ons and the
Naval Observatory. Per i odi cal l y, to obtai n fi xed
or bi tal par ameter s for a s atel l i te, th e cen tr al
computi ng center computes an orbi t for each satel l i te
that best fi ts the Doppl er curves obtai ned from al l
tracki ng stati ons. Usi ng thi s computed orbi tal shape,
the central computi ng center extrapol ates the posi ti on
of the satel l i te at each even 2-mi nutes i n uni versal
ti me for the 12 to 16 hour s subsequent to data
i njecti on. These vari ous data i nputs are suppl i ed to
the i njecti on stati ons vi a the control center, as i s data
on the nomi nal space of the or bi ts of the other
satel l i tes, commands and ti me correcti on data for the
satel l i te, and antenna poi nti ng orders for the injection
stati on antennas.
Injection Station
Th e i n j ecti on s tati on s , after r ecei v i n g an d
ver i fyi ng the i ncomi ng message fr om the contr ol
center , stor e the message unti l i t i s needed for
1-7
transmi ssi on to the satel l i te. Just before satel l i te ti me-
of-ri se, the i njecti on stati ons antenna i s poi nted to
acqui re, l ock on, and track the satel l i te through the
pass. The recei ve equi pment recei ves and l ocks on to
the satel l i te si gnal s and the i njecti on stati on transmi ts
the orbi tal data and appropri ate commands to the
satel l i te. Transmi ssi on to the satel l i te i s at a hi gh bi t
rate, so i njecti on i s compl eted i n about 15 seconds.
Th e mes s age tr an s mi tted by th e s atel l i te
i mmedi atel y after an i njecti on contai ns a mi x of ol d
and new data. The i njecti on stati on compar es a
readback of the newl y i njected data wi th data the
satel l i te shoul d be transmi tti ng as a check for errors.
I f no errors are detected, i njecti on i s compl ete, I f one
or more errors are detected, i njecti on i s repeated at
two-mi nute i n ter v al s (u pdati n g th e v ar i abl e
parameters as necessary) unti l satel l i te transmi ssi on i s
veri fi ed as bei ng correct.
DOPPLER PRINCIPLES
Look at fi gure 1-7. Stabl e osci l l ator frequenci es
radi ati ng from a satel l i te comi ng toward the recei ver
are fi rst recei ved (T1) at a hi gher frequency than
tr a n s mi tted , beca u s e of th e v el oci ty of th e
approachi ng satel l i te. The satel l i tes vel oci ty produces
accordi on-l i ke compressi on effects that squeeze the
radi o si gnal s as the i nterveni ng di stance shortens. As
the satel l i te nears i ts cl osest poi nt of approach, these
compr essi on effects l essen r api dl y, unti l , at the
moment of cl osest approach (T2), the cycl e count of
the recei ved frequenci es exactl y matches those whi ch
are generated. As the satel l i te passes beyond thi s
poi nt and tr avel s away fr om the r ecei ver (T3),
expansi on effects cause the recei ved frequenci es to
drop bel ow the generated frequenci es proporti onal l y
to the wi deni ng di stance and the speed of the recedi ng
satel l i te.
FACTORS AFFECTI NG ACCURACY
Measurement of Doppl er shi ft i s compl i cated by
the fact that satel l i te transmi ssi ons must pass through
the earths upper atmosphere on thei r way from space
to the recei ver. El ectri cal l y charged parti cal s i n the
i on os p h er i c l a y er ca u s e r ef r a cti on of th es e
transmi ssi ons. To sol ve thi s probl em, the satel l i tes are
desi gned to broadcast on two frequenci es (150 and
400 MHz). The recei ver measures the di fference i n
refracti on between the two si gnal s and suppl i es thi s
measurement to the computer. The computer uses thi s
refracti on measurement as part of i ts computati on to
obtai n accur ate fi xes. The most ser i ous pr obl em
affecti ng accuracy i s the effect of uncertai nty i n the
vessel s vel oci ty on the determi nati on of posi ti on.
Vel oci ty computati on probl ems are i nherent i n the
system. Posi ti on er r or r esul ti ng fr om an er r or i n
vel oci ty measurement i s somewhat dependent on the
geometry of the satel l i te pass. You can expect about
a 0.2 mi l e er r or for ever y one-knot er r or i n the
vessel s vel oci ty. Knowi ng thi s, you can see that
preci si on navi gati on of a movi ng vessel requi res an
accurate measurement of the vel oci ty of the movi ng
vessel , such as i s pr ovi ded by a good i ner ti al
navi gati on system (See the secti on on Shi ps I nerti al
Nav i gati on Sy s tem.). I n gen er al , i n ter mi tten t
preci si on navi gati on fi xes woul d not be of extreme
val ue for a movi ng vessel unl ess i t had some means of
i nterpol ati ng between these preci si on fi xes. A good
i nerti al navi gati on system provi des such a means, and
si mul taneousl y pr ovi des th e accu r ate v el oci ty
measurements requi red to permi t posi ti on fi xes wi th
the NNSS.
I n summar y, pr eci si on navi gati on for movi ng
vessel s cant be provi ded by the Navy Navi gati on
Satel l i te System al one, but can be provi ded by the use
of thi s system i n conjuncti on wi th a good i nerti al
system. Gi ven the orbi tal parameters of a satel l i te, the
Doppl er shi ft of the si gnal transmi tted from that
satel l i te, and the vel oci ty of the vessel , i t i s possi bl e
to obtai n a navi gati onal fi x i f the satel l i te i s wi thi n l os
of the navi gati on set and has a maxi mum el evati on at
the ti me of cl osest approach (TCA) of between 10
and 70 degrees. Satel l i te passes sui tabl e for use i n
obtai ni ng a navi gati onal fi x wi l l usual l y occur at no
mor e than 2-hour i nter val s (dependi ng on user
l ati tude and confi gur ati on of the satel l i te cons-
tel l ati on). I t i s a matter of your vi ewpoi nt whether you
con s i der th e i n er ti a l s y s tem a s a mea n s of
i nterpol ati ng between the satel l i te navi gati on fi xes or
consi der the satel l i te fi xes as a means for correcti ng
the i nevi tabl e l ong term dri l l s (see the paragraphs on
basi c components of an i nerti al navi gati on system) of
even the best i nerti al navi gati on systems.
1-8
Figure 1-7.Doppler shift relative to satellite transmitted frequency.
The two most common satel l i te navi gati on
AN/WRN-5(V) RADIO NAVIGATION SET
systems used by the Navy are the AN/WRN-5 and the
AN/SRN-19. The fol l owi ng par agr aphs pr ovi de
The AN/WRN-5 Radi o Navi gati on Set, shown i n
descri pti ons of these navi gati on sets.
fi gure 1-8, i s a recei ver-data processor-di spl ay set
1-9
des i gn ed to r eci ev e an d ph as e tr ack s i gn al s
transmi tted by satel l i tes of the NNSS. These si gnal s
are processed to obtai n navi gati on i nformati on that i s
moni tored on vi deo di spl ays and used el sewhere for
shi p navi gati on.
The AN/WRN-5 i s desi gned to be used i n vari ous
confi gur ati ons as descr i bed bel ow. Each of these
confi gur ati ons i s defi ned by opti ons i n exter nal
equi pment used or vari ati ons i n i nputs and outputs.
The opti ons avai l abl e for al ternati ve confi gurati ons
ar e:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Tel epri nter, ASR-33
Addi ti onal remote vi deo di spl ays, I P-
1154(U)
Frequency standard, AN/URQ-10/23
(external reference)
Dual antennas (separate 400-MHz and
150-MHz antennas)
I nput/output bus
External l ock i ndi cator
7. 100-KHz output
The functi onal el ements of the AN/WRN-5
i ncl ude the fol l owi ng components:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Preampl i fi er uni t
Bui l t-i n two channel recei ver
Bui l t-i n expanded data processor uni t
(XPDU) wi th 16K word memory
Front panel keyboard for operator-to-
system i nterface
Front panel magneti c tape cassette transport
wi th r ead/wr i te capabi l i ty for OPNAV
program l oadi ng or data recordi ng
Fr ont panel vi deo di spl ay for system to
operator i nput/output
Remote vi deo moni tor
Bui l t-i n synchr o-to-di gi tal conver tor for
i nterface wi th the shi ps speed and headi ng
sensors to provi de dead reckoni ng capabi l i ty
Figure 1-8.AN/WRN-5 front panel.
1-10
and accurate satel l i te posi ti on fi xes duri ng
shi p maneuvers
6. Di spl ays i nputted speed and headi ng.
7. Di spl ays i nputted set and dri ft.
9. Opti onal addi ti on of a tel epri nter
8. Di spl ays data on a tracked satel l i te.
The combi nati on of fi cti onal el ements i n the
AN/WRN-5 pr ovi des many capabi l i ti es i ncl udi ng
automati c stor age of satel l i te i nfor mati on, ti me-
ordered al erts for up to ei ght satel l i tes, and bui l t-i n
sel f test. The fr ont panel vi deo di spl ay pr ovi des
cur r ent ti me, l ati tude/l ongi tude, dead r eckoni ng
posi ti on (automati cal l y updated by satel l i te fi xes), and
satel l i te tracki ng i nformati on such as fi x meri t and
satel l i te al erts. You wi l l fi nd speci fi c i nformati on on
the capabi l i ti es of thi s navi gati on set i n the AN/WRN-
5 operati on and mai ntenance techni cal manual .
9. Per for ms a sel f-test of computer functi ons
[l i mi ted to veri fi cati on of the di gi tal ci rcui try).
The AN/SRN-19(V)2 consi sts of the maj or
components shown i n fi gure 1-9.
Fi gure 1-10 shows a si mpl i fi ed bl ock di agram of
thi s system. The fol l owi ng paragraphs descri be these
components.
ANTENNA GROUP OE-284/SRN-19(V)
AN/SRN-19(V)2 RADIO NAVIGATION SET
The AN/SRN-19(V)2 i s an automati c shi pboard
navi gati on set that provi des a conti nuous di spl ay of
the shi ps posi ti on. The shi ps posi ti on, whi ch i s
obtai ned by dead r eck oni ng on tr ue speed and
headi ng, i s peri odi cal l y corrected by satel l i te fi xes.
Speci fi cal l y, the navi gati on set can per for m the
fol l owi ng functi ons:
1. After each successful satel l i te pass, computes
and di spl ays the present l ocati on of the shi p to a
nomi nal at-sea accuracy of 0.25 nauti cal mi l e.
The antenna group consi sts of the AS-3330/SRN-
19(V) antenna and AM-7010/SRN-19(V) rf ampl i fi er
Antenna
The antenna i s a l i near, verti cal l y-pol ari zed type
that recei ves rf si gnal s transmi tted by the satel l i te. I ts
hor i zontal patter n i s omni di r ecti onal ; i ts ver ti cal
pattern vari es approxi matel y 11 dB from 10 to 70
degrees above the hori zontal pl ane.
Rf Amplifier
Note: Accuracy of the fi x i s affected by hi gh The rf ampl i fi er provi des i ni ti al ampl i fi cati on of
sunspot acti vi ty. Duri ng these peri ods, nomi nal the 400-MHz satel l i te si gnal s from the antenna and
at-sea accuracy may degrade to approxi matel y then sends them, vi a rf coaxi al cabl e, to the recei ver
0.5 nauti cal mi l e. for fur ther ampl i fi cati on and pr ocessi ng. The r f
ampl i fi er consi sts of a bandpass fi l ter modul e, a 400-
2. Dead reckons between satel l i te fi xes MHz ampl i fi er, and a dc bl ock modul e.
3. Computes and di spl ays the range and beari ng RECEIVER-PROCESSOR R-2135/SRN-19(V)
from the present posi ti on to any desti nati on usi ng the
great ci rcl e program. The r ecei ver -pr ocessor consi sts of a si ngl e
channel (400-MHz) r ecei ver , a 5-MHz r efer ence
4. Computes and di spl ays the next expected ri se osci l l ator, a data processor wi th a programmabl e read-
ti me and el evati on at cl osest appr oach of the onl y memory (PROM) program, a keyboard, di spl ay,
previ ousl y tracked satel l i te, cassette r ecor der , two synchr o-to-di gi tal (S/D)
converters, and a power suppl y. I t processes i nputs
5. Di spl ays GMT accurate to 1 second. from the rf ampl i fi er, shi ps EM l og, gyrocompass,
and recei ver-processor keyboard.
1-11
Figure 1-9.AN/SRN-19(V)2 major components.
Receiver
The recei ver extracts, ampl i fi es, and formats
message i nformati on from the r f si gnal transmi tted
by the satel l i te, and measures the Doppl er shi ft of the
si gnal . The message data obtai ned by demodul ati on of
the r f carri er descri bes the satel l i tes posi ti on at the
ti me of transmi ssi on.
Data Processor
Thi s uni t processes i nputs from the recei ver, shi ps
EM l og, and gyrocompass through the S/D convertors
and the keyboard. I t then performs computati ons and
provi des the desi red outputs to the front panel
di spl ay, readout i ndi cator, tel epri nter, and cassette
recorder.
1-12
READOUT I NDI CATOR
AND TELEPRINTER
The readout i ndi cator provi des an i denti cal vi sual
readout of the data di spl ayed on the front panel of the
recei ver-processor. The readout i ndi cator i s usual l y
l ocated at a si te some di stance from the recei ver-
processor.
The tel epri nter provi des a permanent record of
di spl ayed data. The pri ntouts for modes 01 and 03
occur every 15 mi nutes or as sel ected by the operator.
A pri ntout al so occurs each ti me a di spl ay mode i s
el ected and when satel l i te fi x data i s recei ved.
One fi nal note on the AN/SRN-19 system. You
must tel l the equi pment wher e i t i s when i t i s
i ni ti al i zed. You must al so enter i nfor mati on on
antenna hei ght before the system can provi de an
accurate fi x.
You can fi n d s peci fi c i n for mati on on th e
AN/SRN-19(V)2 i n the shi pboar d oper ati ons and
mai ntenance manual for thi s navi gati on set.
NAVSTAR GLOBAL
POSI TI ONI NG SYSTEM
NAVSTAR GPS i s a s p a ce-ba s ed , r a d i o
navi gati on system th at pr ov i des conti nuous,
extremel y accur ate thr ee-di mensi onal posi ti on,
vel oci ty, and ti mi ng si gnal s to users worl d-wi de. I t
consi sts basi cal l y of ground control , satel l i tes, and
user equi pment, as shown i n fi gure 1-11.
Figure 1-10.AN/SRN-19(V)2 simplified block diagram.
1-13
NOTE
GPS wi l l become th e pr i ma r y r ef er en ce
navi gati on system for surface shi ps, submari nes,
and ai rcraft. Refer to the DOD pol i cy statement
under the LORAN and OMEGA secti on of thi s
chapter for speci fi c detai l s on thi s i mportant
transi ti on.
GROUND CONTROL
The ground control segment tracks the satel l i tes,
moni tors and control s satel l i te orbi ts, and updates the
satel l i te navi gati on data message. The ground control
system consi sts of unmanned moni tor stati ons and a
manned contr ol center . Moni tor stati ons, l ocated
throughout the worl d, use GPS recei vers to track each
satel l i te. Tr acki ng i nfor mati on gather ed by the
moni tor stati ons i s sent to the control center, where a
preci se posi ti on and a cl ock error for each satel l i te are
cal cul ated. The control center al so cal cul ates satel l i te
posi ti oni ng for the group of satel l i tes. Posi ti oni ng
data for a si ngl e satel l i te i s cal l ed ephemeri s data;
data for a group of satel l i tes i s cal l ed al manac data.
Once each 24 hours, the control center transmi ts the
ephemeri s and al manac data to each satel l i te to update
the navi gati on data message.
SATELLI TES
There are 21 acti ve operati onal and 3 acti ve spare
s atel l i tes i n ci r cu l ar or bi ts , wi th a 55-degr ee
i ncl i nati on to the ear th. These satel l i tes pr ovi de
navi gati on data to the navi gati on sets. The satel l i tes
are arranged i n si x concentri c ri ngs that al l ow them to
orbi t the earth twi ce a day and provi de worl d-wi de
conti nuous coverage. Each satel l i te broadcasts two
Figure 1-11.NAVSTAR GPS major elements.
1-14
spread-spectrum rf si gnal s, 1575.42 MHz (LI -RF)
and 1227.60 MHz (L2-RF). Each si gnal i s modul ated
wi th a uni que code sequence and a navi gati on data
message. The code sequence al l ows the navi gati on
sets to i denti fy the satel l i te, and the data message
provi des the navi gati on sets i nformati on about the
operati on of the satel l i te.
An observer on the ground wi l l observe the same
satel l i te ground track twi ce each day, but the satel l i te
wi l l become vi si bl e 4 mi nutes ear l i er each day
because of a 4 mi nute per day di fference between the
rotati on of the earth and the satel l i te orbi t ti me. The
satel l i tes ar e posi ti oned so a mi ni mum of four
satel l i tes are al ways observabl e to a user anywhere on
ear th.
Satellite Signal Structure
The satel l i tes transmi t thei r si gnal s usi ng spread
spectrum techni ques. Two types of techni ques are
used: course acqui si ti on (C/A) code and preci se (P)
code. The C/A code i s avai l abl e to mi l i tar y and
ci vi l i an GPS users. The P code i s avai l abl e onl y to
U.S. mi l i tar y, NATO mi l i tar y and other user s as
determi ned by the DOD.
Si nce onl y the P code i s on both frequenci es, the
mi l i tary users can make a dual -frequency compari son
to compensate for i onospher i c pr opagati on del ay.
The C/A code-onl y users must use an i onospheri c
model , whi ch resul ts i n l esser navi gati on accuracy.
Superi mposed on both codes i s the NAVI GATI ON-
message (NAV-msg), contai ni ng satel l i te ephemeri s
data, atmospheri c propagati on correcti on data, and
satel l i te cl ock-bi as i nformati on.
Satellite Ranging
GPS navi gati on i s based on the pr i nci pl e of
satel l i te rangi ng. Satel l i te rangi ng i nvol ves measuri ng
the ti me i t takes the satel l i te si gnal to travel from the
satel l i te to the navi gati on set. By di vi di ng the travel
ti me by the speed of l i ght, the di stance between the
satel l i te and the navi gati on set i s known. By rangi ng
three satel l i tes, a three-di mensi onal pi cture, such as
the one shown i n fi gure 1-12, can be devel oped. The
di stance measurement to each satel l i te resul ts i n a
sphere representi ng the di stance from the navi gati on
set to the satel l i te. The poi nt where the three spheres
i ntersect (X) i s the posi ti on of the navi gati on set,
Thi s expl anati on does not account for errors. For
satel l i te rangi ng to provi de accurate posi ti on data, the
fol l owi ng three sources of error must be compensated
for:
Satel l i te posi ti on and cl ock error
Atmospheri c del ay of satel l i te si gnal s
Navi gati on set cl ock error
Wi th these errors compensated for, the GPS can
determi ne posi ti on fi xes wi thi n 50 feet or l ess and i s
accurate to wi thi n a tenth of a meter-per-second for
vel oci ty and 100 nanoseconds for ti me. Thi s accuracy,
however, requi res i nputs from four satel l i tes.
USER EQUIPMENT
User equi pment i s i nstal l ed i n shi ps, ai rcraft, and
motori zed vehi cl es. The vehi cl e versi on can al so be
carri ed by personnel (parti cul arl y SEAL teams and
other speci al forces uni ts) as a manpack. The most
common manpack versi on i s the AN/PSN-8( ). The
mos t common s h i pboar d GPS r ecei v er i s th e
AN/WRN-6. These GPS recei vers wi l l be descri bed
l ater i n thi s chapter.
Signal Acquisition
Dur i ng oper ati on, navi gati on sets col l ect and
store satel l i te al manac data i n cri ti cal memory. The
al man ac data i s n or mal l y av ai l abl e wh en th e
navi gati on set i s fi r st tur ned on and pr ovi des
i nfor mati on on satel l i te l ocati ons. Oper ator s may
i nput i nformati on about the navi gati on set posi ti on,
ti me, and vel oci ty to enhance the i nfor mati on i n
cri ti cal memory. Wi th thi s i nformati on, the navi gati on
set deter mi nes whi ch satel l i tes ar e avai l abl e and
searches for the code sequences that i denti fy those
par ti cul ar satel l i tes. When the C/A code of an
avai l abl e satel l i te i s i denti fi ed, the navi gati on set
swi tches to the more accurate P code, col l ects the
navi gati on data message, and updates cr i ti cal
memory.
1-15
Figure 1-12.Satellite ranging.
Navigation Set Clock Error
GPS navi gati on sets deter mi ne di stance to a
satel l i te by accuratel y measuri ng the ti me di fference
between satel l i te si gnal transmi ssi on and when the
navi gati on set recei ves thi s si gnal . Thi s di fference i n
ti me i s di rectl y proporti onal to the di stance between
the satel l i te and the recei ver. Therefore, the same
ti me reference must be used by both the recei ver and
the satel l i te.
The cl ock i n the GPS recei ver i n not nearl y as
accurate as the atomi c cl ock i n the satel l i te. Thi s
causes the recei ver and satel l i te cl ocks to be sl i ghtl y
ou t of s y n c, wh i ch i n tu r n cau s es th e ti me
measurements to be i naccurate. The error i s further
compounded by the di stance cal cul ati on, so the
posi ti on of the navi gati on set cannot be accuratel y
deter mi ned.
The navi gati on set compensates for these errors
by usi ng the di stance measurement from a fourth
satel l i te to cal cul ate the cl ock error common to al l
four satel l i tes. The navi gati on set then removes the
cl ock error from the di stance measurements, and then
determi nes the correct navi gati on set posi ti on.
Signal Delay and Multipath Reception
Two types of atmospheri c del ay can affect the
accuracy of navi gati on set si gnal measurements. The
fi rst i s tropospheri c del ay. Tropospheri c del ay can be
accuratel y predi cted; the predi cti on i s i ncl uded i n the
al manac data.
The second type of del ay i s caused when the
satel l i te si gnal passes through the i onosphere. Thi s
type of si gnal del ay i s caused by the i onosphere bei ng
thi cker i n some areas and by satel l i te si gnal s recei ved
from nearer the hori zon havi ng to pass through more
of the i onosphere than those recei ved from di rectl y
over head. I onospher i c del ay wi l l phase shi ft the
l ower satel l i te transmi ssi on frequency, L2-RF, more
than the hi gher frequency, L1-RF. The navi gati on set
measures i onospheri c del ay by measuri ng the phase
shi ft between these two si gnal s and then uses thi s
computati on to compensate for the i onospheri c del ay.
Mul ti path recepti on i s caused by a satel l i te si gnal
refl ecti ng off of one or more objects. Thi s causes the
1-16
refl ected si gnal s to reach the navi gati on set at di fferent
ti mes than the ori gi nal si gnal . The recepti on of mul ti path
si gnal s may cause errors i n the navi gati on set
cal cul ati ons. The AN/WRN-6 navi gati on set makes
operators aware of mul ti path errors by a fai l or warn
message and/or fl uctuati ons i n the carri er-to-noi se rati o.
Mul ti path recepti on may be corrected by changi ng the
shi ps posi ti on.
AN/WRN-6(V) Satellite Signals Navigation Set
The Satel l i te Si gnal s Navi gati on Set AN/WRN-
6(V)computes accurate posi ti on coordi nates, el evati on,
speed, and ti me i nformati on from si gnal s transmi tted by
NAVSTAR Gl obal Posi ti oni ng System (GPS) satel l i tes. I n
the P mode, i t has an accuracy of 16 meters. I n the C/A
C/A mode. i t has an accuracy of 100 meters, though
better resul ts have been obtai ned by i ndi vi dual users.
The AN/WRN-6(V), shown i n fi gure 1-13, operates i n
three modes.
The I ni ti al i zati on mode i s part of the set start-up.
Duri ng i ni ti al i zati on, the operator tests current posi ti on,
date, and ti me data, ei ther manual l y or from other
equi pment. The data entered i s used to speed up satel l i te
acqui si ti on.
Navi gati on i s the normal operati ng mode. Duri ng
the navi gati on mode, the set recei ves satel l i te data,
cal cul ates
Figure 1-13.Satellite Navigation Set AN/WRN-6(V).
1-17
navi gati on data, exchanges data wi th other i nterconnected
systems, and moni tors the sets performance. The
navi gati on mode al l ows the operator to enter mi ssi on data;
vi ew posi ti on, vel oci ty, and ti me data; and control the sets
confi gur ati on.
The sel f-test mode al l ows the operator to perform a
compl ete test of the navi gati on set at any ti me. When the
set i s i n test, i t wi l l not track satel l i tes.
The two major components of the AN/WRN-6(V) are
the R-2331/URN recei ver and the i ndi cator control C-
11702/UR. The other uni ts (antenna, antenna ampl i fi er,
and mounti ng base) perform functi ons si mi l ar to those of
si mi l ar uni ts i n other systems. For more detai l ed
oper ati on and mai ntenance techni cal manual .
AN/PSN-8( ) Manpack Navigation Set
The AN/PSN-8( ) operates si mi l arl y to the AN/WRN-
6(V), though obvi ousl y i t i s not i nterfaced wi th other
equi pment. Shown i n fi gure 1-14, each manpack contai ns
a recei ver secti on and a computer secti on. The recei ver
processes the rf si gnal s from the satel l i tes and sends the
satel l i tes posi ti ons and ti mes to the computer. The
computer uses the posi ti ons and ti mes to fi nd the satel l i te
sets posi ti on coordi nates, el evati on, and changes i n the
posi ti on of the manpack set. The ti me i t takes for the set
to change posi ti on i s used to compute speed. For more
detai l ed i nformati on on thi s navi gati on set. refer to the
i nformati on on thi s system, refer to the AN/WRN-6(V) oper ator s manual for the AN/PSN-8( ) Manpack
Figure 1-14.Manpack Navigation Set AN/PSN-8( ).
1-18
Navi gati on Set. Th e AN/VSN-8( ) Veh i cu l a r
Navi gati on Set i s al so i ncl uded i n thi s manual .
NAVI GATI ONAL AI DS
Other equi pment used for navi gati on that ETs are
responsi bl e for i ncl udes: navi gati on radars, surface
search radars (someti mes used as navi gati on radars)
and fathometers. I nformati on on surface search and
navi gati on radars i s contai ned i n NAVEDTA 12414,
Radar Systems.
The fol l owi ng par agr aphs wi l l di scuss
fathometers.
FATHOMETERS
Fathometers are used for taki ng depth soundi ngs.
They ar e par ti cul ar l y useful when the vessel i s
tr ansi ti oni ng shal l ow, unfami l i ar water s. A bl ock
di agram of the Sonar Soundi ng Set AN/UQN-4A i s
shown i n fi gure 1-15,
On many shi ps the Sonar Techni ci ans wi l l be
responsi bl e for thi s equi pment, but there are shi ps
(mostl y noncombatants) on whi ch ETs are responsi bl e
for the fathometers. For more detai l ed i nformati on on
fathometer s, r efer to the appr opr i ate equi pment
techni cal manual .
Figure 1-15.AN/UQN-4A functional diagram.
1-19
TACTICAL AIR
I NTRODUCTI ON
Before we begi n di scussi ng TACAN, you need to
recal l the defi ni ti on of the pol ar-coordi nate system.
The pol ar-coordi nate system i s a geometri c system
used to l ocate poi nts on a pl ane. I n el ectroni cs, i t i s
usual l y used for pl otti ng antenna di recti onal patterns.
TACAN i s a pol ar -coor di nate type r adi o ai r -
navi gati on system that pr ovi des an ai r cr ew wi th
di stance i nfor mati on, fr om di stance measur i ng
e q u i p me n t (DME ), a n d b e a r i n g (a z i mu t h )
i nformati on. Thi s i nformati on, as shown i n fi gure 2-
1, i s usual l y provi ded by two meters. One meter
i ndi cates, i n nauti cal mi l es, the di stance of the ai rcraft
from the surface beacon. The other meter i ndi cates
the di recti on of fl i ght, i n degrees-of-beari ng, to the
geographi c l ocati on of the surface beacon. By usi ng
the TACAN equi pment i nstal l ed i n the ai rcraft and
TACAN gr ou n d equ i pmen t i n s tal l ed aboar d a
parti cul ar surface shi p or shore stati on, a pi l ot can
obtai n beari ng to and di stance from that l ocati on. He
or she can then ei ther:
(1) fl y di rectl y to that parti cul ar l ocati on, or
CHAPTER 2
NAVIGATION (TACAN)
Figure 2-1.TACAN aircraft indication.
(2) use the beari ng and di stance from a speci fi c
beacon to fi x hi s or her geographi c l ocati on.
TACAN PRINCIPLES
The di stance measuri ng concept used i n TACAN
equi pment i s an ou tgr owth of r adar -r an gi n g
techni ques. Radar -r angi ng deter mi nes di stance by
measuri ng the round-tri p travel ti me of pul sed rf
energy. The return si gnal (echo) of the radi ated
energy depends on the natural refl ecti on of the radi o
waves. However , TACAN beacon-tr ansponder s
generate arti fi ci al repl i es i nstead of dependi ng on
natural refl ecti on.
Now l ook at fi gure 2-2. The ai rborne equi pment
generates ti med i nterrogati on pul se pai rs that the
surface TACAN system recei ves and decodes. After
a 50-sec del ay, the transponder responds wi th a
repl y. The ai rborne DME then converts the round-
tri p ti me to di stance from the TACAN faci l i ty. The
fr equ en cy an d i den ti fi cati on code pr ov i de th e
geographi c l ocati on of the transmi tti ng beacon.
TACAN PULSE PAIRS
TACAN transponders use twi n-pul se decoders to
pass onl y those pul se pai rs wi th the proper spaci ng.
The pur pose of thi s twi n-pul se techni que i s to
i ncrease the average power radi ated and to reduce the
possi bi l i ty of fal se si gnal i nterference.
After the recei ver decodes an i nterrogati on, the
encoder generates the necessary pul se pai r requi red
for the tr ansponder s r epl y. A TACAN pul se pai r
generated by ai rborne or ground equi pment i s shown
i n fi gure 2-3.
CONSTANT TRANSPONDER
DUTY-CYCLE
I n pri nci pl e,
repl y to ai rcraft
2-1
the TACAN transponder need onl y
i nterrogati ons at 30 pul se pai rs-per-
Figure 2-2.Distance measuring round-trip travel time.
second, per ai r bor ne equi pment, to suppl y the
necessary di stance data. However, the total pul se
out put of the transmi tter constantl y vari es, accordi ng
to the number of i nterrogati ng ai rcraft. I n addi ti on,
random noi se may tri gger the transmi tter.
Figure 2-3.TACAN pulse train.
For th e tr a n s p on d er to p r ov i d e a zi mu th
i nfor mati on, the aver age power suppl i ed to the
antenna must be rel ati vel y uni form over ti me. To
accompl i sh thi s, the transponder i s operated on the
constant-duty-cycl e pri nci pl e.
I n thi s method of operati on, the recei ver uses
automati c gai n and squi tter (noi se generated output)
control s to mai ntai n a constant pul se output to the
tr ansmi tter , as shown i n fi gur e 2-4. I f f ew
i nterrogati ons are bei ng recei ved, the gai n and squi tter
of the recei ver i ncrease and add noi se-generated pul ses
to the pul se trai n. I f more i nterrogati ng ai rcraft come
i nto range, the gai n and squi tter decrease and reduce
the number of noi se-generated pul ses.
The rel ati onshi p between the gai n and the number
of pul ses i s such that onl y a 2-dBm change i n
sensi ti vi ty occurs between recepti on from 1 ai rcraft
and those from 100 ai rcraft. An added advantage of
usi ng a constant duty cycl e i s that overal l transmi tter
power drai n remai ns constant.
BEACON-TRANSPONDER
IDENTIFICATION CODE
Before an ai rcrew can use TACAN i nformati on
that i ts equi pment recei ves, i t must posi ti vel y i denti fy
the transmi tti ng TACAN stati on. To meet thi s need,
the ground stati on transmi ts an i denti fi cati on code at
approxi matel y one-hal f mi nute i nterval s. I t does thi s
by momentari l y i nterrupti ng the transponder di stance
data and squi tter-generated output wi th pul se groups
spaced at a 1350-pps rate. Each pul se group contai ns
two sets of 12-sec pul se pai rs spaced 100 sec apart.
The durati on of the i denti fi cati on pul se groups vari es,
to represent Morse-coded characters. The durati on
for a dot i s 100 to 125 ms, and for a dash 300 to 375
ms. An i denti fi cati on group i s shown i n fi gure 2-4.
2-2
Figure 2-4.Transponder output pulse train.
15-HZ-BEARI NG I NFORMATI ON The rf energy from the TACAN transmi tter i s fed
to the antenna centr al el ement, whi ch has no
The ti mi ng of the transmi tted pul ses suppl i es the di recti vi ty i n the hori zontal pl ane. Parasi ti c el ements
actual di stance i nformati on to the ai rcraft. Thi s l eaves posi ti oned a r ou n d th e cen tr a l el emen t ar e
ampl i tude modul ati on as another medi um for the el ectroni cal l y rotated (swi tched on and off) at 15
tr ansponder to convey other i nfor mati on to the revol uti ons per mi nute. (See the secti on bel ow on the
ai rcraft. The TACAN beacon-transponder modul ates OE-273(V)/URN an ten n a gr ou p). Th e di s tan ce
the strength of the pul se to convey beari ng i nformati on between the central el ement and the parasi ti c el ements
by produci ng a speci fi c di recti onal -radi ati ng pattern i s sel ected to obtai n a cardi oi d radi ati on pattern. To
r otated ar ound a ver ti cal axi s. Thi s si gnal , when an ai rcraft at a speci fi c l ocati on, the di stance data
properl y referenced, i ndi cates the ai rcrafts di recti on pul ses appear to contai n a 15-Hz ampl i tude-modul ated
from the TACAN faci l i ty. Thi s si gnal and di stance si gnal because of the rotati on of the cardi oi d radi ati on
data gi ve a two-pi ece fi x (di stance and di recti on) for pattern. Thi s pattern i s shown
determi ni ng speci fi c ai rcraft l ocati on. and vi ew B.
i n fi gure 2-5, vi ew A
2-3
Figure 2-5.TACAN radiation pattern: A. cardioid
pattern; B. Ampltitude-modulated pulse pairs.
The ai rcraft TACAN equi pment obtai ns beari ng
i nformati on by compari ng the 15-Hz modul ated si gnal
wi th a 15-Hz reference burst si gnal i t recei ves from the
ground faci l i ty. The phase rel ati onshi p between the
15-Hz modul ated si gnal and the 15-Hz reference burst
si gnal depends on the l ocati on of the ai rcraft i n the
cardi oi d pattern. The 15-Hz reference burst si gnal s
are transmi tted when the maxi mum si gnal of the
cardi oi d pattern ai ms due East. Thi s group of 12 pul se
pai rs i s commonl y referred to as the North or mai n
reference burst. You can see the rel ati onshi p between
the r efer ence pul ses and the car di oi d patter n by
compari ng vi ew A and vi ew B of fi gure 2-5.
135-HZ BEARING INFORMATION
Errors ari si ng from i mperfecti ons i n the phase
measuri ng ci rcui ts and radi o propagati on effects are
known as si te error. These errors are si gni fi cantl y
reduced by the addi ti on of 32 outer parasi ti c el ements
added to the el ectroni cal l y scanned antenna. (See the
secti on on the OE-273(V)/URN antenna gr oup).
El ectroni cal l y swi tchi ng these el ements modi fi es the
antenna cardi oi d pattern. Though the cardi oi d pattern
i s sti l l predomi nant, i t i s al tered by superi mposed
ri ppl es. The ai rcraft now recei ves the 15-Hz si gnal
wi th a 135-Hz ri ppl e ampl i tude modul ated on the
di stance data pul ses (fi gure 2-6).
To furni sh a sui tabl e reference for measuri ng the
phase of the 135-Hz component of the envel ope wave,
the transponder i s desi gned to transmi t a coded 135-
Hz reference burst si mi l ar to that expl ai ned for the 15-
Hz r efer ence. The 135-Hz r efer ence gr oup i s
commonl y referred to as the auxi l i ary or aux reference
b u r s t .
The composi te TACAN si gnal i s composed of
2700 i n ter r oga ti on r ep l i es a n d n oi s e p u l s e
pai r s-per -second, pl us 180 Nor th bu r s t pu l s e
pai rs-per-second, 720 auxi l i ary burst pul se pai rs-per-
second, for a total of 3600 pul se pai rs-per-second, or
7200 pul ses-per-second.
TACAN SIGNAL PRIORITIES
Pri ori ti es have been establ i shed for transmi ssi on of
the vari ous types of TACAN si gnal s. These pri ori ti es
are as
1.
2.
3.
4.
fol l ows:
Reference bursts (North and auxi l i ary)
I denti fi cati on group
Repl i es to i nterrogati ons
Squi tter
Ther efor e, the i denti fi cati on gr oup, r epl i es, or
squi tter wi l l be momentar i l y i nter r upted for the
transmi ssi on of ei ther the mai n or auxi l i ary reference
group. The transmi ssi on of repl i es or squi tter wi l l be
i nterrupted every 37.5 seconds duri ng the transmi ssi on
of an i denti fi cati on code dot or dash.
CHARACTERI STI CS OF
RADIO BEACON SIGNALS
Dependi ng on what channel (X or Y) the TACAN
i s on, the number of pul ses-per-second and the pul se
2-4
Figure 2-6.TACAN modulation envelope
spaci ng are a characteri sti c of that parti cul ar TACAN
si gnal el ement. However, i t i s i mportant to understand
that proper spaci ng between pul ses and pul se pai rs i s
what actual l y provi des the ai rcraft wi th the means to
di sti ngui sh between the TACAN pul ses and any other
pul ses that mi ght be present on the recei ved radi o
frequency. Check the reference data i n the appropri ate
techni cal manual for speci fi c pul se characteri sti cs and
spaci ng.
TACAN EQUIPMENT
Many di fferent types of TACAN equi pment have
been used for ai r navi gati on. Today, the AN/URN-25
i s taki ng over the task of tacti cal ai r navi gati on from
the ol der AN/URN-20 on new constructi on shi ps and
as shi ps compl ete overhaul . Two types of antennas
are used wi th the AN/URN-25. They are the OE-
273(V)/URN, used pri mari l y i n shi pboard i nstal l ati ons,
and the OE-258/URN, whi ch i s used pri mari l y ashore.
Because both antenna systems are si mi l ar i n theory of
operati on, we wi l l di scuss onl y the OE-273/URN. I n
the fol l owi ng par agr aphs, we wi l l di scuss the
AN/URN-25 and the antenna group 0E-273(V)/URN,
and then we wi l l bri efl y di scuss the AN/URN-20.
TACAN SET AN/URN-25
The AN/URN-25 TACAN i s used as a ground-
based or shi pborne beacon transponder to provi de
range and beari ng i nformati on to ai rcraft equi pped
wi th TACAN equi pment. I t consi sts of two major
u n i ts : th e Tr an s pon der Gr ou p OX-52/URN-25,
commonl y referred to as uni t 1, and the Control -
I ndi cator C-10363/URN-25, commonl y referred to as
uni t 2. These uni ts are shown i n fi gure 2-7. Each
transponder i s housed i n a cabi net wi th two verti cal
drawers, one contai ni ng a coder keyer and the other
contai ni ng a recei ver-transmi tter.
The control -i ndi cator di spl ays the status of the
transponder(s) and fai l ure al arms, and al l ows l i mi ted
control of the transponder(s) from a remote l ocati on.
2-5
2-6
I t may be mounted i n i ts own cabi net or i n a standard
19-i nch rack.
To i ncrease the channel s avai l abl e, the TACAN set
can be operated i n ei ther the X or Y mode. The Y
mode changes the pul se pai r spaci ng and the auxi l i ary
burst count and spaci ng, and i ncreases system del ay.
ANTENNA GROUP OE-273(V)/URN
Shown i n fi gur e 2-8, the Antenna Gr oup OE-
273/U RN i s a s ol i d -s ta te, h i gh -p er f or ma n ce,
el ectroni cal l y-scanned, al l -band TACAN antenna
system, compl ete wi th i ntegral moni tori ng system and
bui l t-i n faul t i sol ati on capabi l i ty. The antenna group
devel ops the coarse and fi ne beari ng modul ati ons
el ectroni cal l y.
Rather than formi ng the TACAN radi ati on pattern
by the ol d mechani cal rotati on method, the AS-3240
achi eves the same effect by di gi tal swi tchi ng of
par asi ti c el ements ar r anged i n concentr i c ar r ays
around the central radi ator. Twel ve i nner el ements
provi de the 15-Hz modul ati on (repl aci ng the si ngl e-
phase rotati ng parasi ti c el ement i n the mechani cal l y
rotated antenna), and 32 outer el ements provi de the
135-Hz modul ati on (repl aci ng the ni ne outer el ements
of the r otated antenna). Th e 15- an d 135-Hz
modul ati on patter n i s pr ovi ded by el ectr oni cal l y
swi tchi ng the di odes i n each of the parasi ti c el ements
i n prescri bed ti me sequence, whi ch i s repeated once i n
each 15-Hz i nterval .
I n effect, the el ements are rotated el ectri cal l y,
rather than mechani cal l y. An advantage thi s provi des
i s the el i mi nati on of the bandwi dth l i mi tati ons i nherent
i n the ol d mechani cal l y-rotated antennas. I n the
el ectroni cal l y-scanned antenna, the appropri ate ri ng
for a gi ven frequency segment i s acti vated by a fast
el ectr oni c swi tch, based on i nfor mati on fr om the
TACAN f r equ en cy s y n th es i zer . Th i s a l l ows
i nstantaneous band swi tchi ng and al l -band operati on.
Figure 2-8.Antenna Group OE-273(V)/URN.
2-7
Figure 2-9.TACAN Set AN/URN-20(V)1.
2-8
TACAN SET AN/URN-20
Th ou gh n ot moder n by an y s tan dar d, th e
AN/URN-20 TACAN set i s r el i abl e and oper ates
si mi l arl y to the AN/URN-25. Shown i n fi gure 2-9, i t
uses the same el ectroni cal l y-scanned antenna and
control -i ndi cator as the AN/URN-25. The AN/URN-
20 i s bei ng repl aced by the AN/URN-25.
CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS
I n the X mode of oper ati on, the TACAN set
transmi ts on one of 126 di screte channel frequenci es
(whi ch are 1-MHz apart) from 962 to 1024 MHz and
from 1151 to 1213 MHz. I n the Y mode of operati on,
the set tr ansmi ts on one of 126 di scr ete channel
frequenci es (whi ch are 1-MHz apart) wi thi n the range
of 1025 to 1150 MHz. The navi gati on set recei ver,
operati ng i n the 1025- to 1150-MHz range for both
the X and Y modes, i s al ways di spl aced 63 MHz from
the transmi tter frequency.
The TACAN set can si mul taneousl y pr ovi de
i ndi vi dual di stance measuri ng servi ce for up to 100
i nter r ogati ng ai r cr aft. Of t h e 3, 600 p u l s e
pai r s-per -second tr ansmi tted by the TACAN, 900
pul se pai rs (MAI N and AUXI LI ARY bursts) contai n
the beari ng i nformati on; the remai ni ng 2,700 pul se
pai rs are ei ther random noi se pul ses, i denti ty pul ses, or
repl i es to i nterrogati ng ai rcraft. Once ever y 30
seconds, the i nterrogati on repl i es and random noi se
pul ses are i nterrupted for the transmi ssi on of i denti ty
pul ses.
The navi gati on set has a recei ver sensi ti vi ty of -92
dBm or better and a nomi nal peak power output of 3
ki l owatts at the transponder cabi net output. (Power
output may l i mi ted to l ess than peak by di recti ves).
Si nce the bear i ng and i denti fi cati on si gnal s ar e
del i ver ed spontaneousl y and not i n r esponse to
i nterrogati ons, an unl i mi ted number of pr oper l y
equi pped ai rcraft can deri ve thi s i nformati on from the
TACAN set over a l i ne-of-si ght (los) range up to 200
nauti cal mi l es.
2-9
APPENDIX I
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AUX- auxi l i ary.
BITE- bui l t-i n test equi pment.
C/A CODE- course acqui si ti on code.
DB- deci bel .
DBM- deci bel wi th a reference zero val ue of 1 mW.
DME- di stance measuri ng equi pment.
DOD- Department of Defense.
DR- dead reckon.
EW- el ectroni c warfare.
FRP- Federal Radi o Navi gati on Pl an.
GMT- Greenwi ch Mean Ti me.
HZ- Hertz.
KHZ-- ki l ohertz.
LOP- l i ne-of-posi ti on.
LORAN- Long Range Ai d to Navi gati on.
LOS- l i ne-of-si ght.
MHZ-- megahertz.
MS- mi l l i second.
MW-- mi l l i watt.
NAV-MSG- NAVI GATI ON-message.
NAVSAT- navi gati on satel l i te.
NAVSTAR GPS- satel l i te Gl obal Posi ti oni ng
System.
NNSS- Navy Navi gati on Satel l i te System.
NTDS- Naval Tacti cal Data System.
OMEGA- VLF radi o navi gati on.
P CODE- preci se code.
PPS- pul ses per second.
PROM- programmabl e read-onl y memory
RF- radi o frequency.
SATNAV-- satel l i te navi gati on
S/D- synchro to di gi tal .
SINS- Shi ps I nerti al Navi gati on System.
TACAN- Tacti cal Ai r Navi gati on.
TCA- ti me of cl osest approach.
UT-- Uni versal Ti me.
VOR- VHF--omni di recti onal range.
XPDU- expanded data processor uni t.
AI-1
APPENDIX II
REFERENCES USED TO DEVELOP THE TRAMAN
NOTE: Al though the fol l owi ng references were current when thi s
TRAMAN was publ i shed, thei r conti nued currency cannot be assured. You,
therefore, need to ensure that you are studyi ng the l atest revi si on.
Electronics Technician 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10197, Naval Educati on and
Trai ni ng Programs Management Support Acti vi ty, Pensacol a, FL, 1987.
I nertial Navigation Set AN/ WSN-5, NTP S-30-7519E, Naval Sea Systems
Command, Washi ngton, DC, 1991.
Manpack Navigation Set AN/ PSN-8( ), Operators Manual EE170-AA-OPI -
010/MV, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, Washi ngton, DC,
1990.
Naval Aeronautical Facilities, Naval Shore El ectroni cs Cri teri a, NAVELEX
0101,107, Naval El ectroni c System Command, Washi ngton, DC, 1971.
NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment, NTP E-70-8215E,
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, Washi ngton, DC, 1993.
Satellite Signals Navigation Set AN/ WRN-6(V), Techni cal Manual EE-170-AA-
OMI -010/WRN6, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command,
Washi ngton, DC, 1990.
Shipboard Electronics Material Officer, NAVEDTRA 12969, Naval Educati on
and Trai ni ng Programs Management Support Acti vi ty, Pensacol a, FL, 1992
TACAN, Navigation Set AN/ URN-25, Techni cal Manual EE172-AB-OMI -010,
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, Washi ngton, DC, 1990.
AII-1
INDEX
D
Doppl er pri nci pl es
refracti on measurement, 1-8
vel oci ty computati on, 1-8
G
O
NNSS
computer center, 1-7
i njecti on stati on, 1-7
naval observatory, 1-7
satel l i tes, 1-6
tracki ng stati ons, 1-7
GPS navi gati on sets
AN/PSN-8 manpack, 1-18
AN/WRN-6, 1-17
L
LORAN
l i ne-of-posi ti on, 1-2
N
Navi gati on ai ds
fathometers, 1-19
radar, 1-19
Navi gati on fundamental s
dead reckoni ng, 1-1
el ectroni c navi gati on, 1-2
pi l oti ng, 1-2
tacti cal , 1-1
Navi gati on sets
AN/SRN-19, 1-11
AN/WRN-5, 1-9
NAVSTAR Gl obal Posi ti oni ng System
cl ock error, 1-16
ground control , 1-14
i onospheri c del ay, 1-16
mul ti path recepti on, 1-16
satel l i te rangi ng, 1-15
satel l i te si gnal structure, 1-15
satel l i tes, 1-14
si gnal acqui si ti on, 1-15
tropospheri c del ay, 1-16
Omega
hyperbol i c navi gati on, 1-3
s
SI NS
accel erometers, 1-4
advantages, 1-3
AN/WSN-5, 1-5
gyros, 1-4
servo systems, 1-4
T
TACAN
ai rcraft i ndi cati ons, 2-1
aux reference burst, 2-4
beari ng i nformati on (15 Hz), 2-3
beari ng i nformati on (135 Hz), 2-4
cardi oi d, 2-3
constant transponder duty-cycl e, 2-1
i denti fi cati on code, 2-2
north reference burst, 2-4
pri nci pl es, 2-1
pul se pai rs, 2-1
si gnal pri ori ti es, 2-4
squi tter, 2-2
TACAN equi pment
antenna group OE-273(V)/URN, 2-7
AN/URN-20, 2-9
AN/URN-25, 2-5
INDEX-1
Assignment Questions
Information: The text pages that you are to study are
provided at the beginning of the assignment questions.


ASSIGNMENT 1
Textbook Assignment: Surface Navigation Systems, chapter 1, pages 1-1 through 1-19; and
Tactical Air Navigation, chapter 2, pages 2-1 through 2-9.
1-1.
12.
13.
14.
1-5.
Tactical navigation is directly
concerned with maneuvering the ship
in navigable waters.
1. True
2. False
Estimating ships position between
known navigational points or fixes
is known as
1. ship maneuvering
2. dead reckoning
3. ship reckoning
4. dead maneuvering
Radio navigation consists of which
of the following categories?
1. Sub-space systems
2. Spacebased systems
3. Terrestrial systems
4. Both 2 and 3 above
One of the characteristics of dead
reckoning is that the accuracy of
the estimated position never
exceeds the navigation method used
to obtain the last fix. What
happens to the accuracy of the
estimated position over time?
1. It increases
2. It decreases
3. It stays the same
4. It fluctuates
Referring to landmarks with known
positions on earth describes which
one of the following navigation
methods?
1. Celestial
2. Charting
3. Dead reckoning
4. Piloting
1
1-6.
1-7.
1-8.
19.
1-10.
Which of the following actions
required to determine position in
piloting is/are not required in
electronic navigation?
1. Seeing the landmarks
2. Determining the ships heading
3. Having the ship on a dead
reckoned course
4. Both 2 and 3 above
According to the 1992 Federal Radio
Navigation Plan, which of the
following systems will become the
primary reference navigation system
for surface ships?
1. LORAN
2. OMEGA
3. NAVSTAR
4. TACAN
LORAN takes advantage of what radio
signal characteristic?
1. Constant amplitude
2. Constant velocity
3. Constant phase
4. Constant volume
OMEGA is a hyperbolic phase
difference measuring system that
compares the phase angle of two or
more radio signals synchronized to
what device or factor?
1. A common receiver
2. A common signal shift
3. A common time base
4. A common transmitter
Which navigation system continually
computes the latitude and longitude
of a ship by sensing acceleration?
1. NAVSTAR
2. OMEGA
3. MILSTAR
4. SINS
111. A ships inertial navigation system
is dependent on celestial, sight,
and radio navigation aids.
1. True
2. False
112. What device measures changes in
speed or direction along the axis
in which it lies?
1. Gyroscope
2. Accelerometer
3. Axilometer
4. Servoscope
1-13. What type of system is used to keep
a SINS platform stabilized?
1. Servo
2. Synchro
3. Gyro
4. Turbo
114. Which of the following is a stand-
alone SINS?
1. AN/WSN-5
2. AN/WSN25
3. AN/WRN-6
4. AN/WRN-8
1-15. Approximately how often can
operators using the NNSS obtain
fixes?
1. Every hour
2. Every 2 hours
3. Every 3 hours
4. Every 4 hours
1-16. NNSS satellites transmit phase
modulated data every 2 minutes on
how many rf carriers?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four
117. What are the two types of NNSS
satellite parameters included in
the phase-modulated data?
1-18. The nominal orbit of NNSS
satellites is what type of orbital
parameter?
1. Status
2. Command
3. Systems
4. Fixed
1-19. NNSS satellite data can be used as
an accurate time reference.
1. True
2. False
1-20. NNSS satellite refined orbits are
calculated at which of the
following facilities?
1. Tracking station
2. Control station
3. Computer center
4. Injection station
1-21. Which of the following facilities
calculates NNSS satellite clock
error before satellite message
injection?
1. Control center
2. Computer center
3. Tracking station
4. Injection station
1-22.
Approximately how long does it take
the injection station to transmit
information to an NNSS satellite?
1. 10 seconds
2. 12 seconds
3. 15 seconds
4. 18 seconds
l-23.
If errors are detected during a
readback of freshly injected
satellite data, how often is NNSS
satellite message injection
repeated until the transmission is
verified as being correct?
1. Every 20 seconds
2. Every 2 minutes
3. Every 2 hours
4. Every 12 hours
1. Systems and command
2. Terrestrial and space
3. Status and update
4. Fixed and variable
2
1-24.
1-25.
1-26.
127.
128.
129.
IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS 1-24, 125,
AND 126, REFER TO FIGURE 17 IN
CHAPTER 1 OF THE TRAMAN.
At what point during the satellite
pass will expansion effects cause
the received frequencies to drop
below the generated frequencies?
1. T1
2. T2
3. T3
At what point will the received
frequencies exactly match the
transmitted frequencies?
1. T1
2. T2
3. T3
At what point will compression
effects cause the received
frequencies to be higher than the
transmitted frequencies?
1. T1
2. T2
3. T3
Which of the following factors
affects the measurement of Doppler
shift?
1. Refraction
2. Reflection
3. Reduction
4. Reproduction
To solve the problem of Doppler
shift accuracy, satellites are
designed to transmit on how many
frequencies?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four
Accurate NNSS position fixes for a
moving vessel require what
additional computation?
1. Vessels draft
2. Vessels length
3. Vessels speed
4. Vessels class
3
1-30. Which ships system will provide
the information required to perform
the additional computation required
by NNSS?
1. OMEGA
2. LORAN
3. PNNS
4. SINS
131 l Given the orbital parameters of a
satellite, the Doppler shift of the
signal transmitted from that
satellite, and the velocity of a
vessel, it is possible to obtain a
navigational fix if the satellite
is within what distance from the
navigation set?
1. Skip zone
2. Lineofsight
3. Scatter zone
4. Line-of-support
1-32. One of the capabilities of the
AN/WRN-5 includes time-ordered
alerts for up to how many
satellites?
1. Six
2. Two
3. Eight
4. Four
1-33. What is the at sea accuracy of
the AN/SRN-19(V)2?
1. 0.25 feet
2. 0.25 meters
3. 0.25 miles
4. 0.25 kilometers
1-34. What activity may degrade the
accuracy of the AN/SRN-19(V)2?
1. Ships maneuvers
2. Sunspots
3. Rain
4. High sea state
135. You are initializing the AN/SRN
19(V)2. In addition to programing
the sets position, what other
parameter must you enter?
1. Antenna height
2. Ships length
3. Usable power
4. Cabling length
136. What navigational system will
replace the NNSS?
1. NAVSTAR GPS
2. OMEGA MK2
3. LORAN D
4. NNSS MK2
1-37. Which of the following terms
describe GPS satellite positioning
data?
1. Update and status
2. Variable and fixed
3. Daily and hourly
4. Almanac and ephemeris
138. How often is the GPS satellite
navigation data message updated?
1. Every hour
2. Every 12 hours
3. Every 24 hours
4. Every 36 hours
139. What facility transmits the data
required to update the GPS
satellite navigation data message?
1. Manned control center
2. Manned tracking station
3. Unmanned monitor station
4. Unmanned injection station
1-40. There are how many (a) active spare
and (b) active operational GPS
satellites?
1. (a) 21 (b) 3
2. (a) 3 (b) 21
3. (a) 3 (b) 24
4. (a) 24 (b) 21
141. How many earth orbits will each GPS
satellite complete in a 24hour
period?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four
142. What communications technique is
used for GPS satellite broadcasts?
1. Spontaneousemission
2. Spreadspectrum
3. Standardbroadcast
4. Spectralemission
143. GPS satellites are positioned so a
minimum of how many satellites are
observable to a user anywhere on
earth?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four
144. Which of the two codes (C/A and P)
transmitted by GPS satellites is
NOT available to civilian users?
1. Course acquisition code
2. Precise code
145.
Which of the following data is
NOT included in the GPS NAVmsg?
1. Clockbias
2. Correction data
3. Ephemeris
4. Spectral
l-46.
GPS navigation is based on what
principle?
1. Satellite ranging
2. Satellite speed
3. Satellite broadcast
4. Satellite response
147. Within how many feet can GPS
determine position fixes?
1. 50
2. 250
3. 500
4. 1000
4
1-48.
149.
150.
1-51.
1-52.
1-53.
To obtain the above accuracy, how
many satellite inputs are required?
1. Five
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four
How is the time difference between
satellite transmission and when the
navigation set receives this signal
related to the distance between the
satellite and the receiver?
1. Inversely proportional
2. Directly proportional
GPS satellites use atomic clocks;
the receivers do not. What type of
error must be computed based on
this fact?
1. Delay
2. Eccentricity
3. Modulation
4. Clock
Tropospheric delay is predicted and
included in what satellite data?
1. Bias
2. Almanac
3. Variable
4. Precision
Ionospheric delay is greatest when
a signal is received from directly
overhead.
1. True
2. False
Of the frequencies listed below,
which one will ionospheric delay
phaseshift the most?
1. 1227.60 MHz
2. 1575.42 MHz
3. 1883.65 MHz
4. 2879.23 MHz
1-54. Satellite signals reflecting off
one or more objects before reaching
the navigation set produce what
type of reception?
1. Multipath
2. Faded
3. Skip-zone
4. Ground-wave
1-55. What data do operators enter into
the AN/WRN-6(V) to speed up
satellite acquisition?
1. Satellite type
2. Time and date
3. Current position
4. Both 2 and 3 above
1-56. Which of the following is the
normal operating mode of the
AN/WRN-6(V)?
1. Initialization
2. Test
3. Navigation
4. Tracking
1-57. Which of the following is a
portable GPS receiver?
1. AN/WRN6
2. AN/WSN-5
3. AN/PSN8
4. AN/SPA-2
158. TACAN is based on what type of
radio air-navigation system?
1. Polar-coordinate
2. Polar-sync
3. Neutral-coordinate
4. Neutral-sync
1-59. Instead of depending on radio-wave
reflection, beacon-transponders
generate what type of replies?
1. Neutral
2. Artificial
3. Basic
4. Torque
5
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
1-65.
What type of decoders do TACAN
transponders use?
1. Twinpulse
2. Singlepulse
3. Neutralpulse
4. Basicpulse
Which of the following receiver
controls provides noisegenerated
output?
1. Fidelity
2. Sensitivity
3. Cycle
4. Squitter
If more interrogating aircraft come
into the TACANS range, the number
of noisegenerated pulses will
1. increase
2. decrease
What signal does the TACAN ground
station transmit to identify
itself?
1. Identification pulse group
2. Voice pulse group
3. Triangulation pulse group
4. Burst pulse group
What characteristic of the
transmitted TACAN pulses supplies
the distance information to
aircraft?
1. Amplitude
2. Frequency
3. Timing
4. Gain
What type of modulation is used to
convey TACAN bearing information?
1. Frequency
2. Pulse
3. Continuous wave
4. Amplitude modulation
6
1-66.
1-67.
1-68.
1-69.
1-70.
171.
What type of radiation pattern is
transmitted by the TACAN ground
station antenna?
1. Parabolic
2. Cardioid
3. Vectorial
4. Tangential
What is the common name of the
135Hz reference burst?
1. Composite burst
2. North reference burst
3. Auxillary reference burst
4. East reference burst
How often is the identification
code broadcast?
1. Every 37.5 seconds
2. Every 60 seconds
3. Every 37.5 minutes
4. Every 60 minutes
What is the designation of latest
TACAN equipment in the fleet?
1. AN/URN25
2. AN/URN-20
3. AN/URN-15
4. AN/URN10
In the AS3240 electronically
scanned antenna, the old single-
phase rotating parasitic element
has been replaced by how many
electronicallyswitched inner
parasitic elements?
1. 6
2. 12
3. 24
4. 32
What is one big advantage the
electronicallyscanned antenna has
over the old mechanicallyrotated
antenna?
1. It eliminates bandwidth
limitations
2. It is cheaper to build
3. It is easier to troubleshoot
4. It eliminates propagation
effects
1-72. The AN/URN-20 uses the same
electronically-scanned antenna as
the AN/URN-25.
1. True
2. False
1-73. What is the total number of TACAN
channels available using both X and
Y modes?
1. 68
2. 100
3. 126
4. 252
1-74. The TACAN receiver frequency is
always displaced how many MHz from
the transmitter frequency?
1. 20
2. 42
3. 63
4. 75
1-75. How many aircraft can be provided
distance data simultaneously?
1. 25
2. 50
3. 75
4. 100
7