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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BOMBAY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Course

: ME-617 Rapid Product Development

 

L-T-P-C : 3-0-0-6 I Semester 2014-15 Duration : 75 min.

Instructor : K.P. Karunakaran

Date

: August 7, 2014 (Thursday) 9:30PM

Instructions:

Roll No

               

Write your roll number only on the question paper. Do not reveal your identity in any part of the answer books.

   

Staple the question paper at the top of the answer book while submitting.

Marks

 

/75

Manage time efficiently as the question paper is too long.

 

TEST - 1 (Preamble; Product Development; Rapid Product Development)

Part A (1 mark each)

1. Name at least four functions of CAE.

Structural analysis

Fluid and heat flow analysis

Dynamic analysis

Kinematic analysis

Interference analysis

Tolerance modeling (Analysis and Synthesis)

Virtual and Augmented Reality

DFX

2. What do you understand by "Make or buy decision"?

In modern days, all parts and assemblies are not made within the factory. As far as possible, these are made by other vendors who do it better and only the essential activities are carried out within the factory. Decision on which will be made inhouse and which will be outsourced is "Make or buy decision". Each part and sub-assembly undergoes this decision.

3. Distinguish between PLM and ERP.

ERP is largely alpha-numeric data driven whereas PLM is largely geometric data driven.

4. Name two most system-friendly solid representations.

i. B-Rep,

ii. Spatial decomposition (give weightage also for any one sub-class of spatial decomposition such as voxel, image-space (z-buffer), hierarchical or adaptive representation like octree, bintree etc.)

5. Name any one geometric representation in which geometric boolean operation is implemented as binary boolean operation.

Any spatial decomposition method (give weightage to also any one sub-class of spatial decomposition such as voxel, image-space (z-buffer), hierarchical or adaptive

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representation like octree, bintree etc.)

6. What are the two important benefits of unique storage the points of a polyhedral solid? Write the most important first.

i. Perfect stitch of the faces.

ii. Space saving.

7. Two keywords are implicit with features in FBM. What are they? What do they imply?

i. Constraints.

ii. Parametric.

Due to these, it has the following benefits:

No fixed dimensions; they can be edited. However, they cannot be arbitrarily edited as the constraints ensure that the topology is not disturbed.

8. What are the three ways to reduce the size of the ASCII STL data of a solid?

i. Binary storage.

ii. Dropping keywords. So, only 12 float numbers per triangle are stored.

iii. Store unique points as points and create topologies referring to its tags.

iv. Use zipping techniques.

9. Pick the correct statement. Storage of redundancy in B-Rep causes:

(a)

increase in space complexity and decrease in time complexity

(b)

increase in space complexity and increase in time complexity

(c)

decrease in space complexity and decrease in time complexity

(d)

decrease in space complexity and increase in time complexity.

(a)

10. Pick the correct statement. The memory occupied by

(a)

B-Rep is proportional to the sum of the areas of all its surface patches.

(b)

Exhaustive enumeration is constant.

(c)

Octree is proportional to the volume of the object.

(d)

CSG is very high.

(b)

11. Pick the correct statement:

(a)

Octree is the most accurate solid representation.

(b)

Octree cannot handle non-manifold objects.

(c)

Feature details are lost in Octree.

(d)

Octree can handle self-intersecting objects.

(c)

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12. What is a self-intersecting solid? Is it feasible or infeasible? Give an example for this type of solid.

Every point of a valid solid has a unique (outward) normal. When this condition is not met even at one point, this object will be called a self-intersecting solid.

Klein bottle

13. A CNC machine is a

(a)

Scalar device

(b)

Vector device

(c) Tensor device

(d)

Raster device

(e) Voxel device

(b)

14. The most popular display today is:

a.

Storage tube with vector graphics

b.

Storage tube with raster graphics

c.

Refresh tube with vector graphics

d.

Refresh tube with raster graphics.

(d)

15. Pick two correct answers. Double buffering is required for:

a. Storage tube with vector type monochrome displays

b. Refresh tube with raster type monochrome displays

c. Storage tube with vector type color displays

d. Storage tube with raster type color displays

e. LCD displays

(b) & (e)

16. The figure shows how various costs vary during the product development cycle. Identify the curves depicting the three different costs along with brief explanations of their respective trends. Is the cost instantaneous or cumulative?

costs along with brief explanations of their respective trends. Is the cost instantaneous or cumulative? Page

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Marketing cost: The two bulges are for market survey and advertising. Design cost: Gradual rise

Marketing cost: The two bulges are for market survey and advertising.

Design cost: Gradual rise and fall in expenses with the peak in the middle. Initially only manpower and office expenses are required in discussions, visits and virtual/paper works for design and testing. The middle bump is during prototyping and testing.

Production cost: Gradual rise and fall in expenses with the peak towards the end. This is due to physical prototyping and productionizing.

17. What are the two distinct phases of manufacturing automation? What do you understand by total automation in this context?

i. Automation of the process

ii. Automation of the process planning.

When both these exists, it is called total automation.

18. Name the two aspects that distinguish between Product Design and Industrial Design.

i. Aesthetics

ii. Ergonomics.

19. What is the reason for the success of STL format in spite of being an inefficient representation?

Sheer simplicity.

20. The market environment today is competitive. As against this, what was the attitude of the seller in the past?

Complacence.

Part B (Marks mentioned against each question)

1. Name n most popular packages for each of the following (n is given against each).

Expand the acronyms in each:

a. Pure FBM (n=2)

[17x0.25 + 11x0.25 = 7]

g. Casting simulation (n=1)

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b. CAS (n=1)

c. Animation (n=1)

d. FEA (n=2)

e.

f. Kinematic analysis (n=1)

CFD (n=1)

h. CNC simulation (n=1)

i. Seamlessly integrated CAD/CAM/CAE system (n=3)

j.

k. PLM (n=2)

ERP (n=2)

l. DFX (n=?)

Sl.

   

No.

Activity

Expansion & Package(s)

a.

Pure FBM (n=2)

Pure Feature Based Modeling Pro/E, SolidWorks

b.

CAS (n=1)

Computer-Aided Styling Alias

c.

Animation (n=1)

Maya

d.

FEA (n=2)

Finite Element Analysis

ANSYS, NASTRAN

e.

CFD (n=1)

Computational Fluid Dynamics Fluent

f.

Kinematic analysis (n=1)

Adams

g.

Casting simulation (n=1)

MoldFlow (for plastics), CMold (for metal), AutoCAST (for metals)

h.

NC simulation (n=1)

VeriCut, VirtualNC

i.

Seamlessly integrated CAD/CAM/CAE system (n=3)

Computer-Aided Design/ Computer-Aided Manufacturing/ Computer-Aided Engineering NX, Catia, Pro/Engineer

j.

ERP (n=2)

Enterprise Resource Planning SAP, BAAN, IFF, D’Edwards

k.

PLM software (n=2)

Windchill (PTC), TeamCentre (formerly Metaphase (SDRC), I-MAN (EDS)), Ennovia (Dassaults), Matrix One (Dassaults), SAP PLM

l.

DFX (n=?)

Design for X where X=[Manufacture, Assembly etc.] None is very popular.

2. What is double buffering and why is it required? Is it required for all types of displays or only for CRT displays which uses shadow masking? Bring out its analogy with film

projection.

[2+1+3]

When the frame buffer is being written, if data is accessed from it to fill the screen pixel, it will result in a mixture of the information from the previous and current frames. Therefore, the user will not see anything clearly. Therefore, two buffers are required. When one is being updated with a new frame, the other is accessed to update the screen pixels. Then the two buffers are swapped in their role.

Double buffering is required for all types of displays.

If the film reel is moved at contact speed in front of the projections system, only a hazy picture of the mixture will appear on the screen. Therefore, it is required have an indexed motion which will keep any frame stationery for a short duration and then move it rapidly to bring the next. These snaps will be assimilated by the brain as motion. However, it is

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not possible to use an indexed mechanism as the acceleration and deceleration involved will break the reel. Therefore, a disc with a opening matching the frame rotates in front of the reel. The rotation of the disc and the speed of the reel are constant but matched so as to get the frame appear stationary in front of the projection system momentarily. This way, while both the reel and disc have continuous motion at constant speed, the intermittent exposure of the frame is achieved. Double buffers are similar to the consecutive frames in the film role. By switching between both the buffers, their mix up is prevented.

3. A color display has 8 bit-planes each for Red, Green and Blue. It has 1600 pixels along X and 900 pixels along Y. Draw a block diagram that shows the flow of the information

stored in these planes onto the screen. What will be the video memory required for such a display? How many colors will be possible in this excluding black and white? Note:

Double buffering is used.

[5+1]

Video memory required = 1600 x 900 x 3 x 8 = 34560000 bits = 4.32 MB. Since double buffer is used, we need 8.64 MB.

Number of colors = 2 (3x8) = 16777216 2 = 16777214.

colors = 2 ( 3 x 8 ) = 16777216 – 2 = 16777214. 4. Distinguish

4. Distinguish the mechanisms of obtaining the desired color in a CRT and a laser printer.

Present it crisply in the form of a table.

[3]

CRT: Since the background is black (no color), the desired color is obtained by adding of Red, Green and Blue in the appropriate proportions.

Laser printer: Since the background is white (all colors), the desired color is obtained by subtracting the unwanted colors of Magenta, Cyan and Yellow in the appropriate proportions. Magenta, Cyan and Yellow respectively absorb Green, Red and Blue from the white color of the paper.

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Laser printers in addition use a separate Black cartridge for economy; otherwise black will have to be produced by the equal consumption of the three toners which is expensive and slow.

5a. Compare the basic characteristics of integer and real data types, in the form of a table. [2]

Characteristic

Integer

Float

Memory

4 bytes (depending on compiler implementation)

4 bytes (depending on compiler implementation)

Implementation

Overflow happens at the highest significant digit.

Overflow happens at the lowest significant digit.

Size

This can store numbers only in the range of ±2 31

Far beyond this range.

Precision

Exact. So, comparison of two integers is possible using '=='.

Inexact. So, comparison of two integers is NOT possible using '=='. This has to be done within the user-specified precision.

5b. a and b are two numbers. When they are equal, set the boolean variable check to true,

otherwise false. Write the ‘C’ program segment for this when

i. a and b are integers

ii. a and b are real numbers

i. int a, b; bool check; if (a==b) check = true; else check = false;

[2]

ii. float a, b, eps=0.0001; bool check; if (fabs(a-b)<eps) check = true; else check = false;

5c. Present the advantages and limitations of declaring the coordinates of the points as integer

or real numbers in the form of a table.

[2]

Declaring the coordinates of the points as Float Wide range

Integer

Advantages

Exact

Limitations

Inadequate range

Inexact

5d. Will you declare the coordinates as integer or real numbers? Which is the most

influencing factor for your decision?

[1]

The coordinates will be declared as real numbers. This is because the range of integer will be inadequate to represent most objects.

6. Edge is an important topology in a typical B-Rep, so much that it is called winged edge data structure. But edge is not that significant in a triangular B-Rep. Why? Why is triangular face more robust than polygons of more number of vertices? [2+1]

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Triangular face is the simplest and most robust of all faces. So, most computations can be performed using the topologies of vertex and face. The basic property of a solid that "any edge having two and only two sharing faces" is here replaced by "any face having three and only three sharing faces".

Three points define a planar patch. When an equation of a plane is obtained from any three points of a n-sided polygon, the remaining point will not satisfy this equation due to the floating point error of today's finite precision computation. Therefore, triangular faces are the most robust.

7. The universe of a quadree representation is 120mm x 120mm and its resolution is 5mm. A circle of 70mm diameter lying inside the universe is tangent to the bottom and right edges of the universe. The partial nodes of size equal to the resolution shall be converted into full leaf nodes rather than empty nodes.

(a)

Render this circle as a quadree on a graph sheet neatly. Hatch the space occupied by

the quadtree of the circle.

[4]

(b)

Draw the quadtree neatly. The four sons of a node shall be numbered as follows:

[4]

Left bottom node: 0, right bottom node: 1, left top node: 2 and right top node: 3.

(c)

By how many squares is the quadtree circle represented?

[1]

(d)

What is the ratio of memories of the quadtree and the corresponding 2D voxel

representation?

[1]

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8. Compare the traditional solid representations like CSG, FBM and B-Rep with spatial decomposition methods.

8. Compare the traditional solid representations like CSG, FBM and B-Rep with spatial

decomposition methods.

[2]

Traditional solid representations like CSG, FBM and B-Rep

Spatial Decomposition Method

Exact

Inexact

No need to specify universe and resolution.

Universe and resolution are to be specified.

Geometric features are retained.

Geometric features are lost.

Only the external surface of the object is defined and the interior is assumed to be homogeneous.

The entire object, i.e., its interior as well as surface are defined. Therefore, suitable for defining gradient objects. This is more closer to reality.

9. What are the limitations of STL format in addition to its storage inefficiencies?

[2]

This is an inexact representation.

For acceptable accuracies, the file size is much larger than its exact form even in binary

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format.

This is an unordered set of faces. Topology is not explicitly available. It has to be extracted.

Initial STL format cannot store color.

10. Compare the aggression of competition with a python killing a larger animal.

[2]

When a python captures an animal, it tightens it a little every time the animal exhales leaving less and less room for subsequent breathing till the prey finally dies of suffocation. The cycles similar to breathing occur in organizations also; [i] the inventory of raw materials, work in progress and finished products fluctuate, [ii] cash flow fluctuates, [iii] machines fail, [iv] manpower attrition and so on. Whenever each of these reaches a low level, the competitors loose no time to take away the market share just as the python does. Therefore, organizations can never remain complacent with their current performance.

11. Name each of the four project types with an example for each in the respective cells:

[2]

Product Market/ Applications
Product
Market/
Applications

Existing

New

Existing

1

2

New

3

4

Product Market/ Applications
Product
Market/
Applications

Existing

New

 

Updating Replacement:

Supplementing:

Existing

Annual release after taking care of customer feedback and minor improvements.

Cell phone with camera, radio etc.

New

Adaptation:

Diversification:

European car for India and vice versa

An automotive company starting an IT division

12. What is the minimum number of triangles required to define a sphere of 30 unit diameter

Your answer can have an error of

with a maximum permissible deviation of 1 unit?

±5%.

[5]

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Note: There are deviations in 3D (spherical bulge) and 2D (circular bulge). One has to

Note: There are deviations in 3D (spherical bulge) and 2D (circular bulge). One has to decide which is dominating. The 2D deviation in the circle is 1.561 which is much more than the allowed deviation of 0.5. So, this circle shall be approximated by a hexagon rather than a triangle. Even then, the deviation becomes 0.781 which is higher than the permissible value.

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