15 views

Uploaded by Chau Ba Thong

Voltage Stability Analysis has become more
important as a result of insufficient reactive resources in bulk
transmission systems. Usually the objective of Voltage Stability
Analysis is to identify the weak regions in terms of reactive power
deficiency and determine the critical contingencies and voltage
stability margins for various power transfers within regions. This
paper presents a practical method to perform Voltage Stability
Analysis. A Python tool developed to facilitate contingency
screening and PV analysis is described. This paper also addresses
issues like voltage stability criteria, cumulative errors of available
voltage stability analysis tools, and identification of voltage
instability regions, etc. The experiences gained by applying the
method on voltage stability studies of a large power system are
shared and discussed.

- Batman Smells
- Load Characteristics of Electric System for Distributing Power on Locality Based Criterion
- STATIC LOAD MODELING FOR VOLTAGE STABILITY STUDIES WITH OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF UPFC USING CAT SWARM OPTIMIZATION
- PS3_281
- Static and Dynamic Voltage Stability Tez
- Transmission Expansion Planning With Economic Dispatch and N 1Constraints
- AaPower System Analysis
- 11_chapter 1.pdf
- Power Flow Control In A Transmission Line Using Unified Power Flow Controller
- 04915202
- 3 Ph Transformer and Generator Models
- Bfs 1.pdf
- Edsa Paladin
- Application of UPFC to Increase Transient Stability of Inter-Area Power System
- 2016-Fall-ME501-03-ODE-Part3.pdf
- Ex Sheet 1 Solutions
- arya
- DE Final Study Guide.pdf
- Cv for Nwohu
- SHOWTEXFILE.do

You are on page 1of 7

important as a result of insufficient reactive resources in bulk

transmission systems. Usually the objective of Voltage Stability

Analysis is to identify the weak regions in terms of reactive power

deficiency and determine the critical contingencies and voltage

stability margins for various power transfers within regions. This

paper presents a practical method to perform Voltage Stability

Analysis. A Python tool developed to facilitate contingency

screening and PV analysis is described. This paper also addresses

issues like voltage stability criteria, cumulative errors of available

voltage stability analysis tools, and identification of voltage

instability regions, etc. The experiences gained by applying the

method on voltage stability studies of a large power system are

shared and discussed.

Index Terms Margin, Power Transfer Limit, PV Analysis,

Voltage Collapse, Voltage Stability.

I. INTRODUCTION

RADITIONALLY, the limiting criterion of power transfer

between regions has been the thermal capability of

transmission elements. Recently, insufficient reactive resources

have led to a re-evaluation of the limiting criteria during power

transfers between regions. While increasing power transfers

under contingency, bus voltage depression in the power-

receiving region could lead to a voltage collapse ending in a

wide-area blackout due to insufficient reactive resources.

Voltage stability is a phenomenon concerning the eventual

collapse of voltage as system loading and/or power transfers

are increased.

The techniques to perform voltage stability analysis fall into

two categories: static and dynamic [1]. The dynamic approach

to voltage stability analysis is to conduct time-domain

simulations. This paper focuses on the static approach, which is

based on power flow solutions. [Static] Voltage Stability

Analysis is performed to identify the weak regions in terms of

reactive power deficiency of the system and determine the

critical contingencies and voltage stability margins for various

power transfers within the power system. The study results

serve to evaluate voltage stability margins and a starting point

for developing possible remedies and alternative operational

practices if necessary.

Power-Voltage (PV) curves and ReactiveVoltage curves

(QV) are widely accepted measures of a networks vulnerability

to voltage instability or collapse. In the past, engineers used to

The authors are with The Electric Reliability Council of Texas, 2705 West

Lake Drive, Taylor, TX 76574 USA (e-mails: yzhang@ercot.com,

srajagopalan@ercot.com, jconto@ercot.com).

compute QV curves (MVAr margin at individual buses) to

identify weak points of the system and measure their relative

margin to instability. But, as described in [2] and [3], QV

curves do not generally reveal the voltage stability of the

system and the true weak spots. PV curves directly reveal the

margin to instability in terms of the relevant and measureable

quantities (MW load, generation or transfer increase) for

system operators and planners. PV studies provide power

transfer limits and lists of critical contingencies ranked in

severity for each power transfer scenario. In a typical PV

study, power transfer between two study zones is increased and

at each step, contingencies are independently applied, followed

by a power flow solution. The transfer level and associated

contingency is flagged as a voltage collapse scenario for those

scenarios where the power-flow does not converge. The

process is repeated for higher power transfer levels until the

base case voltage collapses under no contingency, or the source

zone reaches its maximum specified export generation

capacity.

Even though the procedure of PV study is relatively simple,

to get accurate voltage stability study results is not as easy as it

appears. When using commercial power system tools to

perform PV analysis, the following issues usually arise:

1) The very large number of possible contingencies that must

be considered in the assessment of voltage stability

makes the study a very time-consuming process;

2) A transfer limit is obtained when the power flow fails to

converge within the specified error tolerance and number

of iterations. Its hard to tell if this limit is a true wide-

area voltage stability limit.

3) Due to the larger number of contingencies, accumulated

errors during the calculation could result in wrong

voltage stability limits.

4) Identification of voltage instability region requires a

significant amount of work;

To handle these issues, a tool was developed to access the

PV engine of a commercial software using the programming

language Python. The functionality of the tool will be

described in the paper. The experiences gained using the tool

during voltage stability analysis are presented and discussed in

detail.

This paper is structured as follows: Section II describes the

voltage stability analysis criteria and methodology, Section III

discusses typical issues in a voltage stability study including

the local and wide-area voltage collapse, power flow solution

oscillation, and accumulated calculation error, Section IV

describes the functionality of the voltage stability analysis tool

and Section V presents the conclusions.

Practical Voltage Stability Analysis

Yang Zhang, Member IEEE, Sidharth Rajagopalan, Member IEEE, Jos Conto, Member IEEE

T

978-1-4244-6551-4/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

2

II. STATIC VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS PERFORMED BY

ERCOT SYSTEM PLANNING

A. [Static] Voltage Stability Analysis

Voltage stability analysis is performed for the following

purposes:

1) Ensuring that power system meets the required PV

margins imposed by its reliability criteria

Typical voltage stability reliability criteria may require

that voltage stability margin shall be sufficient to maintain

post-transient voltage stability within a defined importing

(Load) area under the following study conditions [6]:

Peak Load conditions, with import to the area

increased by five percent (5%) of the forecasted area

Load under NERC Category A or B contingency test;

Peak Load conditions, with import to the area

increased by two and one half percent (2.5%) of the

forecasted area Load under NERC Category C

contingency test.

NERC category D contingencies need to be evaluated

only for risks and consequences. The voltage stability

margin can be calculated as the percentage margin stated

in terms of the sink load.

2) Identifying voltage stability limits on power transfers into

selected load centers

For economic or market requirements, the user will

identify the maximum level of power that can be

transferred across a network from a sending/source to a

receiving/sink area or system. Limits are usually

identified for both normal and contingency conditions

[7]. As power transfers are increased across a network,

thermal limits will be reached when the thermal loading

of network elements is exceeded. Similarly, a voltage

limit will be reached when the PV margin to the collapse

point is less than the margin imposed by the reliability

criteria.

As a result of the growing load in major cities and with

generating units being shut-down due to pollution or

economics, voltage stability could become the limiting

factor in regions with large load centers. As an example

of this trend, the map in Fig. 1 illustrates the balance of

load and generation within each county in the ERCOT

region for the summer of 2008. A county with more

generation than load will export generation to other

counties; comparatively, a county with more load than

generation will import generation from other counties.

This map clearly shows that the Dallas/Fort Worth area,

the Houston area, and the Austin/Round Rock area are

import zones and dependent on transmission to serve

their load [5].

3) Identifying weak regions in the system and determining

critical contingencies with respect to voltage stability

Another purpose of voltage stability analysis is to

screen the entire system and identify disturbances that

may have the potential to cause a major system blackout

due to voltage collapse or are the most severe

contingencies that limit the transfer of power into

selected load centers. The weak regions in terms of static

voltage stability are also identified in this study.

B. Practical Methodology of Voltage Stability Analysis

1) Voltage Stability Analysis Tools

To improve the efficiency and accuracy of PV

studies, a python-based tool was developed to access

the PV analysis engine of a commercial power system

software. The tool is described in detail in Section IV.

2) Data and Models

Summer peak conditions model a stressed system

due to the increased loading and generating units

dispatched at maximum capability with high reactive

losses.

For planning studies, the control of tap changing

transformers and switchable shunts are enabled in pre

and post-contingency solutions. For operational

studies, those controls will be enabled in pre-

contingency but remain fixed in post-contingency. It is

recommended to model the load at each bus as a

combination of voltage dependent components. Each

load could be split into resistive, small motor, large

motor and discharge lighting components based on the

load classification and load composition data [1], [10].

3) Study Procedure

When performing a PV study, a load center is

defined as the sink area and the rest of the power

system is defined as the source area. This direction of

the transfer defines the power transfer path. Power

transfer is increased along the power transfer path and

at each step contingencies are independently applied

followed by a power flow solution. The process is

repeated for higher power transfer levels until the base

case voltage collapses under no contingency, or the

Fig. 1. Balance of load and generation in the ERCOT region, 2008.

3

source area reaches its maximum specified export

generation capacity.

Voltage violations and branch overloads are

monitored, and while they do impose operational limits

on the study network, they may not affect the voltage

collapse point. Additional investigation may be

required when voltages below 0.80 per unit (p.u.) are

found, because such under-voltage levels could trigger

the stalling of motor loads, leading to dynamic voltage

collapse scenarios. Typically, power flows of interfaces

will be monitored to quantify the power transfer levels

for operational purposes.

4) Contingency Sets

In actual systems, contingencies at medium-voltage

transmission levels typically result in more localized

voltage issues rather than a system wide voltage

collapse. These contingencies are included in the

screening process to satisfy NERC transmission

planning (TPL) standards [4] and assess any identified

adverse impacts. For each power transfer path defined

in the study, contingencies are screened in NERC

categories as shown in Table I.

For a power grid consisting of 138kV (medium-

voltage) and 345kV (high-voltage) transmission lines

the contingency sets will include outages of all

generating units and transmission elements at 138kV

and above.

NERC category C contingencies involving two

individual elements allow manual system adjustments

to be performed prior to the loss of the second element,

but such adjustments are not modeled in the study

process presented in this paper. It is assumed that by

combining the most severe transmission element

contingency or generator outage with another

transmission element or generator outage, the resulting

set of contingencies would either include or be more

severe than the equivalent contingency with manual

system adjustments. Another contingency set is formed

by combining the most severe line with a double circuit

contingency. Other combinations of network elements

are tested depending on the need to assess their impact

on the power system, like combination of nearby

generating units, all units of a combined cycle plant,

etc.

5) Study Limitations

One limitation of a PV study is the generation

dispatch and load composition uncertainty. There is no

guarantee that the particular generation dispatch and/or

load composition being used is an accurate

representation of the region under study or the most

severe to the system. Voltage collapse events may not

be discovered when generation output is modeled with

more reactive production and/or reserve than would

actually occur.

Depending on the composition of load types, low

bus voltages may trigger motor load stalling conditions

leading to dynamic fast voltage collapse. Such

conditions require full time-domain simulations and

dynamic modeling for study and as such are not in the

scope of this paper.

The transfer limits obtained by a PV study are based

exclusively on PV voltage stability analysis. Thermal

and/or dynamic stability limits may be more restrictive.

III. ISSUES AND EXPERIENCE OF VOLTAGE STABILITY

ANALYSIS

A. Local and Wide-Area Voltage Collapse

A localized voltage collapse only involves a small part

of the system. Local voltage collapses are meaningful for

identifying weak regions of the system in terms of voltage

stability. Possible remedies and alternative operational

practices can be developed for those regions if necessary.

From a perspective of grid expansion, wide-area voltage

collapses are the main concern. The transfer limit obtained

at a local voltage collapse point doesnt represent the real

transfer capability of the transmission system. Usually, a

larger voltage stability limit will be obtained simply by

isolating the small part of the system where local voltage

collapse happens.

When performing PV studies, the calculation will stop

for both local and system wide voltage collapse, with no

additional information on which one is which. In order to

differentiate between the two, modal analysis becomes

necessary. After the voltage stability limit is determined,

the location of instability can be identified by modal

analysis at the stability limit point. Modal analysis

computes the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the power

flow Jacobian matrix [1]. For voltage stability

assessments, P and V can be assumed decoupled and the

TABLE I

CONTINGENCY SETS

NERC

Category

Contingencies Definitions

A No contingencies All facilities in service

B

single branch

All single 345kV and 138kV

lines/transformers, including

breaker-to-breaker and multiple

section lines

single generator

C

double generators Outage of two generators

1 branch + 1

generator

Outage of one line/transformer and a

generator

double branches Outage of two lines/transformers

multiple branches

Double-circuit with common

supporting structures

D

bus outage

Contingency set includes the loss of

an entire voltage level at a substation

combined cycle

train

All generators in a combined cycle

train

1 branch + 2

generators

Simultaneous outage of two

generators and a line/transformer.

multiple branches +

1 generator

Simultaneous outage of a generator

and multiple branches

multiple branches +

2 generators

Simultaneous outage of two

generators and multiple branches

4

Jacobian is reduced to a V-Q matrix. At a stable operating

point, the eigenvalues are negative and beyond the

stability limit the eigenvalues become positive. The

eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue provides a

measure of the participation of buses in the corresponding

mode of instability. Buses that contribute more to the

cause of instability will have higher participation factors

[9]. The grouping of these buses represents the weak

regions in term of voltage stability. In some cases, the

buses that have significant participation in the critical

mode are restricted to a small region, indicating that

voltage instability is local and confined to these buses. If

many buses from several areas in the system have a high

participation in the critical mode, it indicates that the

instability is possibly system-wide.

Modal analysis is performed at the stability limit, which

is the nose point of the PV curve, different contingencies

having different PV curves. The part of the system that

becomes unstable at the nose of the PV curve would also

be different for each contingency. Modal analysis at the

nose of each PV curve will indicate which part of the

system becomes unstable for each contingency and each

transfer.

Most commercial PV tools do not provide an option to

perform modal analysis. An equivalent method to identify

the weak region can be achieved by solving a power flow

at the nose point of the PV curve. To do this, the transfer

and the contingency should be applied to the base case

first. Then using the same power flow calculation and

control parameters as used in PV study, the power flow is

run again. After solution of the power flow, the buses

seeing the greatest sag in voltage are where the collapse

occurs. Likely, voltage collapse occurs when the bus

voltage magnitudes of the bulk system go below 0.8 p.u.

In many cases the weak buses for voltage stability are

not necessarily the ones with lowest voltage [11]. The PV

studies of a large interconnected system that formed the

basis of this paper show that for most cases, the buses with

most participation factors in the critical mode are identical

to those with lowest voltages in the power flow solution at

the nose point. Table II shows the results of Modal

Analysis by a commercial software and power flow

solution at PV curve nose point after using the method

described here. The calculations are performed for the

same contingency and similar stability limits. Buses

having participation factors larger than 0.01, are listed in

the table. Voltages of buses with participation factors less

than 0.01 are all larger than 0.95 (p.u.), which are not

listed in Table II.

B. Convergence of Power Flow Solution

Voltage collapse is said to be reached when the power

flow fails to converge to the specified error tolerance

within a set number of iterations. Mathematically a non-

convergent solution is a set of equations with no numerical

solution, a singularity. Note that non-convergence could

be the result of numerical instability due to cumulative

error or oscillatory control actions. For purposes of this

paper, only solutions that diverge are identified as a

voltage collapse outcome; other non-convergent solutions

were investigated to ensure that voltage stability limits are

determined only by truly divergent scenarios.

The most common cause for non-convergent power

flow solution is oscillatory control action. For example,

the power flow algorithm may keep switching a shunt

capacitor bank or a transformer tap back and forth between

two settings as it hunts for the solution. In this case, the

most effective measure to make power flow converge is to

block the control of these devices. There are two

approaches that can be taken. The first is to block only

those particular devices that were causing the power-flow

engine to oscillate between two states. The second

approach is to block the controls for all switching devices

on the system. The second approach is simple but usually

gives smaller stability limits than the first.

C. Cumulative Error

One interesting observation made by the authors

regarding PV studies is that the PV limits for a long

contingency list are sometimes different from those for a

shorter one. A voltage stability study is run for several

thousand contingencies and the results are ranked in terms

of voltage stability margins. Then, the study is run again

for selected contingencies at the top of the ranking list. It

is found that the voltage stability limits obtained in the

second run are often different from those in the first run. In

many cases, larger voltage stability limits are obtained

when performing the study for a short contingency list.

This observation has been made when working with two

different commercial tools.

One possible reason for this is the accumulation of error

during the calculation. When performing the study, instead

of reloading the original case into the memory for each

contingency, these tools load the base case only once at

the beginning of the study with the purpose of saving run

time. For each contingency, these tools apply changes to

the base case during the run and later undo those changes

TABLE II

PARTICIPATION FACTORS AND VOLTAGES OF WEAK BUSES

Bus

Number

Participation factors

Modal Analysis

Voltage (p.u.)

power flow solution

43201 1.00000 0.7017224

43202 0.99996 0.7017224

42670 0.99836 0.7020667

43520 0.98637 0.7025535

43290 0.97438 0.707127

42953 0.97286 0.7066137

42952 0.97279 0.7066163

42950 0.97275 0.7066184

42951 0.97274 0.7066299

42861 0.97086 0.7091305

43521 0.96982 0.7073421

43400 0.96955 0.706746

42800 0.46810 0.7770641

42061 0.28823 0.8166956

5

and solve the new approximation of the base case in

preparation for the next contingency. But obviously, there

is a cumulative error in this process as the original case is

not fully recovered. When running studies for a large

contingency set, the cumulative error is enough to make

the power flow solution diverge earlier or later than with

the base case and return a wrong voltage stability limit,

which is usually smaller that the real limit.

The solution to this problem is to have a second run for

those contingencies that give worst stability limits if the

first run is performed for a long contingency list. The other

choice is to split the long contingency list into several

short lists and run studies for each of them separately.

IV. PRACTICAL VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS TOOL

Voltage stability assessment is a time-consuming process

and requires a lot of expertise for the following reasons:

The number of possible contingencies that must be

considered in the assessment of voltage stability of the

system is very large. To perform the study for the whole

ERCOT system for instance, the total number of

contingencies is usually larger than 10 thousand. Also, if

there are several scenarios to be assessed, the study

needs to be repeated for each of them.

Identification of the location of instability is also very

time-consuming.

To eliminate the effects of cumulative errors, the study

has to be repeated for those contingencies with worst

voltage stability margins.

Voltage collapse is reached when the load flow fails to

converge within the specified error tolerance and

number of iterations. Non-convergence could be the

result of numerical instability due to cumulative error or

oscillatory control actions. It is a time-consuming

process to investigate non-convergent solutions to

ensure that voltage stability limits are determined only

by truly divergent scenarios.

Due to the above issues, a full voltage stability assessment

can take more than a month for each scenario. In order to

improve the efficiency of the study, a tool was developed by

the authors in the Python language to automate the whole PV

process by controlling the PSS

E PV analysis engine to

perform the calculation. The tool consists of two parts. The

first part of the tool is a contingency maker, which prepares

contingency lists for the voltage stability or other planning

studies. The second part performs PV analysis.

The functionality of the contingency preparation tool is

shown in Fig. 2. The tool has the following functions:

Create and rank single branch contingencies within user

specified area and voltage range;

Create and rank single generator contingencies within

user specified area and capacity range;

Combine two single-event contingencies together to

create more severe NERC category C and D

contingencies, when the distance of separation is less

than a user specified number of buses;

Create combinations of the more severe contingencies

based on the previously calculated test margins. These

test margins will be more relaxed than the system PV

margin since the intention is to discover worst-impact

contingencies. Contingencies with margins less than the

system reliability criteria would be reported directly as

critical ones. Contingencies with margins less than a test

margin (for example, 20% instead of 5% for Category B

and 10% instead of 2.5% for Category C) are used to

create combination sets;

Filter contingencies for a specified region, area or zone,

including a voltage range;

Group all types of contingencies into NERC category B,

C and D and create contingency lists for each

contingency type and/or NERC category.

The second part of the tool performs PV analysis for

contingencies created by the contingency maker. The

Fig. 3. Overview of the voltage stability analysis tool.

Fig. 2. Overview of the tool of contingency maker.

6

functionality of the tool is shown in Fig. 3. The tool has the

following functions:

Run a PV study for contingencies provided by the user

or created by the contingency maker tool;

Eliminate cumulative error effects by re-running the PV

study for contingencies with worst voltage stability

margins, as set by the user;

Identify the scope of voltage instability regions by

scaling the base case to the point of collapse and solving

the power flow equations;

Calculate voltage stability margins for the power sink

region;

Create expanded PV study reports in a user friendly

format;

Create separated contingency lists based on their

severity in terms of voltage stability margins.

Both tools can run independently. On the other hand, they

also provide interfaces for each other so that they can run in an

interactive way. Fig. 4 shows the flowchart of a typical run of

voltage stability. The procedure includes the following steps:

1) Load the case/data into memory; Setup the scenario for

study with user specified parameters;

2) Load contingency lists; Call the tool of contingency maker

to create and rank NERC Category B contingencies for the

study area; filter contingencies for study region with pre-

defined criteria or use list of contingencies provided by the

user; If needed, make contingency combinations;

3) Call the PV analysis tool to calculate voltage stability

limits and calculate voltage stability margins; Run power

flow near the nose point of the PV curve to identify

voltage instability regions;

4) Run PV analysis for contingencies with worst system PV

margins to eliminate cumulative error effects;

5) Calculate voltage stability margins and create study

reports;

6) If there are more contingency lists to study, go to step 2;

otherwise, continue to the next step;

7) If there is more scenario to study, go to step 1; otherwise,

stop.

The voltage stability analysis tool greatly improves the

efficiency of the study. PV studies of a large interconnection

system that may take more than a month per scenario now take

less than two weeks to finish with the aid of this tool.

V. CONCLUSION

The practical Voltage Stability Analysis methodology

presented here identifies the weak regions in terms of reactive

deficiency and identifies the critical contingencies and voltage

stability margins. A Python tool developed to facilitate

contingency screening and PV analysis is described. The paper

also provides practical advice to address issues like the

identification of voltage instability regions, cumulative errors

of available voltage stability analysis tools, and power flow

convergence, etc. The following conclusions can be drawn:

Identification of the voltage instability regions is

important to identify wide-area voltage collapses;

Power flow non-convergence caused by cumulative

error or oscillatory control actions gives false voltage

stability limits. Therefore, only solutions that diverge

should be identified as a voltage collapse outcome. Non-

convergent solutions should be investigated to ensure

that voltage stability limits are determined only by truly

divergent scenarios;

When running studies for a large number of

contingencies, the cumulative error often force

premature divergence of the power flow and gives a

wrong voltage stability limit. Running the study with a

short contingency list is suggested to ensure a high level

of accuracy.

Fig. 4. Flowchart of voltage stability study.

No

Load case, set scenario

Load contingency lists; call contingency

maker to filter/screen contingencies; Make

contingency combinations if needed.

Call PV analysis tool to calculate voltage

stability limits; Identify instability regions

Run PV analysis for contingencies with worst

PV margins to eliminate cumulative errors

Calculate voltage stability margins

and create study result reports

More

contingency

lists?

Yes

No

More

scenarios?

Yes

END

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

7

Voltage stability study is a time-consuming procedure.

A tool that can create/screen contingencies and

automate the study saves lots of time. As demonstrated

by our experiences, the voltage stability analysis tool

developed improves the study efficiency greatly.

VI. REFERENCES

[1] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1994

[2] B. Gao, G.K. Morison, and P. Kundur, Towards the development of a

systematic approach for voltage stability assessment of large-scale power

systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 11, pp. 13141324, August

1996.

[3] G.K. Morison, B. Gao, and P. Kundur, Voltage stability analysis using

static and dynamic approaches, IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 8, pp.

11591171, August 1993.

[4] NERC, North American Electric Reliability Corporation [Online].

Available: http://www.nerc.com.

[5] ERCOT, 2008 Electric System Constraints and Needs Report. Available:

http://www.ercot.com/news/presentations/.

[6] ERCOT, Operating Guides Section 5: Planning [Online]. Available:

http://www.ercot.com/mktrules/guides/operating/.

[7] PSS/E 32.0 Program Operation Manual, Siemens Energy, Inc.

Schenectady, NY, 2009.

[8] VSAT Version 8.0 Installation Guide and Users manual, PowerTech

Labs Inc., May 2008.

[9] B. Gao, G.K. Morison, and P. Kundur, Voltage stability evaluation

using modal analysis, IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., vol. 7, pp. 1529

1542, Nov. 1992.

[10] C.W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1994

[11] PowerTech Report, Voltage Security Study of ERCOT Transmission

System PHASE 1 (2002 Conditions), Dec. 2002.

VII. BIOGRAPHIES

Yang Zhang (M2008) received the BSEE

degree from North China Electric Power

University in 1997, the M.S. degree from China

Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) in

2001 and the Ph.D. from Washington state

university in 2007. He worked with CEPRI from

2001 to 2004 on projects including EMS and

Market Management Systems. He is currently

working with Electric Reliability Council of

Texas (ERCOT) as a planning engineer. His

duties include power system steady-state and

dynamic studies, including contingency analysis,

voltage, small signal, and transient stability studies.

Sidharth Rajagopalan (SM08, M09) received

his BSEE degree from Jawaharlal Nehru

Technological University, Hyderabad, India in

2005 and his MSEE degree from The University

of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas in 2008. He

worked with Telco Construction Equipment

Company Ltd, India from 2005 to 2006 as a

Design Engineer.

Mr. Rajagopalan is currently working with the

Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) as

a Planning Engineer. His duties at ERCOT

include power system steady-state and transient security assessment including

voltage, small-signal and transient stability studies and the testing and

validation of power system dynamic models.

Jos Conto received his BSEE from the

University of Engineers, Lima, Peru in 1981 and

his MSEE from University of Tokyo, Tokyo,

Japan in 1985. He stayed with CRIEPI, Japan for

one year.

Mr. Conto worked for Electric Research &

Management (State College, PA) on several

electrical engineering projects including

photovoltaic systems, EMF, solar storm

monitoring system, and for the Tokyo Electric

Power in Washington DC on utility-scale technology applications before

joining the System Planning Department at the Electric Reliability Council of

Texas in July 2000.

At ERCOT as a Supervisor of the Reliability Assessment group, Mr. Conto

oversees power system dynamic studies, including voltage and transient

stability studies. Past duties included steady state engineering studies,

generation interconnection studies, etc.

Mr. Conto is an IEEE member. He is fluent in English, Spanish and Japanese.

- Batman SmellsUploaded byParikshith Bharath
- Load Characteristics of Electric System for Distributing Power on Locality Based CriterionUploaded byBONFRING
- STATIC LOAD MODELING FOR VOLTAGE STABILITY STUDIES WITH OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF UPFC USING CAT SWARM OPTIMIZATIONUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- PS3_281Uploaded bysafatw
- Static and Dynamic Voltage Stability TezUploaded byÖzge Tuttokmağı
- Transmission Expansion Planning With Economic Dispatch and N 1ConstraintsUploaded bymayalasan1
- AaPower System AnalysisUploaded byFlash Light
- 11_chapter 1.pdfUploaded bypralay roy
- Power Flow Control In A Transmission Line Using Unified Power Flow ControllerUploaded byIJMER
- 04915202Uploaded byChutipa A. Reungjit
- 3 Ph Transformer and Generator ModelsUploaded byMansa Manu
- Bfs 1.pdfUploaded byFerry OpilOp
- Edsa PaladinUploaded byIulian Pârjoleanu
- Application of UPFC to Increase Transient Stability of Inter-Area Power SystemUploaded bysurya
- 2016-Fall-ME501-03-ODE-Part3.pdfUploaded byRej O-one
- Ex Sheet 1 SolutionsUploaded byIntisar Ali Sajjad
- aryaUploaded byRavinder Ranga
- DE Final Study Guide.pdfUploaded bySreedev Das
- Cv for NwohuUploaded byAdeniji Olusegun
- SHOWTEXFILE.doUploaded byCyril Joseph
- IEEE Power System Paper-An Improved StatCom Model for Power Flow AnalysisUploaded byAnoop Mathew
- CenSCIR Presentation 20070328Uploaded bymdimransh2
- Dissonant Counterpoint AlgorithmUploaded byImri Talgam
- 13b FP3 June 2013Uploaded byPat
- Laboratory Measurements and Model of Moden Loads and Their Effect on Voltage Stability StudiesUploaded byAlejandro Colomera Quiroz
- Allocation of FACTS usin Genetic algorithm.pdfUploaded byNatanael Acencio Rijo
- AhpUploaded byanon-973585
- Solution Manual for Modern Quantum Mechanics 2nd Edition by SakuraiUploaded byRyo Kinase
- Pss Lab Questions,Programs &SolutionsUploaded bydivya1587

- 106513Uploaded byRonny Arias
- EPRI Geothermal WhitePaperUploaded byRain Bowe
- Safety PrecautionUploaded byzi_ming86
- Internal Combustion EngineUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Internal Combustion Engine - PrevodUploaded byTatjanaČeko
- Natural Frequency Vibrating ConveyorsUploaded byZiggy Gregory
- Centrifugal Fan DesignUploaded byoureducation
- Agnihotra Ash Medicine eBookUploaded bymengtze
- Supporting Market Solutions by Calculating Ancillary Services and Quality of Service with Metrology MetersUploaded byLucian Toma
- ACUploaded byvishrut karthik
- The Private and Public Economics of Renewable Electricity Generation.pdfUploaded byNikko Sarayba
- Calculo de Una Central MinihidraulicaUploaded bycarcoby
- SDW225SS Rev 2 ManualUploaded byZeck
- BOOK of Wind Generator Patent DrawingsUploaded byToz Koparan
- UK Power Networks - Eastern Power April 2017Uploaded byGenability
- Load ScheduleUploaded byvijay
- Enota_solarUploaded byYuszz Del Piero
- 9786Uploaded bypragatinaresh
- Anthro of ElectricityUploaded byKaushik Ghosh
- DPM380Uploaded byRonald Chan
- Chapter1 ThermodynamicsUploaded byrkadiraj7011
- Steam BoilerUploaded bylusifadilah
- Zenh1 ManualUploaded bysingulares2199
- Kingspan L2 Quick GuideUploaded bytmssorin
- A Review on Hybrid System for Power GenerationUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- Secondary-Side-Regulated Soft-Switching Full-Bridge Three-Port Converter Based on Bridgeless Boost Rectifier and Bidirectional Converter for Multiple Energy InterfaceUploaded byLeMeniz Infotech
- Ministry of Energy and Mining, Biomass Feedstock and Cogeneration in the Sugar Industry of Jamaica, March 2012, 3-2012Uploaded byDetlef Loy
- Thermocouple in CarUploaded byJobin T James
- Wind Energy Systems Are Being Closely Studied Because of ItsUploaded byD Avi Na Sh
- An Approach for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Integration Into Power SystemsUploaded byNuno Henriques