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# Resistance

## The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the ratio of

the voltage applied to the electric current which flows through it:
If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's law, I
= V/R, can be used to predict the behavior of the material !lthough the definition
above involves "# current and voltage, the same definition holds for the !#
application of resistors
\$hether or not a material obe%s Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in terms of its bul&
resistivit% The resistivit%, and thus the resistance, is temperature dependent Over si'able ranges
of temperature, this temperature dependence can be predicted from a temperature coefficient of
resistance
Resistance
The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the
ratio of the voltage applied to the electric current whichflows through it:
If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's
law, I = V/R, can be used to predict the behavior of the material !lthough
the definition above involves "# current and voltage, the same definition
holds for the !# application of resistors
\$hether or not a material obe%s Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in
terms of its bul& resistivit% The resistivit%, and thus the resistance, is
temperature dependent Over si'able ranges of temperature, this temperature
dependence can be predicted from a temperature coefficient of resistance
#onductors and
insulators
Resistor
combinations
(on)ohmic resistance: the
electric pic&le
!# behavior of resistor #ommon carbon resistors
Inde*
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#ircuits
+o ,ac&
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Resistivity and Conductivity
The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer
wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to
depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 0*perimentall%, the
dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of
conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as
The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material
is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a
given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%
The inverse of resistivit% is called conductivit% There are conte*ts where the
use of conductivit% is more convenient
0lectrical conductivit% = 1 = 2/3
#alculation Table of resistivities #ommon wire gauges
4icroscopic view of resistivit%
Inde*

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Resistor Combinations
The combination rules for an% number of resistors in series or parallel can be
derived with the use of Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law, and the current law
#omparison e*ample
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#ircuits

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Resistivity Calculation
The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer
wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to
depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 6resistivit%7
0*perimentall%, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one
for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as
Resistance = resistivit% * length/area
8or a wire of length L = m = ft
and area A = cm
9
corresponding to radius r = cm
and diameter inches for common wire gauge comparison
with resistivit% = 3 = * 2:; ohm meters
will have resistance R = ohms
0nter data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate in the active
formula above =nspecified parameters will default to values t%pical of 2:
meters of >29 copper wire =pon changes, the values will not be forced to be
consistent until %ou clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate
#ommonl% used =? wire gauges
for copper wire
!\$+
"iameter
6inches7
T%pical use
2: :2:2@ 0lectric range
29 ::A:A -ousehold circuit
?tandard wire gauges
Resistivities of some metals
in ohm)m6* 2:
)A
7 at 9:D#
!luminum 9CE +old 99B
#opper 2F9B ?ilver 2E@
Iron @F2 .latinum 2:C
(ichrome 2:: Tungsten ECE
Table of resistivities
Inde*
The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material
is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a
given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%
"iscussion Table of resistivities #ommon wire gauges

-%per.h%sics/////0lectricit% and magnetism R Nave
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DC Circuit Examples
The basic tools for solving " # circuit problems are Ohm's 5aw, the power
relationship, the voltage law, and the current law The following configurations
are t%picalG details ma% be e*amined b% clic&ing on the diagram for the desired
circuit
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#ircuits

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Two Loop Circuits
! circuit with two loops and two sources is involved enough to illustrate
circuit anal%sis techni<ues It ma% be anal%'ed b% direct application of the
voltage law and the current law, but some other approaches are also useful
+iven the voltages, current
anal%sis ma% be carried out
b%:
Voltage and current
laws
?uperposition theorem
Thevenin's theorem
(orton's theorem
Other "# circuit e*amples
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Current Law and Flowrate
8or an% circuit, fluid or electric, which has multiple branches and parallel
elements, the flowrate through an% cross)section must be the same This is
sometimes called the principle of continuit%
\$ater analog% to "# circuits Voltage law #urrent law
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Voltage Law and Pressure
\$ater analog% to "# circuits Voltage law #urrent law
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!m"s Law#Poiseuille"s Law
Ohm's law for electric current flow and .oiseuille's law for the smooth flow of
fluids are of the same form
\$ater analog% to "# circuits
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#ircuits

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\$ill t!e bird on t!e !ig! voltage
wire be s!oc%ed&
0lectric current flow is
proportional to voltage difference
according to Ohm's law, and both
the bird's feet are at the same
voltage ?ince current flow is
necessar% for electric shoc&, the
bird is <uite safe unless it
simultaneousl% touches another
wire with a different voltage
\$ant a scar% HobI 4aintenance on
high voltage transmission lines is
sometimes done with the voltage
JliveJ b% wor&ing from a platform
on a helicopter, sitting on a metal
platformK The helicopter must
ma&e sure it doesn't touch
neighboring wires which are at a
different voltage
\$ater analog% to "# circuits
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-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
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'asic DC Circuit Relations!ips
"# circuits can be
completel%
anal%'ed with
these four
relationships
Ohm's law I = V/R
.ower
relationship
. = VI
Voltage 5aw
The net voltage change is
e<ual to 'ero around an%
closed loop 6This is an
application of the
principle of conservation
of energ%7
#urrent 5aw
The electric current in =
electric current out of
an% Hunction
6#onservation of charge7
\$ater analog% to "# circuits
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#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
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!m"s Law
8or man% conductors of electricit%, the electric current which will flow through
them is directl% proportional to the voltage applied to them \$hen a microscopic
view of Ohm's law is ta&en, it is found to depend upon the fact that the drift
velocit% of charges through the material is proportional to the electric field in
the conductor The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance, and if the
ratio is constant over a wide range of voltages, the material is said to be an
JohmicJ material If the material can be characteri'ed b% such a resistance, then
the current can be predicted from the relationship:
Inde*
"#
#ircuits
"ata can be entered into an% of the bo*es below ?pecif%ing an% two of the
<uantities determines the third !fter %ou have entered values for two, clic& on
the te*t representing to third in the active illustration above to calculate its
value
!mperes = volts / ohms
!# version of Ohm's law

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
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Voltage Law
The voltage changes around an% closed loop must sum to 'ero (o matter what
path %ou ta&e through an electric circuit, if %ou return to %our starting point %ou
must measure the same voltage, constraining the net change around the loop to
be 'ero ?ince voltage is electric potential energ% per unit charge, the voltage
law can be seen to be a conse<uence of conservation of energ%
The voltage law has great practical utilit% in the anal%sis of electric circuits It
is used in conHunction with the current law in man% circuit anal%sis tas&s
Inde*
"#
#ircuits
The voltage law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,
along with Ohm's 5aw, the current law and the power relationship !ppl%ing
the voltage law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for
combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the
voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power
allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit
#urrent law Resistor combinations
!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
+o ,ac&
Current Law
The electric current in amperes that flows into an% Hunction in an electric circuit
is e<ual to the current which flows out This can be seen to be Hust a statement
of conservation of charge ?ince %ou do not lose an% charge during the flow
process around the circuit, the total current in an% cross)section of the circuit is
the same !long with the voltage law, this law is a powerful tool for the
anal%sis of electric circuits
The current law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,
along with Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law and the power relationship !ppl%ing
the current law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for
combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the
voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power
allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit
Inde*
"#
#ircuits
Voltage law Resistor combinations
!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
+o ,ac&
!m"s Law
8or man% conductors of electricit%, the electric current which will flow through
them is directl% proportional to the voltage applied to them \$hen a microscopic
view of Ohm's law is ta&en, it is found to depend upon the fact that the drift
velocit% of charges through the material is proportional to the electric field in
the conductor The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance, and if the
ratio is constant over a wide range of voltages, the material is said to be an
JohmicJ material If the material can be characteri'ed b% such a resistance, then
the current can be predicted from the relationship:
"ata can be entered into an% of the bo*es below ?pecif%ing an% two of the
<uantities determines the third !fter %ou have entered values for two, clic& on
the te*t representing to third in the active illustration above to calculate its
value
!mperes = volts / ohms
!# version of Ohm's law
Inde*
"#
#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
+o ,ac&
Voltage Law
The voltage changes around an% closed loop must sum to 'ero (o matter what
path %ou ta&e through an electric circuit, if %ou return to %our starting point %ou
must measure the same voltage, constraining the net change around the loop to
be 'ero ?ince voltage is electric potential energ% per unit charge, the voltage
law can be seen to be a conse<uence of conservation of energ%
The voltage law has great practical utilit% in the anal%sis of electric circuits It
is used in conHunction with the current law in man% circuit anal%sis tas&s
The voltage law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,
along with Ohm's 5aw, the current law and the power relationship !ppl%ing
the voltage law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for
combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the
voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power
allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit
Inde*
"#
#ircuits
#urrent law Resistor combinations
!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
+o ,ac&
Current Law
The electric current in amperes that flows into an% Hunction in an electric circuit
is e<ual to the current which flows out This can be seen to be Hust a statement
of conservation of charge ?ince %ou do not lose an% charge during the flow
process around the circuit, the total current in an% cross)section of the circuit is
the same !long with the voltage law, this law is a powerful tool for the
anal%sis of electric circuits
The current law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,
along with Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law and the power relationship !ppl%ing
the current law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for
combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the
voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power
allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit
Inde*
"#
#ircuits
Voltage law Resistor combinations
!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave
+o ,ac&
Resistivity and Conductivity
The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer
wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to
depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 0*perimentall%, the
dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of
conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as
The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material
is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a
given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%
The inverse of resistivit% is called conductivit% There are conte*ts where the
use of conductivit% is more convenient
0lectrical conductivit% = 1 = 2/3
Calculati
on
Table of
resistivities
Common wire
gauges
Microscopic view of
resistivity
Index

HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism
R
Nave
o !ac"
Resistor Combinations
The combination rules for an% number of resistors in series or parallel can be
derived with the use of Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law, and the current law
Comparison
example
Index
#C
Circuit
s

HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism
R
Nave
o
!ac"
Resistivity Calculation
The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer wire, less
for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to depend upon the
material out of which the wire is made 6resistivit%7 0*perimentall%, the dependence upon
these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance
of a wire can be e*pressed as
\$esistance % resistivity x
length&area
'or a wire of length L
% m % ft
and area A % cm
(
corresponding to radius r % cm
and diameter inches for common wire gauge comparison
with resistivity % ) % x *+, ohm meters
will have resistance R % ohms-
0nter data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate in the active formula
above =nspecified parameters will default to values t%pical of 2: meters of >29 copper
wire =pon changes, the values will not be forced to be consistent until %ou clic& on the
<uantit% %ou wish to calculate
Commonly used .-/- wire
gauges
for copper wire-
01
#iamet
er
2inches3
Typical use
*+ +-*+*4 Electric range
*( +-+5+5
Household
circuit
/tandard wire
gauges
\$esistivities of some metals
in ohm8m2x *+
85
3 at (+9C-
0luminu
m
(-7: old
(-(
6
Copper
*-;(
6
/ilver
*-:
4
Iron 4-;*
Platinu
m
*+-
7
<ichrom
e
*++
Tungste
n
:-7
:
Table of
resistivities
The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material is the
resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to
calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%
(nductors
Inductance is t%pified b% the behavior of a coil of wire
in resisting an% change of electric current through the
coil
!rising from 8arada%'s law, the inductance 5 ma% be
defined in terms of the emf generated to oppose a
given change in current:
(ncreasing Current in Coil
Increasing current in a coil of wire will generate a
counter emf which opposes the current !ppl%ing the
voltage law allows us to see the effect of this emf on
the circuit e<uation The fact that the emf alwa%s
opposes the change in current is an e*ample of 5en''s
law
The relation of this counter emf to the current is the
origin of the concept of inductance The inductance of
a coil follows from 8arada%'s law
(nductor Transient
\$hen a batter% is connected to a series resistor and inductor, the inductor resists the change in
current and the current therefore builds up slowl% !cting in accordance with 8arada%'s law and
5en''s law, the amount of impedance to the buildup of current is proportional to the rate of
change of the current That is, the faster %ou tr% to ma&e it change, the more it resists The
current builds up toward the value it would have with the resistor alone because once the current
is no longer changing, the inductor offers no impedance The rate of this buildup is characteri'ed
b% the time constant 5/R 0stablishing a current in an inductor stores energ% in the magnetic
field formed b% the coils of the inductor
(nductor AC Response
Impedanc
e
Calculate
Examine
Capacit
or
\$esistor
Contribution to
complex
impedance
Phasor
diagram
Lou &now that the voltage across an inductor leads the current because the 5en'' law behavior
resists the buildup of the current, and it ta&es a finite time for an imposed voltage to force the
buildup of current to its ma*imum
Capacitors
#apacitance is t%pified b% a parallel plate
arrangement and is defined in terms of charge
storage:
where
= % magnitude of charge stored on
each plate-
> % voltage applied to the plates-
Air Tan% Analogy )or a Capacitor
Airtan% Analogy to C!arging a Capacitor
C!arging a Capacitor
\$hen a batter% is connected to a series resistor and capacitor, the initial current is high as the
batter% transports charge from one plate of the capacitor to the other The charging current
as%mptoticall% approaches 'ero as the capacitor becomes charged up to the batter% voltage
#harging the capacitor stores energ% in the electric field between the capacitor plates The rate of
charging is t%picall% described in terms of a time constant R#
*toring Energy in a Capacitor
The energ% stored on a capacitor can be
e*pressed in terms of the wor& done b% the
batter% Voltage represents energ% per unit
charge, so the wor& to move a charge element d<
from the negative plate to the positive plate is
e<ual to V d<, where V is the voltage on the
capacitor The voltage V is proportional to the
amount of charge which is alread% on the
capacitor
0lement of energ% stored:
If M is the amount of charge stored when the whole batter% voltage appears across the capacitor,
then the stored energ% is obtained from the integral:
4ore detail
#alculation
This energ% e*pression can be put in three e<uivalent forms b% Hust permutations based on the
definition of capacitance #=M/V
Capacitor Energy (ntegral
Transporting differential charge d+ to the
plate of the capacitor re<uires wor&
,ut as the voltage rises toward the batter% voltage in the process of storing energ%, each
successive d+ re<uires more wor& ?umming all these amounts of wor& until the total charge is
reached is an infinite sum, the t%pe of tas& an integral is essential for The form of the integral
shown above is a pol%nomial integral and is a good e*ample of the power of integration
Electric Field Energy in Capacitor
?how
?how
?how
The energ% stored on a capacitor is in the form of
energ% densit% in an electric field is given b%
This can be shown to be consistent with the
energ% stored in a charged parallel plate capacitor
Parallel Plate Capacitor
?how
The capacitance of flat, parallel metallic plates of area A and separation d is given b% the
e*pression above where:
= permittivit% of space and
& = relative permittivit% of the dielectric material between the plates
&=2 for free space, &N2 for all media, appro*imatel% =2 for air
The 8arad, 8, is the ?I unit for capacitance, and from the definition of capacitance is seen to be
e<ual to a #oulomb/Volt
!n% of the active parameters in the e*pression below can be calculated b% clic&ing on it "efault
values will be provided for an% parameters left unspecified, but all parameters can be changed
!fter editing data, %ou must clic& on the desired parameter to calculateG values will not
automaticall% be forced to be consistent
Capacitance o) Parallel Plates
The electric field between two large parallel plates is
given b%
?how
The voltage difference between the two plates can be e*pressed in terms of the wor& done on a
positive test charge < when it moves from the positive to the negative plate
It then follows from the definition of capacitance that
Filter Circuits
! variet% of filter circuits can be made from combinations of capacitors, inductors, and resistors
Time Constant )or Transients
The electrical transient phenomena in capacitors and inductors are e*ponential processes The
coefficient of time in the e*ponential is an important rate parameter and is t%picall% e*pressed in
terms of a time constant
-aving the units of time, the time constant represents the time for the e*ponential term to drop to
2/e or OCF@P of its original value 0ach subse<uent time constant will decrease it b% the same
fraction The time constant is a standard parameter used to describe the characteristics of filter
circuits ! standard application of low pass filters is to eliminate high fre<uenc% noise on signals
li&e electrocardiograms If the time constant is too short, there will not be enough filtering, but if
it is too long, %ou will start to distort the shape of the 0#+ %ou are tr%ing to preserve
Capacitor AC Response
Impedance
#alculate
0*amine
Inductor
Resistor
#ontribution to
comple* impedance
.hasor diagram
Lou &now that the voltage across a capacitor lags the current because the current must flow to
build up the charge, and the voltage is proportional to that charge which is built up on the
capacitor plates
Capacitive Reactance
The fre<uenc% dependent impedance of a capacitor is called capacitive reactance
This calculation wor&s b% clic&ing on the desired <uantit% in the e*pression below 0nter the
necessar% data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate "efault values will be
entered for unspecified <uantities, but all <uantities ma% be changed
Condenser ,icrop!ones
.rinciple: sound pressure changes the spacing between
a thin metallic membrane and the stationar% bac& plate
The plates are charged to a total charge
where # is the capacitance, V the voltage of the biasing
batter%, ! the area of each plate and d the separation of
the plates
0dvantages?
!est overall fre@uency
response ma"es this the
microphone of choice for
many recording applications-