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This file provides a basic understanding of Resistance,Capacitance and Inductance.

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the voltage applied to the electric current which flows through it:

If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's law, I

= V/R, can be used to predict the behavior of the material !lthough the definition

above involves "# current and voltage, the same definition holds for the !#

application of resistors

$hether or not a material obe%s Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in terms of its bul&

resistivit% The resistivit%, and thus the resistance, is temperature dependent Over si'able ranges

of temperature, this temperature dependence can be predicted from a temperature coefficient of

resistance

Resistance

The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the

ratio of the voltage applied to the electric current whichflows through it:

If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's

law, I = V/R, can be used to predict the behavior of the material !lthough

the definition above involves "# current and voltage, the same definition

holds for the !# application of resistors

$hether or not a material obe%s Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in

terms of its bul& resistivit% The resistivit%, and thus the resistance, is

temperature dependent Over si'able ranges of temperature, this temperature

dependence can be predicted from a temperature coefficient of resistance

#onductors and

insulators

Resistor

combinations

(on)ohmic resistance: the

electric pic&le

!# behavior of resistor #ommon carbon resistors

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

+o ,ac&

-%per.h%sics/////0lectricit% and magnetism R Nave

Resistivity and Conductivity

The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer

wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to

depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 0*perimentall%, the

dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of

conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as

The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material

is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a

given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%

The inverse of resistivit% is called conductivit% There are conte*ts where the

use of conductivit% is more convenient

0lectrical conductivit% = 1 = 2/3

#alculation Table of resistivities #ommon wire gauges

4icroscopic view of resistivit%

Inde*

-%per.h%sics/////0lectricit% and magnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Resistor Combinations

The combination rules for an% number of resistors in series or parallel can be

derived with the use of Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law, and the current law

#omparison e*ample

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics/////0lectricit% and magnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Resistivity Calculation

The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer

wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to

depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 6resistivit%7

0*perimentall%, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one

for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as

Resistance = resistivit% * length/area

8or a wire of length L = m = ft

and area A = cm

9

corresponding to radius r = cm

and diameter inches for common wire gauge comparison

with resistivit% = 3 = * 2:; ohm meters

will have resistance R = ohms

0nter data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate in the active

formula above =nspecified parameters will default to values t%pical of 2:

meters of >29 copper wire =pon changes, the values will not be forced to be

consistent until %ou clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate

#ommonl% used =? wire gauges

for copper wire

!$+

"iameter

6inches7

T%pical use

2: :2:2@ 0lectric range

29 ::A:A -ousehold circuit

2B ::CB: ?witch leads

?tandard wire gauges

Resistivities of some metals

in ohm)m6* 2:

)A

7 at 9:D#

!luminum 9CE +old 99B

#opper 2F9B ?ilver 2E@

Iron @F2 .latinum 2:C

(ichrome 2:: Tungsten ECE

Table of resistivities

Inde*

The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material

is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a

given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%

"iscussion Table of resistivities #ommon wire gauges

-%per.h%sics/////0lectricit% and magnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

DC Circuit Examples

The basic tools for solving " # circuit problems are Ohm's 5aw, the power

relationship, the voltage law, and the current law The following configurations

are t%picalG details ma% be e*amined b% clic&ing on the diagram for the desired

circuit

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Two Loop Circuits

! circuit with two loops and two sources is involved enough to illustrate

circuit anal%sis techni<ues It ma% be anal%'ed b% direct application of the

voltage law and the current law, but some other approaches are also useful

+iven the voltages, current

anal%sis ma% be carried out

b%:

Voltage and current

laws

?uperposition theorem

Thevenin's theorem

(orton's theorem

Other "# circuit e*amples

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Current Law and Flowrate

8or an% circuit, fluid or electric, which has multiple branches and parallel

elements, the flowrate through an% cross)section must be the same This is

sometimes called the principle of continuit%

$ater analog% to "# circuits Voltage law #urrent law

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Voltage Law and Pressure

$ater analog% to "# circuits Voltage law #urrent law

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

!m"s Law#Poiseuille"s Law

Ohm's law for electric current flow and .oiseuille's law for the smooth flow of

fluids are of the same form

$ater analog% to "# circuits

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

$ill t!e bird on t!e !ig! voltage

wire be s!oc%ed&

0lectric current flow is

proportional to voltage difference

according to Ohm's law, and both

the bird's feet are at the same

voltage ?ince current flow is

necessar% for electric shoc&, the

bird is <uite safe unless it

simultaneousl% touches another

wire with a different voltage

$ant a scar% HobI 4aintenance on

high voltage transmission lines is

sometimes done with the voltage

JliveJ b% wor&ing from a platform

on a helicopter, sitting on a metal

platformK The helicopter must

ma&e sure it doesn't touch

neighboring wires which are at a

different voltage

$ater analog% to "# circuits

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

'asic DC Circuit Relations!ips

"# circuits can be

completel%

anal%'ed with

these four

relationships

Ohm's law I = V/R

.ower

relationship

. = VI

Voltage 5aw

The net voltage change is

e<ual to 'ero around an%

closed loop 6This is an

application of the

principle of conservation

of energ%7

#urrent 5aw

The electric current in =

electric current out of

an% Hunction

6#onservation of charge7

$ater analog% to "# circuits

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

!m"s Law

8or man% conductors of electricit%, the electric current which will flow through

them is directl% proportional to the voltage applied to them $hen a microscopic

view of Ohm's law is ta&en, it is found to depend upon the fact that the drift

velocit% of charges through the material is proportional to the electric field in

the conductor The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance, and if the

ratio is constant over a wide range of voltages, the material is said to be an

JohmicJ material If the material can be characteri'ed b% such a resistance, then

the current can be predicted from the relationship:

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

"ata can be entered into an% of the bo*es below ?pecif%ing an% two of the

<uantities determines the third !fter %ou have entered values for two, clic& on

the te*t representing to third in the active illustration above to calculate its

value

!mperes = volts / ohms

!# version of Ohm's law

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Voltage Law

The voltage changes around an% closed loop must sum to 'ero (o matter what

path %ou ta&e through an electric circuit, if %ou return to %our starting point %ou

must measure the same voltage, constraining the net change around the loop to

be 'ero ?ince voltage is electric potential energ% per unit charge, the voltage

law can be seen to be a conse<uence of conservation of energ%

The voltage law has great practical utilit% in the anal%sis of electric circuits It

is used in conHunction with the current law in man% circuit anal%sis tas&s

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

The voltage law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,

along with Ohm's 5aw, the current law and the power relationship !ppl%ing

the voltage law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for

combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the

voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power

allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit

#urrent law Resistor combinations

!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Current Law

The electric current in amperes that flows into an% Hunction in an electric circuit

is e<ual to the current which flows out This can be seen to be Hust a statement

of conservation of charge ?ince %ou do not lose an% charge during the flow

process around the circuit, the total current in an% cross)section of the circuit is

the same !long with the voltage law, this law is a powerful tool for the

anal%sis of electric circuits

The current law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,

along with Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law and the power relationship !ppl%ing

the current law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for

combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the

voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power

allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

Voltage law Resistor combinations

!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

!m"s Law

8or man% conductors of electricit%, the electric current which will flow through

them is directl% proportional to the voltage applied to them $hen a microscopic

view of Ohm's law is ta&en, it is found to depend upon the fact that the drift

velocit% of charges through the material is proportional to the electric field in

the conductor The ratio of voltage to current is called the resistance, and if the

ratio is constant over a wide range of voltages, the material is said to be an

JohmicJ material If the material can be characteri'ed b% such a resistance, then

the current can be predicted from the relationship:

"ata can be entered into an% of the bo*es below ?pecif%ing an% two of the

<uantities determines the third !fter %ou have entered values for two, clic& on

the te*t representing to third in the active illustration above to calculate its

value

!mperes = volts / ohms

!# version of Ohm's law

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Voltage Law

The voltage changes around an% closed loop must sum to 'ero (o matter what

path %ou ta&e through an electric circuit, if %ou return to %our starting point %ou

must measure the same voltage, constraining the net change around the loop to

be 'ero ?ince voltage is electric potential energ% per unit charge, the voltage

law can be seen to be a conse<uence of conservation of energ%

The voltage law has great practical utilit% in the anal%sis of electric circuits It

is used in conHunction with the current law in man% circuit anal%sis tas&s

The voltage law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,

along with Ohm's 5aw, the current law and the power relationship !ppl%ing

the voltage law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for

combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the

voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power

allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

#urrent law Resistor combinations

!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Current Law

The electric current in amperes that flows into an% Hunction in an electric circuit

is e<ual to the current which flows out This can be seen to be Hust a statement

of conservation of charge ?ince %ou do not lose an% charge during the flow

process around the circuit, the total current in an% cross)section of the circuit is

the same !long with the voltage law, this law is a powerful tool for the

anal%sis of electric circuits

The current law is one of the main tools for the anal%sis of electric circuits,

along with Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law and the power relationship !ppl%ing

the current law to the above circuits along with Ohm's law and the rules for

combining resistors gives the numbers shown below The determining of the

voltages and currents associated with a particular circuit along with the power

allows %ou to completel% describe the electrical state of a direct current circuit

Inde*

"#

#ircuits

Voltage law Resistor combinations

!nalog% in water circuit

-%per.h%sics///// 0lectricit% and 4agnetism R Nave

+o ,ac&

Resistivity and Conductivity

The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer

wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to

depend upon the material out of which the wire is made 0*perimentall%, the

dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of

conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be e*pressed as

The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material

is the resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a

given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%

The inverse of resistivit% is called conductivit% There are conte*ts where the

use of conductivit% is more convenient

0lectrical conductivit% = 1 = 2/3

Calculati

on

Table of

resistivities

Common wire

gauges

Microscopic view of

resistivity

Index

HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism

R

Nave

o !ac"

Resistor Combinations

The combination rules for an% number of resistors in series or parallel can be

derived with the use of Ohm's 5aw, the voltage law, and the current law

Comparison

example

Index

#C

Circuit

s

HyperPhysics*****Electricity and magnetism

R

Nave

o

!ac"

Resistivity Calculation

The electrical resistance of a wire would be e*pected to be greater for a longer wire, less

for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be e*pected to depend upon the

material out of which the wire is made 6resistivit%7 0*perimentall%, the dependence upon

these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance

of a wire can be e*pressed as

$esistance % resistivity x

length&area

'or a wire of length L

% m % ft

and area A % cm

(

corresponding to radius r % cm

and diameter inches for common wire gauge comparison

with resistivity % ) % x *+, ohm meters

will have resistance R % ohms-

0nter data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate in the active formula

above =nspecified parameters will default to values t%pical of 2: meters of >29 copper

wire =pon changes, the values will not be forced to be consistent until %ou clic& on the

<uantit% %ou wish to calculate

Commonly used .-/- wire

gauges

for copper wire-

01

#iamet

er

2inches3

Typical use

*+ +-*+*4 Electric range

*( +-+5+5

Household

circuit

*6 +-+76+ /witch leads

/tandard wire

gauges

$esistivities of some metals

in ohm8m2x *+

85

3 at (+9C-

0luminu

m

(-7: old

(-(

6

Copper

*-;(

6

/ilver

*-:

4

Iron 4-;*

Platinu

m

*+-

7

<ichrom

e

*++

Tungste

n

:-7

:

Table of

resistivities

The factor in the resistance which ta&es into account the nature of the material is the

resistivit% !lthough it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to

calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometr%

(nductors

Inductance is t%pified b% the behavior of a coil of wire

in resisting an% change of electric current through the

coil

!rising from 8arada%'s law, the inductance 5 ma% be

defined in terms of the emf generated to oppose a

given change in current:

(ncreasing Current in Coil

Increasing current in a coil of wire will generate a

counter emf which opposes the current !ppl%ing the

voltage law allows us to see the effect of this emf on

the circuit e<uation The fact that the emf alwa%s

opposes the change in current is an e*ample of 5en''s

law

The relation of this counter emf to the current is the

origin of the concept of inductance The inductance of

a coil follows from 8arada%'s law

(nductor Transient

$hen a batter% is connected to a series resistor and inductor, the inductor resists the change in

current and the current therefore builds up slowl% !cting in accordance with 8arada%'s law and

5en''s law, the amount of impedance to the buildup of current is proportional to the rate of

change of the current That is, the faster %ou tr% to ma&e it change, the more it resists The

current builds up toward the value it would have with the resistor alone because once the current

is no longer changing, the inductor offers no impedance The rate of this buildup is characteri'ed

b% the time constant 5/R 0stablishing a current in an inductor stores energ% in the magnetic

field formed b% the coils of the inductor

(nductor AC Response

Impedanc

e

Calculate

Examine

Capacit

or

$esistor

Contribution to

complex

impedance

Phasor

diagram

Lou &now that the voltage across an inductor leads the current because the 5en'' law behavior

resists the buildup of the current, and it ta&es a finite time for an imposed voltage to force the

buildup of current to its ma*imum

Capacitors

#apacitance is t%pified b% a parallel plate

arrangement and is defined in terms of charge

storage:

where

= % magnitude of charge stored on

each plate-

> % voltage applied to the plates-

Air Tan% Analogy )or a Capacitor

Airtan% Analogy to C!arging a Capacitor

C!arging a Capacitor

$hen a batter% is connected to a series resistor and capacitor, the initial current is high as the

batter% transports charge from one plate of the capacitor to the other The charging current

as%mptoticall% approaches 'ero as the capacitor becomes charged up to the batter% voltage

#harging the capacitor stores energ% in the electric field between the capacitor plates The rate of

charging is t%picall% described in terms of a time constant R#

*toring Energy in a Capacitor

The energ% stored on a capacitor can be

e*pressed in terms of the wor& done b% the

batter% Voltage represents energ% per unit

charge, so the wor& to move a charge element d<

from the negative plate to the positive plate is

e<ual to V d<, where V is the voltage on the

capacitor The voltage V is proportional to the

amount of charge which is alread% on the

capacitor

0lement of energ% stored:

If M is the amount of charge stored when the whole batter% voltage appears across the capacitor,

then the stored energ% is obtained from the integral:

4ore detail

#alculation

This energ% e*pression can be put in three e<uivalent forms b% Hust permutations based on the

definition of capacitance #=M/V

Capacitor Energy (ntegral

Transporting differential charge d+ to the

plate of the capacitor re<uires wor&

,ut as the voltage rises toward the batter% voltage in the process of storing energ%, each

successive d+ re<uires more wor& ?umming all these amounts of wor& until the total charge is

reached is an infinite sum, the t%pe of tas& an integral is essential for The form of the integral

shown above is a pol%nomial integral and is a good e*ample of the power of integration

Electric Field Energy in Capacitor

?how

?how

?how

The energ% stored on a capacitor is in the form of

energ% densit% in an electric field is given b%

This can be shown to be consistent with the

energ% stored in a charged parallel plate capacitor

Parallel Plate Capacitor

?how

The capacitance of flat, parallel metallic plates of area A and separation d is given b% the

e*pression above where:

= permittivit% of space and

& = relative permittivit% of the dielectric material between the plates

&=2 for free space, &N2 for all media, appro*imatel% =2 for air

The 8arad, 8, is the ?I unit for capacitance, and from the definition of capacitance is seen to be

e<ual to a #oulomb/Volt

!n% of the active parameters in the e*pression below can be calculated b% clic&ing on it "efault

values will be provided for an% parameters left unspecified, but all parameters can be changed

!fter editing data, %ou must clic& on the desired parameter to calculateG values will not

automaticall% be forced to be consistent

Capacitance o) Parallel Plates

The electric field between two large parallel plates is

given b%

?how

The voltage difference between the two plates can be e*pressed in terms of the wor& done on a

positive test charge < when it moves from the positive to the negative plate

It then follows from the definition of capacitance that

Filter Circuits

! variet% of filter circuits can be made from combinations of capacitors, inductors, and resistors

Time Constant )or Transients

The electrical transient phenomena in capacitors and inductors are e*ponential processes The

coefficient of time in the e*ponential is an important rate parameter and is t%picall% e*pressed in

terms of a time constant

-aving the units of time, the time constant represents the time for the e*ponential term to drop to

2/e or OCF@P of its original value 0ach subse<uent time constant will decrease it b% the same

fraction The time constant is a standard parameter used to describe the characteristics of filter

circuits ! standard application of low pass filters is to eliminate high fre<uenc% noise on signals

li&e electrocardiograms If the time constant is too short, there will not be enough filtering, but if

it is too long, %ou will start to distort the shape of the 0#+ %ou are tr%ing to preserve

Capacitor AC Response

Impedance

#alculate

0*amine

Inductor

Resistor

#ontribution to

comple* impedance

.hasor diagram

Lou &now that the voltage across a capacitor lags the current because the current must flow to

build up the charge, and the voltage is proportional to that charge which is built up on the

capacitor plates

Capacitive Reactance

The fre<uenc% dependent impedance of a capacitor is called capacitive reactance

This calculation wor&s b% clic&ing on the desired <uantit% in the e*pression below 0nter the

necessar% data and then clic& on the <uantit% %ou wish to calculate "efault values will be

entered for unspecified <uantities, but all <uantities ma% be changed

Condenser ,icrop!ones

.rinciple: sound pressure changes the spacing between

a thin metallic membrane and the stationar% bac& plate

The plates are charged to a total charge

where # is the capacitance, V the voltage of the biasing

batter%, ! the area of each plate and d the separation of

the plates

0dvantages?

!est overall fre@uency

response ma"es this the

microphone of choice for

many recording applications-

#isadvantages?

Expensive

May pop and crac" when

close mi"ed

$e@uires a battery or external

power supply to bias the

plates-

! change in plate spacing will cause a

change in charge M and force a current

through resistance R This current

JimagesJ the sound pressure, ma&ing this

a JpressureJ microphone

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