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Gaining the knowledge and pursuit of science
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3 Editors Letter 3
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Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
Oleg Nazarov
Research of Gas Hydrates Generation in Production Wells
Evgeniya Raudanen, Zakhar Shandrygolov
Analysis of CO
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Possibilities for Oil Field
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8

Optimization of operation
modes of intermittent wells
Oleg Nazarov
Abstract
Stripped wells stock requires huge amount
of human and material resources of Petro-
leum or Service Companies for reliable and
regular operation. Terefore, it is recom-
mended to operate wells with low produc-
tivity index and low fow rate with inter-
mittent mode. So it is necessary to develop
new special method of calculation of time
periods of pumping out and pressure accu-
mulation in order to increase average daily
oil production and guarantee stable and re-
liable work of surface and subsurface equip-
ment.
During the investigation of P(t) graph of in-
termittent well operation mode it has been
found out that pressure build-up curve is sta-
ble but pressure drop curve undergoes some
changes each period. Tats why production
will be more efective if ESP starts working
according to timer and stops working accord-
ing to pressure sensor.
Special program for pressure build-up curve
optimization was developed and written.
With its help it is possible to fnd point in
this curve in which we have to stop pressure
accumulation process and start ESP in order
to provide the most efcient oil production
process.
After investigation of pressure drawdown
curve it has been found out that sometimes
this curve has so-called Breaking point
which divides this line in 2 parts: left part is
smooth but right part is a zigzag line (which
also undergoes changes each period). Teo-
retical analysis showed that liquid infux from
the reservoir starts in this breaking point.
Terefore special measures are recommended
in order to get rid of the broken part of curve
because of negative infuence on subsurface
equipment.
After application of all these methods on
3 stripped wells of Krapivinskoe oilfeld (Rus-
sia, Tomsk Region) average daily production
has increased on almost 30 m
3
. Moreover, it
gave a lot of prospects for further research
with the purpose of application this method
on other locations and oilfelds.
Introduction
Stripped wells stock requires huge amount
of human and material resources of Petro-
leum or Service Companies for reliable and
*
Ufa State Petroleum Technical University

Russia

olegnazarov89@gmail.com
* University Country E-mail
autumn / 2012
9
regular operation. Terefore, in consideration
of peculiarities of activities of Petroleum and
Service Companies in market conditions it is
necessary to actually improve methods of lift-
ing of hydrocarbons to the surface, operation
modes of installed submersible pumps and
also to improve information assurance, which
is required for calculation and supplying of
optimal operation conditions of stripped
wells.
Te problem of supplying optimal oil produc-
tion conditions requires high attention to
this category of wells. Te point is that most
of such a wells work in continuous operation
mode but part of well-stock is changed-over
to intermittent operation but quite often
without rational operation mode.
If to operate stripped wells in continuous
mode signifcant quantity of human, material
and energy resources are spent; also number
of well-servicing repairs increases. It leads to
increasing of oil lifting cost. In some condi-
tions it comes a moment when continuous
operation of stripped well becomes econom-
ically unproftable [1].
Terefore it is recommended to operate wells
with low productivity index and low fow rate
with intermittent mode. Tis necessity is ex-
plained by the following (Fig. 1): liquid infux
from the reservoir (Q
1
) is less then Electrical
Submersible Pump (ESP) fow rate (Q
2
). For
that matter ESP is cut of after the reaching
of minimal permissible Producing Fluid Level
(PFL).
Theory
With decreasing of PFL Operation Point
moves to the left along the Pump Perfor-
mance Curve. As a result Operating Point is
out of operating range zone or out of Charac-
teristics Curve (Fig. 2).
Decreasing of ESP frequency helps to prolong
Operating Range but with decreasing of Head
and Coefcient of Efciency. Terefore ESP
available head is not enough to pump liquid
on surface. We may also add some ESP sec-
tions (tandems) but it is unproftable from
economical point of view. Tats why inter-
mittent operation mode is required.
One cycle of intermittent mode (with du-
ration T) consists of period of pumping out
(with duration t
1
) and period of liquid accu-
mulation (with duration t
2
) when ESP doesnt
work (Fig. 4) [2]. Average daily production of
intermittent well may be calculated by formu-
la (Eq. 1).
Formula for Average Daily Production
calculation
Q
0
ESP Flow Rate;
t
1
Duration of liquid (pressure) accumula-
tion period;
t
2
Duration of pumping out period;
T Duration of one full cycle of intermittent
mode.
Q
2
Q
1
Fig. 1 Stripped well
Q
t Q
T
t Q
t t
av
=

=

+
2 0 2 0
1 2
1 [ ]
10 Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
4
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.
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.
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P
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w
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r
(
h
p
)
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(
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)
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Oleg Nazarov 11
autumn / 2012
On Fig. 4 changing of PFL during the inter-
mittent operation mode is shown. Y-axis is
Fluid Level (also could be a Bottomhole Pres-
sure), X-axis is time.
H
st
Static Fluid Level;
H
d
Dynamic Fluid Level (during the continu-
ous operation);
H
0
Pressure drawdown (during the continu-
ous operation);
H Current value of pressure drawdown;
H
n
Integral-Average value of pressure draw-
down (during the intermittent operation
mode).
Assurance of intermittent operations is car-
ried out with help of programming of Control
Stations. Tere are several methods of pro-
gramming:
1. Time limitation
In this case ESP starts and stops working ac-
cording to timer readings. Pumping out and
pressure accumulation periods are limited by
concrete time value t
1
and t
2
. Maximal and
minimal pressures (P
max
and P
min
) may under-
go some changes from period to period.
Advantages: Stable operation regime, small
pressure jumps have no infuence on operat-
ing regime, timer is more reliable than pres-
sure sensor.
Disadvantages: serious pressure jumps may
lead to exceeding of PFL.
2. Pressure limitation
In this case ESP starts and stops working ac-
cording to bottomhole pressure sensor read-
ings. Pumping out and pressure accumulation
periods are limited by concrete pressure val-
ues P
min
and P
max
. t
1
and t
2
may undergo some
changes from period to period.
Advantages: PFL couldnt be exceeded.
Disadvantages: Decreasing of pressure accu-
mulation velocity may lead to well shutdown,
pressure sensor is less reliable than time sen-
sor
3. Combined limitation
During the investigation it has been found
out that pressure build-up curve is stable but
pressure drop curve undergoes some chang-
es in each period. Tats why working process
will be more efective if ESP starts working ac-
cording to timer and stops working according
to pressure sensor. Pumping out and pressure
Fig. 3 H(t) dependence during the intermittent operation mode
12 Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
Fig. 4 ESP Control Station programming (time limitation)
Fig. 5 ESP Control Station programming (pressure limitation)
Fig. 6 ESP Control Station programming (combined limitation)
Oleg Nazarov 13
autumn / 2012
accumulation periods are limited by concrete
pressure values t
1
and P
min
. t
2
and P
max
may
undergo some changes from period to period.
It is obvious that the more value of t
2
and
the less value of t
1
the more average daily
oil production. It is also obvious that values
t
1
and t
2
are interdependent. Terefore it is
necessary to develop new special method of
calculation of t
1
and t
2
in order to increase
average daily oil production and guarantee
stable and reliable working of surface and
subsurface equipment.
For this purpose we need to look at one peri-
od of intermittent operation mode. In order
to fnd optimal values t
1
and t
2
it is necessary
to investigate separately two curves of which
one cycle consists.
Fig. 7 One period of intermittent operation modeLine;
I Pressure build-up curve, Line II Pressure
drawdown curve
Pressure build-up curve
optimization
Lets investigate infnitely small parts of this
curve in its diferent positions (Fig. 9).
Relation dp/dt (tilt angle of tangent line)
shows us the velocity of pressure increasing.
Te more this relation the faster pressure
recovers the more average production. So,
the problem is to fnd point where we have to
stop pressure accumulation process and start
ESP. It should be noted that the problem of
searching of some optimal point in curve is
widespread in many segments of science, so
we should frstly fnd out how this problem
was solved in other areas of science and tech-
nology.
In strength of materials we observe such a
problem: the search of yield strength point of
metals which dont have yield plateau.
In this case the yield strength point is stress,
with which permanent deformation = 0.2 %
(Tangent line at the point 0 and unloading
line are parallel). But this method is not ap-
plicable for pressure build-up curve optimiza-
tion because value 0.2 is taken after many
confrmative experiments so it is probably
mistaken for us.
Fig. 10 Stress-strain diagram
In geodesy during the design of any route
or road we have to fnd so-called peak of a
Fig. 9 Ideal pressure build-up curve
14 Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
curve. For this purpose we need to continue
2 asymptotes to graph of the route in coordi-
nate system, then divide the angle between
these asymptotes in two halves and draw the
line. Te intersection point of this line (bisec-
trix) and curve is peak of a curve (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11 Peak of a curve
In economics there is a very similar method
which is used to fnd point of safety relation
between output product quality and its costs.
Tis point is found by continuing of 2 tangent
lines to graph, then by dividing the angle be-
tween these tangent lines in two equal halves
and drawing the line. Te intersection point
of this line (bisectrix) and curve is the re-
quired point (Fig. 12).
Fig. 12 Graph Quality-Costs
So, special program for pressure build-up
curve optimization was written. We took the
2
nd
method (Search of Peak of a curve) for
right part of our curve (asymptote) and the
3
rd
method (point of optimal relation between
Price and Quality) for left part of our curve
(tangent line).
Final graph is shown on Fig. 13. Point of in-
tersection between pressure build-up curve
and bisectrix is value of PFL after reaching of
which ESP should be started (pressure accu-
mulation should be stopped).
Pressure drawdown curve
optimization
Pressure drawdown curve in ideal case
should represent itself as smooth curve line.
But after investigation of these lines on many
wells we have found out that sometimes pres-
sure drawdown curves have so-called Break-
ing point which divides this line on 2 parts:
left part is smooth but right part is zigzag line
(which also undergoes changes each period)
(Fig. 14).
Fig. 14 General representing of Breaking point
During the investigation we have suggested
that breaking point means the reaching of
such a pressure value when liquid infux from
the reservoir begins (so liquid moves into the
ESP intake not only from well, but also direct-
ly from reservoir).
Oleg Nazarov 15
autumn / 2012

F
i
g
.

1
3


G
r
a
p
h
i
c
a
l

i
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f

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m
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h
o
d
16 Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
Testimonies supplied this theory:
Breaking point is the only one on each
pressure drawdown curve.
Reservoir liquid contains a lot of gas,
which breaks out, so pressure sensor is in-
fuenced by gas and its readings break.
Additional liquid source leads to decreasing
of P(t) graph tilt angle.
Breaking point appears with the same pres-
sure each period
In order to check theory about beginning of
liquid infux from the reservoir in the Break-
ing Point it is necessary:
1. To observe presence of mechanical im-
purities, water cut and gas during some
periods in dependence of time. But this
method has proved to be if unusable be-
cause liquid production value during one
period is less than the volume of produc-
tion string. So after sampling we will not
be sure: is this sample from the well liquid
or directly from reservoir?
2. To change operating mode temporary in
order to cut broken part of curve (Fig. 16).
Ten check the presence of mechanical
impurities, water cut and gas. If its ratio
is decreased it means that our assumption
is correct.
Fig. 16 Cutting of broken part of curve
3. To change working frequency in order to
check if the breaking point will be at the
Fig. 15 Breaking points in real graphs (numbers of wells are on the left column)
Oleg Nazarov 17
autumn / 2012
same pressure (Fig. 17). If yes, it is a fuid
infux from the reservoir.
Fig. 17 ESP frequency changing
If our assumption becomes true we recom-
mend to make away with fuid infux from the
reservoir because:
Gas bubbles infuence badly on impeller of
ESP (cavitation).
Mechanical impurities were fown out the
reservoir may get inside the ESP and lead
to shaft jamming.
Increasing of well stream watering leads to
decreasing of crude oil quality.
Results and Conclusions
Application of new method of pressure
build-up curve optimization on 3 intermit-
tent wells of Krapivinskoe Oilfeld (Russia,
Tomsk Region) led to the increase of the av-
erage daily production (Fig. 18).
Results of research work connected with pres-
sure build-up curve optimization:
590 695 523
55.2
48
62
67,1
81,3
72,5
32,3
40,5
42,4
Fig. 18 increasing of average daily production on three wells (m
3
/day)
average daily production before application of new mode;
proposed average daily production after application of new mode;
real average daily production after application of new mode.
18 Optimization of operation modes of intermittent wells
1. Increasing of 3 wells average daily produc-
tion on 29.5 m
3
2. Increasing of company working efciency
in solutions branch
3. Development of intermittent mode of
well operation technology with further
prospects to it application in other oil-
felds and locations
Results of research work connected with pres-
sure drawdown curve optimization:
1. Decreasing of gas factor
2. Decreasing of mechanical impurities
3. Decreasing of stream watering
Further problems to be solved
1. Investigations of subsurface equipment
behavior in critical conditions.
During the intermittent well operations sub-
surface equipment works in extreme condi-
tions which should be taken into account for
further improvements
2. Analysis of dynamical frequency changing
during the one period of intermittent well
operation.
Possibility of dynamical frequency changing
during the one period should be taken into
account with the purpose of decreasing of
negative infuences of quick starts/stops of
ESP and other factors
Negative occurrences
1. ESP and surface equipment wearing ac-
celeration in accordance to increasing of
starts/stops
2. Increase of motor oil loss in protector
modules
3. Increase of power consumption; especially
if several intermittent wells are installed
in one pad
References
1. Persiyantsev M. N., Extraction of Oil under Complicated Conditions, Moscow: Nedra-Busi-
nesscenter. 653 pages, 2000. ISBN 5-8365-0052-5.
2. Schurov V. I., Technology and Technics of Oil Production, Moscow: Nedra. 510 pages. 1983.
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innovation
85
What will you be?
careers.slb.com
Who are we?
We are the worlds largest oilfield services company
1
.
Working globallyoften in remote and challenging locationswe invent,
design, engineer, and apply technology to help our customers find
and produce oil and gas safely.
Who are we looking for?
We need more than 5,000 graduates to begin dynamic careers in
the following domains:
n
Engineering, Research and Operations
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Geoscience and Petrotechnical
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Commercial and Business
>110,000 employees
>140 nationalities
~ 80 countries of operation
years of
innovation
85
1
Based on Fortune 500 ranking, 2011.
Copyright 2011 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
What will you be?
careers.slb.com
Who are we?
We are the worlds largest oilfield services company
1
.
Working globallyoften in remote and challenging locationswe invent,
design, engineer, and apply technology to help our customers find
and produce oil and gas safely.
Who are we looking for?
We need more than 5,000 graduates to begin dynamic careers in
the following domains:
n
Engineering, Research and Operations
n
Geoscience and Petrotechnical
n
Commercial and Business
>110,000 employees
>140 nationalities
~ 80 countries of operation
years of
innovation
85
What will you be?
careers.slb.com
Who are we?
We are the worlds largest oilfield services company
1
.
Working globallyoften in remote and challenging locationswe invent,
design, engineer, and apply technology to help our customers find
and produce oil and gas safely.
Who are we looking for?
We need more than 5,000 graduates to begin dynamic careers in
the following domains:
n
Engineering, Research and Operations
n
Geoscience and Petrotechnical
n
Commercial and Business
>110,000 employees
>140 nationalities
~ 80 countries of operation
years of
innovation
85
What will you be?
careers.slb.com
Who are we?
We are the worlds largest oilfield services company
1
.
Working globallyoften in remote and challenging locationswe invent,
design, engineer, and apply technology to help our customers find
and produce oil and gas safely.
Who are we looking for?
We need more than 5,000 graduates to begin dynamic careers in
the following domains:
n
Engineering, Research and Operations
n
Geoscience and Petrotechnical
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Commercial and Business
>110,000 employees
>140 nationalities
~ 80 countries of operation
years of
innovation
85
What will you be?
1820 MARCH 2013 / GALVESTON, TEXAS, USA
GALVESTON ISLAND CONVENTION CENTER
E&P HEALTH / SAFETY
SECURITY / ENVIRONMENTAL
SPE AMERICAS 2013
CONFERENCE
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Environmental Student Symposium
LETS SHAPE THE FUTURE TOGETHER
autumn / 2012
21

Research of Gas Hydrates
Generation in Production Wells
Evgeniya Raudanen, Zakhar Shandrygolov
Abstract
Many specialists in oil and gas industry pay
special attention to the problem of gas hy-
drates prevention and elimination in the
systems of oil and gas collection and feld
processing. A Ponomarev method, described
in this article, is used to determine the tem-
perature and pressure conditions of gas hy-
drate generation in production wells. In ad-
dition operation of two wells of a gas feld in
Western Siberia was analyzed and risk of gas
hydrate generation was estimated.
Introduction
Te problem of gas hydrates prevention
and elimination in the systems of oil and gas
collection and feld processing is still relevant
and attracts attention of specialists. Tis is
mainly due to feld exploitation in problem
areas: the permafrost zone, the presence of
hydrate generating components in hydrocar-
bons, the hydrate regime in the bottomhole
zone, etc.
Hydrocarbon hydrates are white crystalline
solids, ice-like, generated by the associated
compound of water and gas. Hydrate forma-
tion occurs at the gas-water interface when
natural gas is fully saturated with moisture
[5]. A part of dissolved gas turns into hydrate.
While natural gas exits from reservoir to the
surface well pressure is reduced and gas satu-
rated with water turns into unsaturated. Pres-
sure reduction increases the ability of gas to
keep water in gaseous state, but temperature
drop due to gas expansion usually overpowers
the benefcial efect of pressure reducing and
liquid water can escape and generate hydrates
of hydrocarbons. To estimate the possibility
of gas hydrates generation in running or tem-
porarily shut-in wells it is necessary to cal-
culate the equilibrium curve of gas hydrates
in temperature and pressure coordinates.
A Ponomarev method is used to estimate the
temperature and pressure of hydrate genera-
tion. Tis method was developed in 1960 and
used only at low pressures (P 10 MPa) and for
natural gases, containing non-hydrocarbon
components in small quantities [1].
Tis technique was used for calculations on
two wells of a gas feld in Western Siberia
which produce dry gas. Te wells have a sim-
*
Tyumen State Oil and Gas University

Russia

evraudanen@mail.ru
* University Country E-mail
22 Research of Gas Hydrates Generation in Production Wells
ilar borehole trajectory. Te well N
o
1 is allo-
cated in a peripheral part of the feld whereas
the well N
o
2 is in a central part. Because of
the large length feld the wells have diferent
pressure and temperature conditions at the
bottomhole. Te composition of this gas has
been established according to the results of
chemical analysis. Molar fractions and rela-
tive air densities of components is in Table 1.
Hydrate
generation
component
Molar fraction,
%
Relative air
densitiy

4
98,410 0,55

6
0,074 1,03

8
0,006 1,52
i-
4

10
0,016 2,00
O
2
0,308 1,52
N
2
1,141 0,97
Table 1 Composition of natural gas
Ten, the equilibrium pressure and temper-
ature of hydrate generation have been deter-
mined using the following equations [2]:
lgP = 2.0055 + 0.0541 (B + T 273) [1]
at temperatures above 273 K;
lgP = 2.0055 + 0.0171 (B
l
+ T 273) [2]
at temperatures below 273 K,
P equilibrium pressure of hydrate genera-
tion, kPa
T temperature, K
Te empirical coefcients B and B
l
is corre-
lated according with parameter a reduced
density of test gas. Te reduced density is
determined by the equation:

y
y
i i
i
[ ] 2
r
i
relative air density of the is hydrate gen-
eration component
y
i
molar fraction of the component, units
Fig. 1 Pressure-temperature dependence of gas hydrate generation
Evgeniya Raudanen, Zakhar Shandrygolov 23
autumn / 2012
Fig. 2 Dependence of gas pressure and temperature and equilibrium temperature of hydrate generation on well fow rate
24 Research of Gas Hydrates Generation in Production Wells
Obviously, S

y
i


1, because not all components
of natural gas are able to generate hydrates.
Values of the coefcients B and B
l
which are
determined according to the Ponomarev ap-
proximation are presented in tabular form in
literature [4]. For this gas values of parame-
ters are following:


=

0.56 B

=

24.25 B
l
=

77.40
Fig. 1 shows the resulting pressure-tempera-
ture dependence of hydrate generation, which
can be used to calculate the hydrate condi-
tions in producing wells of the gas feld.
Further, based on the results of gas-dynamic
studies the dependence of wellhead pressure
and temperature on the fow rate was found
[3]. After that, diagrams showing the depend-
ence of pressure, temperature and equilibri-
um temperature of hydrate generation at the
production well head was obtained in consid-
eration of the dependence of hydrate gener-
ation pressure on temperature. Tese curves
are shown in Fig. 2.
Obviously, in well N
o
1, there is a risk of gas
hydrate generation due to low gas temper-
ature at the wellhead which respects to the
temperature of gas hydrate generation. It is
necessary to provide this well with injection
of inhibitors (methanol, glycol) into the well-
bore and constant monitoring of pressure and
temperature. In well N
o
2 gas hydrate genera-
tion risk exists only if there is low fow rate.
In the fnal analysis, the conditions and risks
of gas hydrate generation in two wells of the
feld in Western Siberia were determined
based on data on gas composition and calcu-
lation results. Te remaining wells of the feld
were also analyzed using the described meth-
od and wells with the risk of hydrate genera-
tion were identifed.
References
1. Buhgalter E. B. Estimation of hydrate generation temperature in hydrocarbon mixture at high
pressure. Gas business, 1965, N
o
5, p. 89.
2. Istomin V. A. Gas hydrate prevention and elimination in systems of gas and oil collection and
feld processing. M., 1990, 214 pages.
3. Ivashenko I. I. Reference book Oil and gas feld development. Black gold, Center of Infor-
mation Technology.
4. Ponomarev G. V. Conditions of natural and associated gas hydrate generation. Kuybyshev,
NIPINP, 1960, N
o
2, p. 4955.
5. Srtizhov I. N., Khodanovich I.E. Gas production. Moscow-Izhevsk: Institute of computer re-
searching, 2003, 376 pages.
autumn / 2012
25

Analysis of CO
2
- EOR
Methods Application
Possibilities for Oil Fields
Damian Janiga, Jakub Barzyk
Abstract
Te volatility of oil prices and the political
situation afect rational exploitation of oil
reservoir in the world. Often it turns out
that it is economically justifed to use the
secondary or tertiary methods to intensify
production. One of the possibilities to im-
prove recovery factor is a miscible gas injec-
tion such as CO2. Considering the various
methods, we have conducted a numerical
simulation of extraction which was carried
out for one of the Polish deposits.
Introduction
Prices on the crude oil world market have
changed since its beginning. It has been af-
fected by several political and social aspects
in the main productive market places. Te oil
world market is characterised by a very unbal-
anced allocation of producers and consumers.
Holding large resources of this raw material
and skillful management of them ensure the
energy and in a way political independence,
because oil is often used as a tool for a polit-
ical and economic pressure. By analyzing the
prices of oil in the last 20 years (1992-2012),
it can be noted that the prices of raw materi-
als are strictly binding of events occurring in
a given period of time [2]. Te next essential
change took place after the growth of popu-
larity of terminal market contracts, which
isnt used for physical purchase and sale of
crude oil. It is only a fnancial mechanism. All
these aspects caused important oscillations
of oil prices all over the world. It contributed
to the situation that the oil market is unpre-
dictable. Constantly increasing raw minerals
prices have led to interference in working de-
posit in order to increase the level of recov-
ery. Approximately one third of the deposit
can be obtained by the means of primary and
secondary methods. Primary methods rely on
the use of natural phenomena occurring into
the deposit such as expansion of the gas cap,
separation of the dissolved gas and efect of
aquifers. All of these phenomena cause the
displacement of crude oil into the production
wells. Secondary methods rely on strengthen-
ing these phenomena through interference in
the energy state of the deposit. Primary and
secondary methods allow to obtain extraction
of about one third of deposits resources. As
*
AGH Univ. of Science and Technology

Poland

Pawe Wojnarowski, Ph.D.

janiga.damian@gmail.com
* University Country Supervisor E-mail
26 Analysis of CO
2
- EOR Methods Application Possibilities for Oil Fields
far as low gravity oil is concerned the recov-
ery factor is about 25-35%. As for the heavy
oil deposits it is about 10%. In these sort of
deposits lays a great amount of petroleum
which cannot be pulled out using convention-
al methods. One of the advanced methods
(EOR) is CO
2
H
2
O injection into the deposit.
Carbon dioxide is used as an increasing ex-
traction agent through the maintenance of
deposits pressure, reducing the viscosity of
oil and facilitating its migration [2][3].
Injection of carbon dioxide in order to carry
out additional oil extraction is applied from
about 40 years. Carbon dioxide which is in-
jected into the reservoir causes the displace-
ment of crude oil from the pores of the rock.
Depending on the contribution of the individ-
uals components, pressure and temperature
of fuids, carbon dioxide may be miscible (for-
mation of a homogeneous phase), or immis-
cible with the reservoir fuids [1]. Te main
mechanisms associated with the process of
injecting CO
2
into the reservoir are connect-
ed with the behavior of oil and carbon diox-
ide mixture. Tese include reduction of the
viscosity and density of oil, reduction of the
surface tension between oil and water , evap-
oration of some components. Additional ben-
efts of carbon dioxide injection are observed
in carbonate rocks, where crammed medium
is mixed with water to form acid, which im-
proves wellsites permeability [1].
Division of CO
2
- EOR methods based on the
method of carbon dioxide injection. Te
WAG method lies in pumping gas and water
by turns, the second method is the injection
of gas in a way that ensures the gravitational
stability (GSGI).
In the WAG method carbon dioxide is injected
frstly into the deposit, which improves the
mobility of crude oil. Ten, the repellent wa-
ter and the mixture of crude oil and carbon
dioxide is injected into the production well.
Carbon dioxide which is injected into the
frst stage increases the volume of oil and
reduction of viscosity signifcantly, so that
oil fows freely. Water injection afects the
growth of production by oil displacement
[1]. Te second of these methods is the injec-
tion of carbon dioxide in the top portion of
the deposit GSGI. Using this method forc-
es the crude oil in the direction of the foor
and the contour of the reservoir. Injected CO
2

is a solvent that is miscible or immiscible in
a reservoir, it maintains reservoir pressure
and stabilizes the movement of oil through
gravity drainage [2].
Fig. 1 Reservoirs numerical model
Damian Janiga, Jakub Barzyk 27
autumn / 2012
Analysis of CO
2
- EOR methods
application possibilities for
oil feld in case of output
increase
Reservoirs numerical model
In order to evaluate the efciency of the
method in the Polish conditions the deposit
contained in the Carpathian Foredeep has
been selected and the examination of the
possibility of injecting the carbon dioxide has
been conducted. Digital model of the deposit
(Fig. 1) is based on the geological-reservoir
data. Model is composed of 27 200 blocks
(40 40 17). Te original reservoir pressure
was amounted to 358 bar. Te deposit is di-
vided into 17 layers in the vertical direction,
in order to take account of heterogeneity of
the deposit and the possible fow analysis in
injected fuids in the vertical direction. Te
parameters of the digital model of the de-
posit are presented in Table 1. Te reservoir
is operated in the energy of the dissolved gas
and the saturation pressure is about 240 bar.
Te compositional model is used in order to
be able to analyze the efects of mixing gases
with hydrocarbons model.
Meshdimensions 40 x 40 x 17
Depth 3315 [m]
Efectivethickness 113 [m]
Area 2. 155 [km2]
Porosity 1. 2 [%]
Permeability (X,Y,Z) 18 ; 18; 1. 8 [mD]
Oilsaturation 0. 6 [-]
Reservoirtemperature 375 [K]
Reservioirpressure 358 [bar]
Table 1 Primary parametres of reservoir model
On the basis of development data such as oil,
gas and water production rate measurements
and bottom-hole pressure measurements
were carried out through calibration on the
primary developments period. Te calibration
was performed since 1 August 1989 to 31 De-
cember 2011. Te charts show the results of
calibration (Fig. 2, Fig. 3).
During the calibration wells were controlled
by oil expense, so measuring points coincide
with the simulation curve. A very good ft of
gas fow has been achieved as a result of the
calibration. Fit the bottom pressure is also
correct, however due to the lack of measure-
ments the pressure calibration was conducted
only for the initial period of operation.
Verifcation of CO
2
- EOR method based on
basic criteria for applicability.
Selection of EOR methods that can be used
on a deposit depends on many geological, res-
ervoir and economic parameters. Advanced
methods rely on carbon dioxide injection and
should be used in the felds of high thickness.
Depth of the deposit should be in the range of
800 m to about 3200 m [4]. Te criteria for
the application of this method are listed with
the parameters of the deposit and shown in
the Table 2.
Parameter Model Optimum
Oil density 872 [g/cm3 ] 800 880 [g/cm3 ]
Oil viscosity 2. 3 [cP] < 3 [cP]
Oil saturated 0. 51 >0. 3
Thickness 113 [m] Wysoka
Depth 3315 [m] >1350 [m]
Temperature 375 [K] -
Table 2 Screening Criteria For CO
2
EOR methods
selection
On the basis of the long-lasting industrial
practice, it was found that the optimal pa-
rameters for using CO
2
injection assume the
28 Analysis of CO
2
- EOR Methods Application Possibilities for Oil Fields
Fig. 2 Well bottom hole pressure calibration
Fig. 3 Well gas production rate calibration
Damian Janiga, Jakub Barzyk 29
autumn / 2012
Fig. 4 Change of recovery factors of the analyzed variants for GSGI
Fig. 5 Change of recovery factors of the analyzed variants for WAG
30 Analysis of CO
2
- EOR Methods Application Possibilities for Oil Fields
values which are shown in the column of the
optimum. Comparing the parameters of de-
posit to the optimized ones results in the fact
that the deposit is properly selected to the ad-
vanced recovery methods CO
2
- EOR.
Variant simulations of CO
2
injection into
the deposit
Te analysis was performed following in-
jection simulation options:
Base (constrains of the production wells:
the minimum pressure at the bottom of
the borehole is 130; the maximum gas pro-
duction rate is 1500 sm
3
/day )
GSGI
injection rate of CO
2
5 000 sm
3
/day
injection rate of CO
2
7 500 sm
3
/day
injection rate of CO
2
10 000 sm
3
/day
WAG
5 000 sm
3
/day CO
2
(6 years) 10 m
3
/
day-water (4 years)
5 000 sm
3
/day CO
2
(6 years) 50 m
3
/
day-water (4 years)
10 000 sm
3
/day CO
2
(6 years) 10 m
3
/
day-water (4 years)
Te simulation is going to be carried out for
a 20 year-long period since the moment of
beginning in 1 January 2012 to 31 December
2032. In the based variant the wells work is
determined in rate up to now.
Te forecast suggests that in the year 2022 the
second well, which is located in the northern
part of the deposit will be gassy. So we are us-
ing it in GSGI and WAG variants as an injec-
tor-well into the foor of the deposit. Te gas
injection is going to be started in May 2022 in
GSGI method such as in WAG method.
Te main parameter to evaluate the efec-
tiveness of the method was growth of recov-
ery factor (Fig. 4, Fig. 5). Additionally part of
carbon dioxide in the composition of fuids
was evaluated (Fig. 611). Detailed results are
shown in Table 3 and Table 4.
Variant Recoveryfactor [%]
Base 28. 5
A 5 000 sm
3
/day 33. 1
B 7 500 sm
3
/day 35. 5
C 10 000 sm
3
/day 37. 5
Table 3 Results of GSGI method
Variant Recoveryfactor [%]
Base 28. 5
A 5 000 sm
3
/day CO
2

10 m3/day water
32. 2
B 5 000 sm
3
/day CO
2

50 m3/day water
34. 0
C 10 000 sm
3
/day CO
2

10 m
3
/day water
35. 5
Table 4 Results of WAG method
Te presented analysis shows that the most
efective method proved to be CO
2
injection
continuously in the peak part of the deposit
(GSGI). It is correlative with pumping of sig-
nifcant amounts of carbon dioxide, which
will afect the production wells due to the
small size of the deposit. WAG method gives
slightly lower recovery factors, but the water
injection can afect the stabilization of the
movement of the fuid front displacement
and reduce the production of CO
2
.
Summary
Te emphasis on increasing the efciency
of oil production afected the increased devel-
opment of advanced methods of oil recovery
in recent years. Carbon dioxide injection
method into the deposit is beginning to play
a dominating role among these methods,
as a signifcant increase in production from
the felds partially depleted has been
observed. Te efects of two such methods
of the Polish reservoirs are examined in
this article. Among the examined variants,
the highest efciency is characterized by
Damian Janiga, Jakub Barzyk 31
autumn / 2012
Fig. 6 Total mole fraction of CO
2
A variant GSGI method in 31 December 2032
Fig. 7 Total mole fraction of CO
2
B variant GSGI method in 31 December 2032
32 Analysis of CO
2
- EOR Methods Application Possibilities for Oil Fields
Fig. 8 Total mole fraction of CO
2
C variant GSGI method in 31 December 2032
Fig. 9 Total mole fraction of CO
2
A variant WAG method in 31 December 2032
Damian Janiga, Jakub Barzyk 33
autumn / 2012
Fig. 10 Total mole fraction of CO
2
B variant WAG method in 31 December 2032
Fig. 11 Total mole fraction of CO
2
C variant WAG method in 31 December 2032
34 Analysis of CO
2
- EOR Methods Application Possibilities for Oil Fields
the injection of CO
2
into the gas cap
of expense 10 000 sm
3
/day (GSGI). Results
of calculations based on a simulation model
of deposit show the potential efects of use of
advanced methods of production in the Polish
reservoir.
References
1. Reservoir documentation.
2. Holem L., Josenda W., Mechanisms of Oil Displacement by Carbon Dioxide, JPT, December,
pp. 14271438, 1974.
3. Rychlicki S. et. al., Metody zwikszenia efektywnoci wydobycia ropy naftowej ze z karpack-
ich, AGH, Krakw 2010.
4. Rychlicki S. et. al., Efektywno wydobycia ropy naftowej przy zataczaniu CO
2
. Przemys naf-
towy w Polsce 2011, s. 3640, AGH, Krakw 2011.
5. Rychlicki S., Stopa J., Uliasz-Misiak B., Zawisza L., Kryteria typowania z do zastosowania
zaawansowanej metody wydobycia ropy naftowej poprzez zataczanie CO
2
. Gospodarka Surow-
cami Mineralnymi t. 27, z. 3, s. 125139, 2011.
autumn / 2012
35

Non-stationary Flooding as
an Efective Hydrodynamic
Method of Oil Recovery
Arkadiy Loginov
Abstract
Non-stationary fooding is carried out with
the help of alternate work of injection and
production. As a result of time-depend-
ant, time-varying efects there are diferent
pressure drops. Terefore, there is a redis-
tribution of fuids in the evenly saturated
reservoir, aimed at the alignment of satura-
tions and the removal of capillary imbalance
at the contact of oil-saturated and fooded
zones. Te process of unsteady fooding has
been used at the site BV10 Megion depos-
its during the period 20062010. Incremen-
tal recovery was 13.6 thousand tons, while
considering the efect of bottomholetreat-
ments it was 35.5 thousand tons.
Introduction
Te method of non-stationary change of the
direction of food fow fltration in the reser-
voir is one of the most efective hydrodynamic
ways of increasing oil production and reducing
the unit cost of water for oil. Non-stationary
fooding is carried out with the help of alter-
nate work of injection and production wells
due to specifc programs, designed for specifc
geological and physical conditions, taking into
account the technical capabilities of the sys-
tem to maintain reservoir pressure. As a result
of time-dependent, time-varying efects there
are periodically rising and falling waves of
pressure in these layers.
Layers, zones and areas of low permeability,
saturated with oil, are located in layers un-
systematically, have low piezoconductivity
and the velocity of propagation of pressure
in them is considerably lower than in high
permeable layers and oil-saturated zones.
Terefore, between oil-saturated and drowned
zones there are diferent pressure drops.
Under the infuence of alternating pressure
drops there is a redistribution of fuids in
the evenly saturated reservoir, aimed at the
walignment of saturations and the removal of
capillary imbalance at the contact of oil-sat-
urated and fooded zones, layers, sections.
It also accelerates capillary countercurrent
impregnation of oil-saturated zones with wa-
terwater implements from the water fooded
areas in oil-saturated by small pore channels,
and the oil fows from oil-saturated zones
into fooded ones through large channels.
*
Tyumen State Oil and Gas University

Russia

arkady.loginov@gmail.com
* University Country Supervisor E-mail
36 Flooding as an Efective Hydrodynamic Method of Oil Recovery
Fig. 1 Organization of non-stationary fooding in the year 2006 (a), and 2007 (b) at the site BV10
(well stock as of January 1
st
, 2011)
Injection well, taking part in NF (non-stationary fooding)
Injection well, taking part in NF with additional bottomhole treatments
Productionwell, reacted on NF
Productionwell, reacted onadditional bottomhole treatments
Arkadiy Loginov 37
autumn / 2012
Without reducing the reservoir pressure, this
phenomenon cannot be initiated.
To compensate the losses in pumping water
injectivity of wells operating in the high in-
jection mode should be 2040% higher than
during stationary fooding. Injectivity of
wells that are in the half-cycle of limited fow
rates, at sub-zero air temperatures should be
above that at which the freezing of water in
the water conduits happens.
Unsteady fooding includes:
1. Increasing injection pressure
2. Cyclic water fooding, i.e. periodic
reduction (termination) of water injection
3. Reallocation of water consumption,
injected into groups of injection wells
(change of direction of fltration fows)
4. Selective water pumping into low
permeable interlayers and layers, zones
and areas
5. Limitation or termination of pumping in
highly permeable interlayers
6. Methods of treatment of a bottomhole
zone, which change the operating modes
and restore the potential wells
7. Mechanical methods of changing the
operating modes of injection wells
(hydraulic fracturing, interval treatment,
intense perforation, spudding of second
boreholes)
Te method of transient fooding is relatively
easy to implement, requires no great econom-
ic costs, and has received wide application.
Te process of unsteady fooding has been
actively used on many felds of Western
Siberia. In particular, the implementation and
evaluation of non-stationary fooding at the
site BV10 Megion deposits during the period
20062010 is considered in this article. In-
cremental recovery from the transient food-
ing during this period at the site BV10 was
13.6 thousand tons of oil, while considering
the efect of the treatment of bottomhole for-
mation zone and the alignment of injectivity
profle it was equal to 35.5 thousand tons of
oil.
Year
Incremental recovery after NF, thousand tones
without
bottomholetratments
with
bottomholetratments
2006 8.0 12.0
2007 0.9 15.9
2008 1.4 3.5
2009 3.3 4.1
sum. 13.6 35.5
Table 1 Efciency of non-stationary food-
ing during the period 20062010 years. Site
BV10
Consequently, the transient fooding is a very
efective technology of enhanced oil recovery.
To improve the efciency of the non-station-
ary waterfooding, it can be combined with
treatments of wells aimed to the alignment
of profles of injection capacity, isolation of
water infows and the intensifcation of pro-
duction. Te efciency of cyclic fooding also
increases if it is done after the rim of sur-
factants injection into the reservoir, which
is explained by an increase in sweep efect
of the reagent and more intense exchange of
fuid between the interlayers by increasing
the mobility of oil under the infuence of the
surfactant.
Tis method can be used at every stage of
feld development involving conventional wa-
terfooding. Te best results are obtained by
applying the method of nonstationary food-
ing from the beginning of oil feld develop-
ment.
38
autumn / 2012
39 39
The history of AGH UST SPE Student
Chapter was always rich in examples of
students-companies cooperation. At the
beginning of September 2012 we had an op-
portunity to take part in organizing a Fam-
ily Picnic with ORLEN Upstream, one of
polish national upstream companies.
ORLEN Upstream is a part of PKN ORLEN,
one of the largest petroleum corporations in
Central and Eastern Europe and the largest
in Poland. ORLEN Upstreams basic statuto-
ry activities are exploration and prospecting
of hydrocarbon deposits and production of
crude oil and natural gas. As the company re-
sponsible for upstream projects, it has already
commenced exploration in eight licenced ar-
eas in the Mazovia, Lublin and d region.
Te picnic, which was titled Time travel
with tracks of geology, was a two-day event
taking place in two localities: Niedwiada and
Wierzbica, that are seats of administrative dis-
tricts on the area of Lublin Shale. As the event
was supposed to be a historical-educational
picnic mainly for children, it was divided into
two parts the ancient history and the mod-
ern history. Te elder history part consisted
of a medieval knights reconstruction group,
6 fully armoured men performing knight
sword fghts, and the prehistoric cavemen
that leaded a terrain game, which was sup-
posed to teach children about how ancient
men used to light fre using sticks or how did
they hunt. Te modern history part consist-
ed of Wild West village, the stand of Ignacy
ukasiewicz and the stand of petroleum in-
dustry last two were held by our Chapter
and were there to educate by fun.
We played a role of the speaker, we were sup-
posed to explain the youngest generation the
whole process of crude oil production in an
interesting and easy way. Apart from this, our
chapter prepared mini geological museum
where we were presenting a magnifcent col-
Giving back to local communities
AGH UST SPE Student Chapter cooperating with ORLEN Upstream
Barbara Pach, Joanna Wilaszek, Maciej Kobielski
40 Giving back to local communities
lection of rocks, minerals and fossils. People
could touch the exhibits and even take some
of them as a keepsake. We had also prepared
a few games for children. Tey could feel like
real geologists, holding hammers in their lit-
tle hands. Tey also could play a role of treas-
ure hunters during seeking rocks hidden in
gypsum. Moreover, there was an opportunity
to take part in laboratory experiences with
crude oil and draw using the most valuable
paint in the world- crude oil. Te youngest
children could solve riddles and play a jigsaw
puzzle, all referring to the subject of drilling.
We were also organizing a prize competition
consisting on carefully listening to Ignacy
ukasiewiczs story about his invention par-
afn lamp and simply ideas which revolution-
ized the whole petroleum industry forever.
Education were reconciled with fun so many
children took part in the activities.
Te events were completed with a kind ges-
ture charity donation of backpack sets for
local children.
Te petroleum industry can be a bit mysteri-
ous for the people not directly connected to
the business. Tat is why we met local peo-
ple to learn about their apprehensions and
doubts connected with exploration works in
their region. Explaining stereotypes is not
an easy job, especially with all not quite cor-
rect information available via Internet. As we
know, the stereotypes originate from the lack
of information. Tat is why during the pic-
nics we were trying to create an opportunity
for local people to broaden their knowledge
about exploration works in the region and
facts connected with prospecting of shale gas.
Te main idea of the picnic was not only to
entertain children but also to educate peo-
ple on the subject of drilling and producing
hydrocarbons. To make people better under-
stand how does it really look like and explain
them that the drilling works that are made in
their region are a really great chance.
Tanks to the fact that we were not the hosts
employees, we gained much more trust and
attention than we would get in the other case.
Even though we passed the same information
they used to it is a paradox, but it sounded
somehow more credible. And the most impor-
tant, grace to the fact, that, as students, we
are still learning, we were able to explain the
matter in a way easier to understand than the
specialists could explain. We still remember
AGH UST SPE Student Chapter cooperating with ORLEN Upstream 41
autumn / 2012
what was new and obscure for us a few years
ago. Tanks to this fact we knew how to eluci-
date difcult issues.
Such events are excellent examples of a very
interesting cooperation among a company
and a student organization. It is a smart and
comfortable solution for the companies to
gain social acceptance, and a really good op-
portunity for students to prove their value as
potential workers. For our SPE Student Chap-
ter the next interesting event.
In the ending words, the picnic was really
impressive. Tanks to it we got new expe-
riences that can be useful in our future life.
First of all, after many conversations with
local people we are conscious now, how does
these people perceive the prospecting works
in their region and what they are afraid of.
We also had a chance to talk to the company
representatives and learn about their experi-
ences with local people and get to know some-
thing about exploration works the company
is making in the region. A memorable expe-
rience was to fll the youngest minds with
curiosity and knowledge about the process
of crude oil production. Invaluable is also the
fact that during such events we are learning
how to cooperate in a group.
Te event proved to be a success, both for
ORLEN Upstream and for our Chapter. We
hope that this is just the beginning of our
fruitful cooperation that will be continued
in the future.
42 42

My Schlumberger Way of Life
six weeks between the rig, BBQ
and currywurst Friday
Antonia Turmaier
Its 4 oclock, a.m. And we are still sitting in
the truck, in the middle of nowhere in the
north of Germany. An engineer, a trainee,
an operator and me, started an open hole
wireline job 20 hours ago and it would still
take another 5 hours until the job would be
fnished. Te normal routine for an engi-
neer of Schlumberger, but something really
special for me.
How I got selected
Let me introduce myself real quick: My
name is Antonia, I am 21 years old and Im
studying Petroleum Engineering at the
mining university Leoben, Austria in my third
year now.
I frst heard about Schlumberger from col-
leagues, but I didnt really care about that
company until a point, where our local SPE
team sent a mail that Schlumberger would
visit our university and do interviews for in-
ternships and the trainee program.
So I decided to google that company, which
has the same name as the famous sparkling
wine producing company in Austria. After
I decided that Schlumberger would be a com-
pany of interest for me, I applied for an in-
ternship.
Te Schlumberger interview came and I was
terribly anxious, because it was the frst in-
terview in my career, but as it started I have
encountered the whatever-feeling, meaning
that even if I would fail, it would have still
been a valuable experience.
I was even more surprised when I was ofered
an internship in wireline at the Schlumberger
base in Vechta, Niedersachsen, Germany.
Marion Bcouze: I spent six weeks in
Vechta base in the North West of Germa-
ny. I was a trainee in the Well Cement-
ing segment. I had the chance to go on
several jobs in Germany to see cementing
operations in gas wells.
As I discovered later, there were four other
students of Leoben also doing an internship
for Schlumberger.
Bucharest QHSE
introduction
Te journey started in Bucharest, Roma-
nia, where all the chosen interns of the CEU
(Continental Europe) area met for a three day
Antonia Thurmaier 43
autumn / 2012
44 My Schlumberger Way of Life
introduction to the Schlumberger way of
life. Around 30 interns from all over Europe
came together and made the introduction
days really fun. Our recruiter Bastien and his
QHSE (Quality, Health, Safety, Environment)
colleague Maria told us how to behave in a
safe way. I am pretty sure that everybody are
using proper techniques while walking the
stairs.
Florian Aelfers, Drilling and Measure-
ment, Vechta Base, Germany: Te in-
ternship puts the studies of Petroleum
Engineering really in perspective. At the
beginning it shows you how much you
really know about the oil feld and the in-
dustry itself. At the end youll gain a quite
good base of knowledge which gives you
a huge advantage in the upcoming drill-
ing and well design lectures and labs. So
I defnitely know what I want to do after
I have fnished university Welcome to
productive studying!
Vechta frst rig within the
frst week
My next stop was Vechta, where I was lo-
cated with fve other interns (two from Leo-
ben, one from France and two from Poland).
We got picked up at the airport and got direct-
ly driven to the base where we got assigned to
our FSM (Field Service Managers, the bosses
of the diferent departments) and started our
internship immediately.
In the frst few days, there was a lot of admin-
istrative issues to take care of as: picking up
PPE (Personal Protecitve Equipment), getting
another QHSE and H2S course and trying to
convince the computer department to give a
laptop to me.
During my work in wireline, I got assigned to
my mentor, who took me around and showed
me the workshop. I stuck to him, so I was able
to see some tool calibrations and tool testing.
My FSM wanted me to see as many jobs in the
feld as possible, so I got the chance to go on
the rig with a senior specialist. It was such
a great experience for me, seeing a rig from
a closer distance, really standing in the wire-
line truck and watching the guys doing what
they did.
Other interns
And also after work there was always some-
thing to do or some place to go, either with
the other interns or with the trainees and en-
gineers. With twenty percent internationals
in the base, who didnt have family around
either, there was a great relation between the
engineers and trainees. Tere was one place
where you could be sure to fnd a Schlumberg-
er after work the pub. Tere were a lot of
BBQs and a lot of trips to go on the weekends
as well. In fact, I have never barbequed that
often in my life, six times in ten weeks. Tats
my personal high score.
Oana Sipos, Testing, Ravenna, Italy: Be-
ing a vacation trainee at Schlumberger
was one of the best things that I could do
this summer. Starting with the cultural
experience and going through all the peo-
ple Ive met, whether those working in
the base or those who were there just for
business trips. I was able to get a glimpse
of what the work was like, the good parts
and equally, what is challenging about the
job. Ive heard stories I would have never
expected, which intrigued me enough to
accept to go for a recruiting session next
Wednesday.
Antonia Thurmaier 45
autumn / 2012
Te weeks ran by really fast, and I was al-
lowed to go on two other jobs, all open hole.
I spent the time at the base with my newly
assigned mentor, due to the fact that my for-
mer mentor was out of the base almost all of
the time. With him I was really allowed to do
stuf, instead of just watching as before, and
even if it was just connecting a tool string,
it was still great. I also helped out in the
sonde lab, which was quite nice too, because
the maintenance guy was showing me how
the tools work.
Te most unforgettable time I had, was when
I, an engineer, a trainee and two crews of
operators went up to Usedom, an island in
the Baltic Sea, really close to Poland.
We picked up a specialist from Norway, be-
cause the tool which has been used was re-
ally special and sensitive. It was an open
hole tool, which measures the formation
pressure, using packers which infate them-
selves with mud, sealing the bore hole and
then measuring.
46 My Schlumberger Way of Life
Kuba Jagieo, Drilling and Measurement,
Vechta, Germany: Best opportunity to gain
valuable experience, to see the business
from the inside.
It took 25 hours until the job was done, thanks
to the cofee machine. Tere is one in every
truck by the way. I mostly of stayed awake.
During the rig-up, I was allowed to give
the operators a helping hand. After I showed
them and the rig crew, that even though
I was a girl, I could really help them carrying
heavy stuf and that I was able to follow direc-
tions, they allowed me to help them on the
rig foor.
The good relation between
all the internationals
Time ran by way too fast, and soon it was
the time to go home. Tere is no better place
in Vechta to celebrate a great internship than
the Stoppelmarkt, a huge party, similar to the
Oktoberfest in Munich. All of the interns, op-
erators and engineers got together and par-
tied (too) hard.
In the end there is not a lot more to say than
that I really enjoyed being a part of Schlum-
berger. Tere are some dark sides too, but you
can fnd them in any other company as well.
Kacper Malinowski, Completion, Raven-
na, Italy: Participating in Schlumberger
Vacation Training was a great experience.
After years of studies I could fnally see
and use the equipment and devices which
are used in modern petroleum industry.
Helping others in a workshop or on a job
in the feld taught me cooperation and re-
sponsibility. Vacation training allowed me
to see how the work in an oilfeld service
company really looks like.
I learned a lot, thanks to my colleagues,
I made new friends, and I surely dont need
any more currywurst in my life, thanks to
the little Friday tradition cultivated in bases
canteen.
Looking for an
internship?
youngpetro. org/careers
coming soon
autumn / 2012
47 47
Where the science and practice meet, there
the horizons of petroleum world are ex-
panding. It happened for the fourth time
during the Oil & Gas Horizons Conference
2012 at Gubkin Russian State University of
Oil and Gas. On November 12 Moscow once
again became a heart of petroleum world.
Tis international conference gathered over
one hundred students from diferent uni-
versities and institutes as well as the pro-
fessors and professionals from Europe and
Asia.
It is 12
th
of November and we are sitting in
board room at Gubkin Russian State Uni-
versity of Oil and Gas. Solemn atmosphere
is foreshadowing that this is a beginning of
something unique. Te Rector of the Uni-
versity, Martynov Victor and the Chairman
of SPE Moscow Section, Yakov Volokitin are
opening the conference with their speeches.
Te Organizing Committee Gubkin Univer-
sity SPE Student Chapter is welcoming all
the participants and encouraging them to say
frst and foremost about their professional
competence. Simply we realize that it is a be-
ginning of much more important event than
common student conference.
Oil & Gas Horizons Conference connects vari-
ous felds and fnds common denominator be-
tween them petroleum industry. Tis year
it also focused on a wide range of issues con-
cerning petroleum industry. Interdisciplinary
plenary session provided a great introduction
to the main event of the day student paper
contest.
More than 70 students from diferent Univer-
sities in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Poland
and even more were sharing results of their
research in eight thematic sections: from
drilling and completion through geosciences
to petroleum economics and management is-
sues. Tree the best students of each section
stood on the podium and were rewarded in
the Closing Ceremony in the Russian Trade
Chamber.
How to unite competition, knowledge shar-
ing and fun? It is simplewith PetroOlympic
Games success was guaranteed! During the
Expanding Oil & Gas Horizons
Barbara Pach
48 Expanding Oil & Gas Horizons
Oil & Gas Horizons Conference all partici-
pants took part in the second edition of this
fantastic game. It was great opportunity
for students to verify their basic petroleum
knowledge, co-operate in groups and above
all network and have fun together.
SPE Student Chapter Workshop proved that
small opportunities are often the beginning
of great enterprises. And the SPE member-
ship gives these opportunities every day.
During the session representatives of every
Student Chapter shared their ideas on how
activities and projects conducted within the
organization can attract young people con-
nected with petroleum industry.
Every student chapter has many problems to
face. Te discussion about them was held dur-
ing the SPE Student Chapters Board Meeting.
It gave a chance to exchange ideas and expe-
rience between members. Te meeting was
supported by priceless advices from the SPEs
Membership Coordinator, Antonina Kozmina
and Regional Director Russia & Caspian Re-
gion, Andrey Gladkov.
Very important in such event as internation-
al student conference is a dialogue between
students who have a plan to work in petrole-
um industry and professionals who are their
potential employers. However, no less impor-
tant is building relations between students
from diferent part of world. Te integration
was guaranteed at evenings. Tere is no bet-
ter thing than dancing and fun networking
games after busy days.
It was a second time when YoungPetro Mag-
azine participated in the Oil & Gas Horizons
Conference. Summer issue was put into
hands almost all students and profession-
als. It is a great honor to be a media patron
of such a prestigious event which is getting
much bigger and more professional year by
year. On behalf of the Organizing Commit-
tee we want to invite for the next edition-
Oil & Gas Horizons 2013! We wish organiz-
ing committee further successes in creating
friendlier image of petroleum world while
expanding the Horizons of Oil & Gas! To fnd
current information about next edition go to:
www.spe-gubkin.org.
48 Expanding Oil & Gas Horizons
For information about advertising options:
youngpetro.org/ads or ads@youngpetro.org
Call for Papers
YoungPetro is waiting for your paper!
Te topics of the papers should refer to:
Drilling Engineering, Reservoir Engineering, Fuels and Energy, Geology and Geophysics,
Environmental Protection, Management and Economics
Papers should be sent to papers @ youngpetro.org
For more information visit youngpetro.org/papers
2 49
AUTUMN / 22
spe.net.pl/emw
2426 April 2013 Krakow, Poland
International Student Petroleum Congress & Career Expo
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