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# Column

## Is a main vertical member carrying axial loads, which can be

combined with bending and shear, from the main roof beams or
girders to the foundation. These structural members carry loads
parallel to its longitudinal axis.

## Design of Column by WSD method:

Types of Column:
1. Tied column Lateral reinforcement tie
2. Spiral column Lateral reinforcement spiral
3. Composite column
Formula:
Column controlled by Compression
e eb (Balanced eccentrically)
Where,
e=

M
P

## For symmetrical tied column,

eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d
For spiral column,
eb = 0.43gmDs + 0.14t
Where,
Ds = Dia of circle through centers of longitudinal steel of spiral column
t = Dia of spiral
d = effective depth

g =

As
Ag

fy

m=

0.85 f ' c
Section of Column shall be proportioned by using the relation
fa
fb
=
1
Fa
Fb
Where,
P

fa = A
g

Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc
M
S
I
S=
C

fb =

For Rectangular, I =
For Spiral, I =

D 4
64

t
bh 3
bh 3
+ 2(2n - 1 ) As ( - d)2 =
+ 2(2n - 1 ) As d2
2
12
12

+ (2n 1)

Fb = 0.45 f
Column controlled by tension
e>eb
where,

As Ds
8

e=

M
P

M M0
P
=
Pb
Mb M0

fa
fb
+
=1
Fa
Fb

Pb
or,

Ag + Pb eb = 1
Fb
Pa

## For symmetrical tied column

Mo = 0.4Asfy( d d )
As = Steel on tension side only
Mo = 0.12 AstfyDs for spiral column
Ast = Total longitudinal steel
M M0
P
=
Pb
Mb M0
P
M = Mo +
( Mb - Mo)
Pb

## % of steel on column is 1% 8% of concrete.

Example 1:
Given
P = 120 k
M = 30 k
fc = 4 ksi
fy= 40 ksi
Design the column as a tied column
Solution:
Assume,
Column section 12X 12
8 20 equal in each face
As = 0.486 8 = 3.89 in2
e=

M
30 12
=
=3
P
120

eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d
g =
m=

As
8 0.486
=
= 0.027
Ag
144

fy
0.85 f

'

=
c

40
= 11.765
0.85 4

## gm = 0.027 11.765 = 0.3137

d = 12 2.5 = 9.5

eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d

## .. Column is controlled by compression

fa =

P
120
Ag = 144 = 0.83 ksi

## Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.3137) 4 = 1.670 ksi

M
S
I
S=
C

fb =

I=

12 12 3
12 12 3
+ (2n 1) 3 0.486 3.52 2 =
+ (2 8 1) 3 0.486
12
12

S=

I
2263
=
= 377 in3
C
6

fb =

30 12
= 0.957 ksi
377

## . Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 4 = 1.8 ksi

fa
fb
0.83
9.957
+
=
+
= 0.996 < 1 ok.
Fa
Fb
1.786
1.8

Example 2:
Given
P = 120 k
M = 30 k
fc = 4 ksi
fy= 40 ksi
Design the column as a tied column
Solution:
Assume,
Column section 12X 12
4 25 equal in each face
As = 0.76 8 = 3.04 in2
e=

M
30 12
=
=3
P
120

eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d
g =
m=

As
4 0.76
=
= 0.0202
Ag
144

fy
0.85 f

'

=
c

40
= 11.765
0.85 4

## gm = 0.0202 11.765 = 0.2376

d = 12 2.5 = 9.5

eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d

## .. Column is controlled by compression

P

120

fa = A =
= 0.83 ksi
144
g
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.2376) 4 = 1.683 ksi
M
S
I
S=
C
12 12 3
12 12 3
I=
+ (2n 1) 3 0.76 3.52 2 =
+ (2 4 1) 3 0.76 3.52
12
12

fb =

2 = 2119.02 in2
S=

I
2119 .02
=
= 377 in3
C
6

fb =

30 12
= 0.957 ksi
377

fa
fb
0.83
9.957
+
=
+
Fa
Fb
1.786
1.8

## = 0.996 < 1 ok.

Spiral
P = 120 k
M = 30 k fit
fc = 4 ksi
fy = 40 ksi
Design the column as a spiral column. Assume 15 dia column with 8 20.
e=

M
30 12
=
= 3
P
120

## As = 0.486 8 = 3.9 in2

Ag = 3.1415 7.52 = 176.62 in2
eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d
g =
m=

As
8 0.486
=
= 0.022
Ag
176 .62

fy
0.85 f

'

=
c

40
= 11.765
0.85 4

## gm = 0.022 11.765 = 0.26

Ds = 15 5= 10
Dc = 15 3 = 12

eb = 0.43gmDs + 0.14t

## .. Column is controlled by compression

P

120

fa = A =
= 0.70 ksi
176 .62
g
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.26) 4 = 1.71 ksi
M
S
I
S=
C

fb =

I=

D 4

+ (2n 1)

As Ds
3.1415 5 4
8 0.486 10 2
=
+ (2 8 1)
= 3210 in2
64
8
8

64
I
3210
S=
=
= 428 in3
C
7.5

fb =

30 12
= 0.841 ksi
428

## . Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 4 = 1.8 ksi

fa
fb
0.70
0.841
+
=
+
= 0.876 < 1 ok.
Fa
Fb
1.71
1.8

Design of spiral
s = 0.45 (
0.0253

Ag
As

- 1)

4a s ( Dc d b )

176 .62
176 .62
'
fs
4
2
= 0.45 ( Dc
- 1)
= 0.45 ( 3.1415 12 2
40
fy
4
4

- 1)

## 4 0.121 (12 0.39 )

Dc S
12 2 S
4 0.121 (12 0.39 )
S = Pi =
= 1.54 1.5 c/c > 1 .. ok (Code S = Pi > 1)
12 2 0.0253

0.0253 =

Spiral
P = 120 k
M = 30 k fit
fc = 4 ksi
fy = 40 ksi
Design the column as a spiral column. Assume 15 dia column with 6 20.
e=

M
30 12
=
= 3
P
120

## As = 0.486 6 = 2.91 in2

Ag = 3.1415 7.52 = 176.62 in2
eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d
g =
m=

As
6 0.486
=
= 0.065
Ag
176 .62

fy
0.85 f

'

=
c

40
= 11.765
0.85 4

## gm = 0.0165 11.765 = 0.194

Ds = 15 5= 10
Dc = 15 3 = 12

eb = 0.43gmDs + 0.14t

## .. Column is controlled by tension

4
=
40

.
Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 4 = 1.8 ksi
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.194) 4 = 1.62 ksi
fa
fb
+
=1
Fa
Fb

Pb

Ag +
Fa

Pb

Ag +
Fa

Pb

Mb
Fa

S =1

Pb eb
Fa

176 .62 +
1.62

S =1

Pb 2.92

40 .2 = 1

1.8

Pb = 133 kip
Mb = 133 2.93 = 388 kip
Mo = 0.12As+fyDs = 0.12 6 0.486 + 40 10 = 133 k
M = Mo +

P
(Mb - Mo)
Pb

M = Pe P 3
3P = 139 +

P
(388 139)
133

## P = 124 kip > 120 kip

.. ok
M = P e = 124 3 = 312 k= 31 kip fit >30 kip fit

.. ok

## Determine the magnitude of eccentric load P that can be carried by a 16 16

square column with an eccentricity of 8 column is reinforced with 8 25 bars
oriented equally in each face.
e = 8
g =

As
8 0.76
=
= 0.02375
Ag
16 16

m=

fy
'

40
= 15.68
0.85 3

0.85 f c
gm = 0.02375 15.68 = 0.3725
eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d = (0.67 0.3725 + 0.17 ) 13.5 = 5.6628
Column is controlled by tension
Pb
Pb
fa = A =
= 0.70 ksi
256
g
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.3725) 3 = 1.40 ksi
fb =
I=

Pb eb
Pb eb
= I
S
C

16 16
12

## + (2 8 1) 3 0.76 2 5.52 = 7806 in4

I
7806
=
= 975.8 in2
C
8

5.66 Pb
975 .8
Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 3 = 1.35 ksi
fb =

fa
fb
+
=1
Fa
Fb

Pb

256 +
1.4

5.66

Pb

975 .8 = 1
1.35

Pb = 141 kip
Mb = Pbeb = 141 5.66 = 798 kip
Mo = 0.4Asfy (d d) = 0.4 8 0.76 40 (13.5 2.5) = 1070.08 kip
P
(Mb - Mo) [M = P e = 8P]
Pb
P
8P = 1070.08 +
(798 1070.08)
141

M = Mo +

P = 11.44 kip
M = 11.44 8 = 91.52 kip = 7.6 kip

## ***A 20 12 inch column is reinforced with 8 25 bars of f y = 40 ksi. Providing

equal amount of reinforcements both at tension & compression faces of column,
determine the magnitude of eccentric load P that can be carried by the column
with an eccentricity of 9.8 inch. fc = 3 ksi.

Solution:
e = 9.8
As
8 0.76
=
= 0.025
Ag
20 12

g =

fy

m=

'

40
= 15.68
0.85 3

0.85 f c
gm = 0.025 15.68 = 0.39
eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d = (0.67 0.39 + 0.17 ) 17.5 = 7.63 < 9.8
Column is controlled by tension
Pb
Pb
fa = A =
= 0.70 ksi
256
g
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.39) 3 = 1.40 ksi
fb =
I=

Pb eb
Pb eb
= I
S
C

12 20
12

## + 2(2 8 1) 3 0.76 7.52 = 13130 in4

I
13130
=
= 1313 in2
C
10

7.63 Pb
= 0.0055 Pb
1313
Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 3 = 1.35 ksi
fb =

fa
fb
+
=1
Fa
Fb

Pb
or,

or,

Ag + Pb eb = 1
S Fb
Fa

Pb

240 +
1.425

7.63

Pb

1313 = 1
1.35

Pb = 142.54 kip
Mb = Pbeb = 142.54 7.63 = 1087.6 kip
Mo = 0.4Asfy (d d) = 0.4 8 0.76 40 (17.5 2.5) = 1459.2 kip
P
(Mb - Mo)
[M = P e = 8P]
Pb
P
9.8P = 1459.2 +
(1087.6 1459.2)
142 .54

M = Mo +

P = 12 kip

## ****A spiral column of 18 is reinforced with 10 25 bars of fy= 50 ksi.

Determine the magnitude of eccentric load P that can be carried by the column
with one eccentricity of 6 inch. fc = 4 ksi.
e = 9.8
As
8 0.76
=
= 0.025
Ag
20 12

g =

fy

m=

'

40
= 15.68
0.85 3

0.85 f c
gm = 0.025 15.68 = 0.39
eb = (0.67gm + 0.17)d = (0.67 0.39 + 0.17 ) 17.5 = 7.63 < 9.8
Column is controlled by tension
Pb
Pb
fa = A =
= 0.70 ksi
256
g
Fa = 0.34 (1 + gm)fc = 0.34 ( 1 + 0.39) 3 = 1.40 ksi
fb =
I=

Pb eb
Pb eb
= I
S
C

12 20
12

## + 2(2 8 1) 3 0.76 7.52 = 13130 in4

I
13130
=
= 1313 in2
C
10

7.63 Pb
= 0.0055 Pb
1313
Fb = 0.45 fc = 0.45 3 = 1.35 ksi
fb =

fa
fb
+
=1
Fa
Fb

Pb
or,

or,

Ag + Pb eb = 1
S Fb
Fa

Pb

240 +
1.425

7.63

Pb

1313 = 1
1.35

Pb = 142.54 kip
Mb = Pbeb = 142.54 7.63 = 1087.6 kip
Mo = 0.4Asfy (d d) = 0.4 8 0.76 40 (17.5 2.5) = 1459.2 kip

P
(Mb - Mo)
[M = P e = 8P]
Pb
P
9.8P = 1459.2 +
(1087.6 1459.2)
142 .54

M = Mo +

P = 12 kip