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Music of Mangyan Mindoro
Bangsi -is an external duct flute, which has chip glued on to the tube
of the flute
Gitgit a three-stringed indigenous violin with human hair for
Lantoy - is a nose flute
Batiwtiw = a bamboo instrument from Mindoro about 40 cm long,
played by striking the split end of a bamboo against the left palm
Kinaban or Subing - a bamboo jaws harp or jews harp.The jaw harp
is a slim bamboo instrument approximately of ball-pen size, of
different shapes and lengths varying from 10 cm. to 40 cm.
kudlong or kutiyapi - is a two-stringed lute shaped like a boat. It has
wooden tightening rods and frets made of beeswax.
kudlung- a parallel twostringed bamboo tube zither where the
bamboo strings were stretched out of the tube itself.
Musical Ensemble
Buray-Dipay -a bean-pod rattle used with the kalutang instrument.
Kalutang -consists of two pieces of wood, graduated in sizes, to
produce different note ranges.
Agung - ensemble consisting of two light gongs played by two men
squatting on the floor. One plays the gongs rim with padded sticks.

Music of Palawan
Tultul(epic chant)- song in Palawan . to sing tultul is to be possessed
by a Tw Tultultuln. These Epic Heroes are a type of humanity
who live in the median space and intercede between people on this
earth and mpuq. They are a Benevolent Humanity protecting the
Real Men. The act of chanting thus doubles with the embodiment,
in the very person of the bard, of these heroic and semi-divine
Beings. One can interpret this relationship as an act of possession in
which the bard becomes a medium. Epics are always chanted at
night, ending at daybreak; it is forbidden to sing when the sun shines
and during the day. This prohibition links the epic to the night and a
sacred world. Moreover, one would never chant for amusement in a
light joking manner. the tultul refers to natural celestial,
atmospheric, cosmogonic, visible, and invisible events and manifests
these events in an indirect or rather allusive manner.
Ulit- The shaman sings the difficult experience of the voyage of his
double, kuruduwa, by a specific chant, the lumbaga, whose melody is
in all points assimilable to any epic melodic line. And it is precisely
the ordeals that the soul of the shaman overcomes in the course of
his voyagethe encounters with the Evil Doers, Lnggam or
Sqitan, the discussions, the bargaining engaged in with the Invisible
Beingsthat constitute the shamanic chant. In a seance of ulit, for
instance, this acolyte follows the double of the shaman up to the jar
of the Master of Rice, mpuq t Parj, and through his own body-
trance manifests the state of drunkenness of the shamans very soul.
In the same manner, the accompanist with a small ring flute follows
the voice of the bard. According to my observation, the companion
of the shamans double or of the bards voice was always one and the
same personKlulut, the acolyte of Usuyand this association
does not seem to be mere chance. Finally, the experience of
acquiring clairvoyant power and creative power are closely related,
as we shall see. In addition, in the Bagobo language, in Mindanao,
the term ulit actually means epic. This permutation of meaning of
the same lexical item between the two languages, Bagobo and
Palawan, is certainly very revealing of the conceptual ambivalence of
ulit and tultul, which is conveyed by the very person of the bard-
shaman and his practice in this society of the Sulu Sea cultural area,
as has also been observed in other Southern Philippine societies.
Aruding -An instrument made of a small piece of bamboo. This is
called "jaw's harp" in English. It is placed near the mouth and blown
to produce sound.
This musical instrument can be made by using a bolo or "itak". A
stick of bamboo is carved and a pebble is stuck to help produce the
sound while an extract of honey is used to put the pieces together.
An ideal tool to make this delicate instrument would be a small knife
because the intricate design of the instrument demands the use of a
thin, sharp object.
Babarak- smallest bamboo flute in Palawan
Suling- bamboo ring flute
Basal(Gong)- a circular metal platelike percussion instrument,
usually having a turned-down rim
Kusyapiq(lute)- On the Philippines the long boat-lute with two
strings is still quite popular in some areas. It exists under many
different names, although they all look quite similar : kudlung,
fagelung, hegalong, hagelung, kudyapi, kutyapi, kusyapi, ketiyapi, etc.
It is mainly called kudlung in the south and kudyapi in the north. For
the kudyapi used by the Palawan tribe see under.
Pagang(bamboo Zither)- Penan bamboo harp which is made of

Music of Visayas
Balitao (Sung debate)- The balitaw is the song traditionally
associated with the Visayas region in the same way the kundiman
and kumintang are associated with ancient Tagalog music.
The music of the balitaw is usually written in 3/4 time. It is also
danced to, although it originally was something that was merely
sung. This folk air has a more developed form called balitao
romansada. The traditional instrument used to accompany the
balitaw was a three-string coconut-shell guitar; later, a harp was
adopted as the instrument of choice because more chords could be
played on it. When performed today in modern rendition, a five-
string guitar is used.
The balitaw is a debate or dialogue song in which a young woman
and a young man compete to see who is better at improvising
romantic verses. These verses are sometimes memorized in advance.
Using song to disguise the intimate sentiments of courtship reduces
the embarrassment involved in meeting potential mates.
Pastores (Christmas)- is Christmas season folk dance and song
practiced in many parts of Samar. The pastores (shepherds)
recounts the story of the shepherds who visited the child Jesus in the
manger through a song.
Rondalla-is an ensemble of stringed instruments played with the
plectrum or pick and generally known as plectrum instruments.
Tultogan-The word tultugan is actually an indigenous term for
bamboo drum. The festival promotes the local bamboo industry,
protecting their creativity and craftsmanship as to the different uses
of the bamboo.
Binanog-The Binanog is a traditional Philippine celebration and
courtship dance performed by the Bukidnon tribe of Lambunao. The
dance involves movements in imitation of the flight of the hawk or
banog, after which the dance is named. It is performed in honor of
the Sto. Nino in a festival that takes place during the 2nd Sunday of
January. The dance actually consists of three dance forms: the
Binanugan, wherein the movements of the birds are imitated; the
Inagong sayaw-sayaw, which is a form of celebration dance; and; the
Dinagmay, which is a courtship dance. The rhythmic beating of
drums and gongs accompanies the dance.
The kubing is a type of Philippine jaw harp from bamboo found
among the Maguindanaon and other Muslim and non-Muslim tribes
in the Philippines and Indonesia. It is also called kobing (Maranao),
kolibau (Tingguian), aru-ding (Tagbanwa),
aroding (Palawan),

kulaing (Yakan), karombi (Toraja), yori (Kailinese). Ones made of
sugar palm-leaf are called karinta (Munanese), ore-ore mbondu or
ore Ngkale (Butonese).

The kubing is traditionally considered an intimate instrument,
usually used as communication between family or a loved one in
close quarters. Both genders can use the instrument, the females
more infrequently than males who use it for short distance