The total induced polarization
) , ( t r P
which accounts for the linear polarization and the third order nonlinear
polarizations that are due to the Kerr effect
) , ( t r P
K
+ +
+ = + + =
ds s E s E s t t E t E t E t E r
t E r i s d s t E s t t r P t r P t r P t r P
R k
R K L
Both
) 1 (
and
) 3 (
is tied to Raman scattering effect, which is a timedelayed process and it taking the
form ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
3 2 1 1
) 3 (
3 2 1
) 3 (
t t t t t t R t t t t t t
R
=
[25]. R(t) is the nonlinear response function and its scalar form
is given by
(3) ) (
2
3
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( t h f t t f t R
R R e R
+ =
) (t R
includes both instantaneous electronic (tt
e
), results from the nearly instantaneous electronic response, and
delayed Raman contributions f
R
[26]. Optical fibers are designed to guide a few discrete modes, and the difference in
the dielectric constant is small between the core and the cladding, which makes the guided modes very close to linearly
polarized. Substituting Equation (2) into (1), yields
(4) ds ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
4
3
) , (
t
 ) , (  ) (
4
3
) , ( )] ( Im[ ) ( )] , ( Re[
1
) , (
c
1
 ) , (
2 ) 3 (
2
2
2 2
2
2 ) 3 (
2
(1)
2
(1)
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
}
}
c
c
+
c
c
+
=
c
c
c
c
V
t r E s r
t
t r E
c
t r E t r E r
c
t r E r
c
i
ds t E s r
t c t
t r E
t r E
R k
3. THEORETICAL MANAGEMENTS
In the slowlyvarying envelope approximation (SVEA), it is useful to separate the rapidly varying part of the electric
field by writing it in the form [24]
(5) .] . ) , ( [
2
1
) , (
0
c c e t r E x t r E
t iw
+ =
where . .c c stands for complex conjugate, x is the polarization unit vector of the light assumed to be linearly polarized
along xaxis, and E(r,t) is slowly varying function of time. Within each WDM channel, the transverse modal function
and the loss or gain coefficient are regarded as frequencyindependent. So the trail solution would be
(6) ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
) (
1
0
t w z i
N
j
j j
j j
e t z A y x F t r E
=
=
Where
oj
is the optical propagation constant at frequency w
j
and A
j
is the slowly varying envelope of the jth channel,
and
2
J j
A P =
,
j
P
is the power of jth channel . Note that, we assume that all signals are linearly copolarized. The
Fourier transform of Equation (4) takes the form
(7) ) , (
~
 ) , (
~

4
3
) , (
~
)] ( Re[ )] , ( Re[ ) , (
~
) , (
~
) , (
~
2 ) 3 (
2
2
(1)
2
2
(1)
2
2
2
2
2
w r E w r E
c
w
w r E r
c
iw
w r w r E
c
w
w r E
c
w
w r E
xxxx
= + + V
Equation (7) can be solved using the separation of variables method with
z i
j j j
j
e w w z A y x F w r E
0
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
~
=
. The result
equation of the transverse modal functions F
j
(x,y) is
(8) ) ( )]) , , ( Re[ (1 ] [
2 (1)
2
2
2
2
2
2
j j j j j
F w w y x F
c
w
F
y x
= + +
c
c
+
c
c
where
=
=
c
c
+ =
0
0
2
0
2
0

!
) (
2 ) (
k
w w k
j
k k
j
j j j
w k
w w
w
. Multiplying Equation (8) by
z i
j j
j
e w w z A
0
) , (
and
transform back to the time domain, yields
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(9) ) , ( ) , ( 2 ) , (
) , ( )] , , ( Re[
c
1
) , (
c
1
) , ( ] [
) (
0
2
(1)
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
0
t z A M e y x F t r E
ds s t r E s y x
t
t r E
t
t r E
y x
j j
t w z i
j j j oj
j j j
j j
+ =
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
}
=
=
c
c
c
c
=
k
k
k
w w k
j
k k
j
t w k
i
M
The result in Equation (9) may be substituted into (4) to get
( )
(11)
2
1
t
1
 
4
1
t
1
t
 
4
3 1
t
)] ( Im[
z
1 1 1
* * ) 3 ( ) (
2
2
2
1 1
2 ) 3 ( ) (
2
2
2
1
) (
2
2
2
1
) ( ) 3 (
2
1
) (
2
2
(1)
2
1
) ( 2
0
1
) (
2
2
0
0
0 0
0 0 0
(
(
c
c
+
(
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= +
c
c
}
}
=
=
=
= =
= =
N
j k
k
N
j k
k
k k
N
j
j j R
t w z i
k k
N
j
N
j
j j R
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j xxxx
N
j
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j j
N
j
t w z i
j j
ds A F A F e A F
c
ds A F e A F
c
e A F e A F
c
e A F r
c
i
e A F e A F
k k
j j
j j j j
j j j j j j
Many simplifications can be done using the mentioned above assumptions, which are:
1) The first term on the left will be
) (
1
2
0 0
0
)
z
2 (
t w z i
N
j
j j
j
j j
j j
e A
A
i F
=
c
c
~
2) The first term on the right will be
~
N
j
t w z i
j j j
j j
e A w F r
1
) ( 2 (1) 0
) ( )] ( Im[
3) The second term on the right will be
t w w w z i
k m n k
n m k
m n j xxxx
k m n k m n
e A A A F F F w
c
) ( ) ( * * 2 ) 3 (
2
0 0 0
4
3
+ +
4) The third and fourth terms on the right will be
t w w w z i
m n k m n k m
n n k
n
N
j k
k
k j k k j
N
k
k k j
k m n k m n
e w w H F F F A A A
c
w w H A F A
c
A F A
c
) ( ) ( * *
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
0 0 0
) (
2
1
) (  
4
1
 
4
1
+ +
=
= =
+ + =
These simplifications will be reduced Equation (11) to
(12) ) (
2
1
) (  
4
1
 
4
1
4
3
)
)] ( Im[
( 2
) ( ) ( * *
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
] ) ( ) [( * * 2
2
) 3 (
2
(1) 2
1
) (
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
t w w w z i
m n k m n k m
n n k
n
N
j k
k
k j k k j
N
k
k k j
t w w w z i
k m n k
n m k
m n j
xxxx
j
j
j
N
j
t w z i
j j
k m n k m n
k m n ok m n j j
e w w H F F F A A A
c
w w H A F A
c
A F A
c
e A A A F F F w
c
A
c
r iw
iA e F
+ +
=
= =
+ +
=
+
+ +
= +
As above mentioned we used the presented ideas in the references that processing FWM and SRS effects, and these
definitions have been token from [10, 24, 27]. Carrying many arrangements and using the definitions.
, ) ( ,
2
,  ) . (  , ) ( 5 . 0
0
0
0 2
2 1
t h
n
k dxdy y x F kA u w w w
r R j j s R
= = = + = O
}
K
R eff
K
K
eff
j
j
f
dxdy F
dxdy F
A
n
n
k cA
n w
3 2
2
,
 
),
3
2
1 (
8
3
,
0
0
4
2 2
) 3 (
0 ) 3 (
2 2
2
+
= = + = =
} }
} }
0
is the peak value of ) (t
R
, f
R
represents the fractional contribution of the delay Raman response to the nonlinear
polarization or the relative contribution of molecular vibrations to the total nonlinear response (determined in practice
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by fitting the experimental data) [26], which is related to the Raman nonlinear response. Equation (12) will be reduced
to
(13) ) (   ) (
)   2  ( ) 1 (
2
) ( *
4
1
2
4
, 1
* 2 2
t d e u u t t h u f i t d u u t t h f i
e u u u u u u f i u
dz
du
t t i
j
j k
k r
j k
k R j j
k
k r R j
j k k i k
z i
m k i j k j R j j
j j
R
ikm
' ' + ' ' +
+
(
+ + = +
' O
= =
=
= =
A
}
}
For relatively broad pulse widths ( ps 1 > ),
j
u can be treated as constants compared with the time scale under which
h
R
(t) is varying. Equation (13) can then be written as
(14)    
)   2  ( ) 1 (
2
* 2
4
1
2
4
, 1
* 2 2
z i
ik
i k
m k i R j jk
j k
k j R j j
k
k R j
j k k i k
z i
m k i j k j R j j
j j
ikm
ikm
e H u u u f i H u u f i u u f i
e u u u u u u f i u
dz
du
A
= =
= =
A
+ + +
+
(
+ + = +
Here ) (
k i ik
w w H H = is the Raman response function h
R
(t) in the frequency domain, which can be separated as real and
imaginary parts
ik ik ik
H i H H ' ' + ' = [26]. Using this substitution into Equation (14) and rearrangement the result, we obtain
(15) ) 1 (
)   ) 2 (    
2
*
4
2 2 2
z i
m k i
i k
ik R R j
j
j k
k jk R R j j j jk
j k
k R j
j j
ikm
e u u u H f f i
u u H f f u i u H u f
dz
du
A
= =
+ +
(
' + + =


.

\

' ' + +
}
}
=
dxdy F
dxdy F y x I
c
w
j
j
j
j
j
2
2 (1)
2
0
2
 
  )] , ( m[
jnkm
=
on
+
0m
0k
0j
is the linear phasematching condition at jth channel. Equation (15) is new equation that
represents the NLSE for propagation any number of channels in the SMF which is different from other references [10,
24, 27], and it reduce to special equation mentioned in this references when f
R
=0.18 or f
R
=0. Note that, in the next
mathematical management, for simplicity we will assume that
N
= = = ......
2 1
and
N
= = = ......
2 1
. These assumptions
are valid since the fiber is single mode and the variation of frequency is very small, i.e. w/w
j
<<1. It is clearly from
Equation.(15) that
1The attenuation increased in presence of SRS as showed in the second term in the left side.
2XPM is changed because of SRS and this represented in the second term in the right side.
3FWM is changed because of SRS and this represented in the third term in the right side.
If power peak of the incident pulse is above a threshold level, its relatively high threshold (1 W), SRS can transfer
energy to a new pulse at a different wavelength, which may propagate in the same or the opposite direction. A similar
situation occurs when two or more pulses at different wavelengths (separated by more than individual spectral widths)
are incident on the fiber. So that, when the gains provided by the parametric pump are comparable with that of Raman
gains, the combinations of FRAs and FOPAs will form RAFOPAs. Equation.(15) represents the nonlinear Schrdinger
equation (NLSE) of multichannel propagation in single mode fiber, and is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In
RAFOPA system there are four coupled equations, pump one, pump two, signal and Idler, which can be solved
numerically to get the signal gain spectrum. Indirect experimental approach is used in practice by noting that the
Raman gain spectrum is related to the imaginary part of the Fourier transform of h
R
(t). We used the experimentally
determined Raman response function h
R
(t) of silica fibers, whose Fourier transform, the complex Raman susceptibility
) (w H (the Fourier transform of h
R
(t) normalized such that h
R
(0) =1) [26].
4. PHASE MATCHING CONDITION
The parameter K=
L
+
NL
describes the total phase mismatch, both the nonlinear effects (SPM and XPM) and the
linear effects (fiber dispersion) contribute to K [27, 28]. Although the nonlinear contribution is constant at a given
pumps power, and it is of the order of P, the linear phase mismatch depends on the wavelengths of the four waves. As
the signal and idler gain spectra are symmetric with respect to the center frequency, it is convenient to use w
c
and w
d
as the two independent parameters, instead of wavelength
1
w and
2
w , and to get maximum parametric gain in
Equation.(15), the total phase mismatch K should be equal to zero or when = (P
1
+ P
2
), and this occurs at signal
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frequencies that satisfy the wellknown phase matching condition, + (P
1
+ P
2
)=0. For any channel frequency
(signal) sth, the linear phase mismatch is given by [27]
(17) ] ) ( ) [(
12
] ) ( ) [(
4 4 4 2 2
2
2 1
d s d s p p i s
w w w w A A + A A = + = A
and
(18) ) )( 2 ( ) (
4
0 4
2
0 3 2
w w w w
c c
+ ~
where
2 1
, , , p p i s
are the signal, idler, pump one and pump two propagation constants, respectively, w
c
=(w
1
+w
2
)/2,
w
s
=w
3
w
c
, w
d
=(w
1
w
2
)/2=w
c
w
1
=w
2
w
c
, , where w=2c/, and
2
is the secondorder dispersion, and
3
,
4
are
the third and forthorder dispersions respectively, generally provided by manufacturers, w
0
is the zerodispersion
wavelength ZDW. Therefore, adjusting separately each the pump central wavelength, ZDW and two pump
wavelengths, the magnitude and shape of the gain spectrum can be optimized. The B term contributes only when two
pumps are used and is independent of the signal and idler frequencies.
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Our simulation of the transmission is characterized by a large number of different parameters, most of which do not
change from simulation to simulation. For completeness, we list a typical parameter set below, and maintain deviations
from values whenever they occur
1550 , 1000 / length section , / 10 0.1
/ 10 1 , 8 . 4
15 . 0 , 001 . 0 , 2 . 1
/ 0 , 180 , 08 . 0
0
3 36 
3
4 52 
4
1 1
3 2 1
nm L km ps
km ps W km
km L W P W P P
km dB nm B f
p p
R
= = =
= =
= = = =
= = =
Furthermore, Equations.(17) and (18) are be used to calculate linear phasemismatching and
2
respectively.
Figure (2) represent the gain spectrum of RAFWM for different values of amplifier length L and f
R
. It is clear that the
increasing of L leads to increase the gain significantly and distortion the spectrum flatness. This behavior may be
attributed to more interaction through the nonlinear media. Note that, in each case the amplifier divides to the same
sections (dz=L/N). In the first subfigure, we note that the gain has more flatter than other lengths of L. This results
from the fact that the section, the amplification process occurs inside it, is smaller than the other cases which achieves
the assumption that we have adopted to solve system equation, that dz ~0. Furthermore, the value of the bandwidth
and the amount of flatness is calculated through the total phase mismatch factor, in turn, not dependant on L. Thus the
amplifier length has little affects on bandwidth and gain flatness. In general, increasing the amplifier length leads to
nonspecific growth of gain. In practice, as the amplifier length and the pump power increases, more power will be
transmitted from the pump to the signal and Idler. With the change in the gain amount for the four cases of L, all the
shapes are acceptable as RAFOPAs systems if we compare with the input to the output signal. In addition, it is clear
that all forms at f
R
=0 have greater gain than the other cases. The reason for this behavior is that the pulse energy is
not conserved in the presence of intrapulse Raman scattering because a part of the pulse energy is taken by silica
molecules caused by f
R
. Figure (3) represents the gain spectrum of the RAFOPA system with different values of input
signal power P
3
, which is the signal we want to be amplified, and for two cases of f
R
. It is evident that the increase P
3
by 1mW lead to a decrease the gain significantly and distortion the gain flatness to both cases, and continually increase
P
3
, more distortion will be appear at f
R
=0. This behavior is mathematical result, where gain is resulting from output
to input signal power e.i. P
3out
/ P
3in
, since the gain depends only on pumps, fiber length, and nonlinear parameter
which are constant in this case, only P
3
varying. Subsequently, the ratio will decreases with increase P
3
. The distortion
for the gain results from the convergence between the values of P
1
, P
2
on the one hand and the value of P
3
on the
other hand.
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Figure (2): the gain spectrum for different amplifier length L and f
R
=(0,0.9, 0.18).
Figure (3): the gain spectrum for different input signal power P
3
, and f
R
(0.18, 0).
Figure (4) represents the gain spectrum for the RAFOPA at different values of the pumps power P
1
and P
2
, assuming
that P
1
= P
2
, and for both cases f
R
(0.18, 0). It is clear that the increases in pumps power values lead to increase the gain
significantly according to rate of increasing and changing gain flatness quality with continually increasing. Note that
the gain at 1mW and f
R
=0 case, will be maximum and has best flatness than case f
R
=0.18, but when increase pumps
power to 1.2W the curves starts convergence and matching in terms of value and flatness. With continually increase the
value to 1.4W, the curves appear inversion status between two cases of f
R
, and this case appears clearly at pumps power
1.6W. The reason for this behavior is due to what is known Raman gain saturation status, where at first subfigure
parametric amplification process by FWM dominant and the gain appear greater at f
R
=0 than at f
R
=0.18. Either
when increasing the pumps power up, parametric amplification process starts decreasing expense of activation the
Raman amplification process, at higher value of pumps power, direct parametric amplification process becomes
saturated because of its higher efficiency, so input signal will get more energy by indirect Raman gain, than direct
Raman amplification. Through the contribution of indirect Raman gain, a maximum gain enhancement can thus be
achieved when the direct Raman gain has not been saturated yet. The input signal thus can gain energy more effectively
by Raman pump through the parametric process rather than directly by Raman pump itself.
Figure (4): the gain spectrum for different values of the pumps P
1
, P
2
,where P
1
= P
2
, and f
R
=0, 0.18.
Figure(5) is the gain spectrum for system at different locations of ZDW
o
, this change represent by fluctuation around
1550 nm that appear through linear phase mismatch and this figure express both values of f
R
. Note from figure that
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the changing of
o
location lead to shifting all the bandwidth toward increasing, to the right of the spectrum. This
shifting is accompanies with change spectrum flatness whenever we move away from the optimal value of
o
(1550nm).
Figure (5): the gain spectrum for different values of
o
, and f
R
=0, 0.18.
This behavior is not accompanies with any change in gain or bandwidth and it is the general behavior of FOPAs which
results from the fact that the ZDW at optimum flatness must stay without any variations. Because =
c

o
, this
change in location of
o
in turn leads to breach phasematch condition and makes the spectrum nonuniform. It is
evident that amplified signal can fluctuate over a wide range for different members of the ensemble. This simulation
result has two consequences. First, it is not easy to predict the gain profile based only on the average value of ZDW of
the fiber. Second, even if one goes through many different values of
o
that one of them will yield a uniform gain
spectrum is very small. Such large variations in the gain spectrum would be unacceptable in practice when
o
go
farthest from optimum value. RAFOPAs can be used in practice in spite of random ZDW variations and mitigated
significantly by reducing the gain bandwidth. This can be achieved by reducing the wavelength separation between the
two pumps and optimizing the average frequency
c
.
6. CONCLUSIONS
For RAFOPA system, it have greater amount of gain at f
R
=0 (delay Raman response) than the other case (0.18) and
that is the optimum for this system which represent the attenuation in presence of SRS. Increase P
3
lead to a decrease
the gain significantly with the distortion of the gain flatness, so that it is better to put the amplifier, in the
communication system, in the region that the received signal worthless and it is about 0.001 W. Increases P
1
, P
2
values,
without leaving the saturation value, lead to increase the gain significantly. Changing of
o
location leads to shifting of
all the bandwidth, RAFOPAs can be used in spite of random ZDW variations and mitigated significantly by
reducing the gain bandwidth.
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