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IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)

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Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2014 ISSN 2321-5984

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ABSTRACT
Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers RA-FOPAs are one kind of attractive Hybrid Fiber Amplifiers HFAs in
wavelength-division multiplexing WDM because of their flexibility in the selection of pump powers and wavelengths in addition
to the inherent advantages of FOPAs. In RA-FOPAs, both the Fiber Raman Amplifier FRA and Fiber optical parametric
amplifiers FOPA use the same section of fiber, thus the optical signal are amplified by combine different third-order nonlinear
effects in optical fibers, which are SRS and FWM processes. Therefore, we investigate optimized RA-FOPA using different
parameter of Raman and FOPA such as delay Raman response, amplifier length, Raman pump power and Zero-dispersion
wavelength. In this paper, the general propagation equation of RA-FOPA system in multichannel Propagation in Single Mode
Fiber was solved analytically by considering the fiber as a concatenation sections, each one with very small length. A novel
expression relation of the resulted signal and idler waves was found.
keywords: FOPA, FWM, Raman amplifier, HFA, RA-FOPAs, Raman response function.
1. INTRODUCTION
For future broadband wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) requires amplifiers to compensate the loss of fiber and
equalize the power of the various channels, the semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), the erbium-doped fiber
amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers (RA), and fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) have been applied widely
to provide a high, broadband and flat gain spectrum [1]. But low loss windows (1250-1650 nm) of all-wave fiber cant
be utilized fully, therefore it is very important to seek a new optical amplifiers operating over a broad wavelength
range, and then a new type of broadband amplifier, Hybrid Fiber Amplifiers (HFAs) is put forward, which is combined
different types of fiber optical amplifiers, such as EDFAs and FRAs. HFAs are attractive because of their abilities to
tailor the gain profile, compensate fiber dispersion and loss, amplifies broad bandwidth, has wide gain spectrum ease of
integration with other devices and low cost and suppress the spontaneous noise [2-4]. Raman-assisted fiber optical
parametric amplifiers (RA-FOPAs) are one kind of attractive HFAs because of their flexibility in the selection of
parametric pump powers and wavelengths in addition to the inherent advantages of FOPAs [1,5-7]. As both FRAs and
FOPAs can provide gain at arbitrary transparency wavelength of optical fibers, it is advantageous to combine FRAs
with FOPAs in order to amplify optical signals over a broad wavelength range [5, 6, 8]. In RA-FOPAs, both the FRA
and the FOPA use the same section of fiber, thus the optical signal are amplified by combine different third-order
nonlinear effects in optical fibers, which are SRS and FWM processes. The gain behavior of RA-FOPAs are rather
complex. The overall gain can be larger than the sum of the individual gain of Raman and parametric amplifiers [5, 8,
9]. The gain properties of RA-FOPAs thus need to be carefully characterized for optimization [6]. In conventional RA-
FOPAs, the Raman pump not only directly amplifies the signal and the idler but also indirectly amplifies them through
amplification of the parametric pump. In other words, the parametric pump can actually convert the Raman power into
the parametric gain. Figure (1) shows the energy flow in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier [10].
Theoretical Calibration of Raman-Assisted
Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers in
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
Muayad H. Salman
1
, Ali H. Hassan
2
, and Hassan A. Yasser
3



1
Physics Department, College of Education, Mustansiriyah University

2
Physics Department, College of Education, Mustansiriyah University

3
Physics Department, College of Science, Thi-Qar University
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Figure (1): The energy flow in RA-FOPAs [10].
Therefore, in 2005 RA-FOPAs were proposed to combine the advantages of FRAs and FOPAs [11,12]. As both FRAs
and FOPAs can provide gain at arbitrary transparency wavelength of optical fibers. In 2005 [13] combine FRAs with
FOPAs in order to amplify optical signals over a broad wavelength range. In 2007 [14] investigate the combined effect
of Raman and parametric gain on single-pump parametric amplifiers. The phasematched parametric gain is shown to
depend strongly on the real part of the complex Raman susceptibility. Also in 2007, [15] show that, the real part of the
Raman susceptibility is shown to have a strong influence on the peak parametric gain of single-pump parametric
amplifiers. And because of gain flattening is important for future DWDM optical communication systems, multiple
Raman pumps are thus required to provide flattened gain for the converted signal [16, 17]. In 2008 [18] demonstrate
that, for RA-FOPAs, the overall gain can be larger than the sum of the individual gain of Raman and parametric
amplifiers. In 2009, [19] investigate extended flat gain bandwidth by combining Raman and parametric processes. The
increase in bandwidth is accomplished by extending the Raman gain region to the longer wavelength side of the Raman
gain by using parametric gain. In 2010, [20] a hybrid fiber Raman/parametric amplifier has been proposed, which can
have significant gain enhancement over that of a Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier using the same
length of fiber, Raman and parametric pump powers. In 2011, [21] demonstrated that the over 40 nm flat gain
bandwidth provided by the multiple Raman pumps can be used to support the parametric gain bandwidth of RA-
FOPAs. In 2013, [22] investigate the gain saturation characteristics in a backward-pumped RA-FOPAs. It is
experimentally observed that the onset of saturation occurs at a higher input power as compared to the case of a
conventional FOPA with the same unsaturated gain. The output power under strong saturation is also enhanced. In
2013, [23], demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, ability to increase the gain bandwidth by extending the gain
region to the longer wavelength side of the Raman gain by Hybrid Raman-Optical Parametric Amplifier for Next
Generation CWDM PON. This paper is mainly concerned with the use of RA-FOPAs in multichannel wavelength
division multiplexing (WDM) optical communication system and network. The aim of investigation is to increase the
transmission distance and amplify broad bandwidth optical networks by optimizing RA-FOPAs. Thereafter, the
propagation equations are solved analytically under a certain approximations that consider the pumps power much
more than the signal and idler powers. This approximation is very sensitive in order to neglect the pumps depletion.
We further optimized using different parameter of RAMAN and FOPA such as amplifier length, Raman and
parametric pumps power, zero-dispersion wavelength, and signal power. This done by presented a numerical manner
for the general equation that governed RA-FOPA system.

2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Like all electromagnetic phenomena, the propagation of optical fields in fibers is governed by Maxwell's wave
equations [24]
(1)
c
1
- E
2
2
o 2
2
2
2
t
P
t
E
c
c
=
c
c
V


The total induced polarization
) , ( t r P

which accounts for the linear polarization and the third order nonlinear
polarizations that are due to the Kerr effect
) , ( t r P
K

and to the Raman effect


) , ( t r P
R

can be written as [24]


IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
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(2) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
4
3
) ( ) ( ) ( : ) ( [
) ( )] ( Im[ ) ( )] ( Re[ ) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
-
) 3 ( 0 ) 3 (
0
(1)
0
(1)
0
}
}


+ +
+ = + + =
ds s E s E s t t E t E t E t E r
t E r i s d s t E s t t r P t r P t r P t r P
R k
R K L




Both
) 1 (

and
) 3 (

may be complex quantities. The real part of


) 1 (

represents the position- and frequency-dependent


dielectric constant, while the imaginary part reflects the optical loss or gain in the materials, which may be regarded as
frequency-independent, as the total signal bandwidth is usually much smaller than the center optical frequency
0
w of
the band. The imaginary part of
) 3 (

represents the two-photon absorption effect, which is negligible in fiber of silica


glass. The real part of
) 3 (

comes from two contributions,


) 3 ( ) 3 ( ) 3 (
} Re{
R k


+ = , where
) 3 (
k

is responsible for the optical


Kerr effect, which may be regarded as an instantaneous one. So that the time dependence of
) 3 (
k

is given by three delta


functions of the form (t-t
1
). That is; the assumption of instantaneous nonlinear response to neglect the dispersion
of
) 3 (
k

. On the other hand,


) 3 (
R

is tied to Raman scattering effect, which is a time-delayed process and it taking the
form ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
3 2 1 1
) 3 (
3 2 1
) 3 (
t t t t t t R t t t t t t
R
=

[25]. R(t) is the nonlinear response function and its scalar form
is given by
(3) ) (
2
3
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( t h f t t f t R
R R e R
+ =

) (t R
includes both instantaneous electronic (t-t
e
), results from the nearly instantaneous electronic response, and
delayed Raman contributions f
R
[26]. Optical fibers are designed to guide a few discrete modes, and the difference in
the dielectric constant is small between the core and the cladding, which makes the guided modes very close to linearly
polarized. Substituting Equation (2) into (1), yields
(4) ds ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
4
3
) , (
t
| ) , ( | ) (
4
3

) , ( )] ( Im[ ) ( )] , ( Re[
1

) , (

c
1
- ) , (
2 ) 3 (
2
2
2 2
2
2 ) 3 (
2
(1)
2
(1)
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
}
}


c
c
+
c
c
+
=
c
c

c
c
V
t r E s r
t
t r E
c
t r E t r E r
c
t r E r
c
i
ds t E s r
t c t
t r E
t r E
R k




3. THEORETICAL MANAGEMENTS
In the slowly-varying envelope approximation (SVEA), it is useful to separate the rapidly varying part of the electric
field by writing it in the form [24]
(5) .] . ) , ( [
2
1
) , (
0
c c e t r E x t r E
t iw
+ =


where . .c c stands for complex conjugate, x is the polarization unit vector of the light assumed to be linearly polarized
along x-axis, and E(r,t) is slowly varying function of time. Within each WDM channel, the transverse modal function
and the loss or gain coefficient are regarded as frequency-independent. So the trail solution would be
(6) ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
) (
1
0
t w z i
N
j
j j
j j
e t z A y x F t r E

=

=


Where
oj
is the optical propagation constant at frequency w
j
and A
j
is the slowly varying envelope of the jth channel,
and
2
J j
A P =
,
j
P
is the power of jth channel . Note that, we assume that all signals are linearly co-polarized. The
Fourier transform of Equation (4) takes the form
(7) ) , (
~
| ) , (
~
|
4
3
) , (
~
)] ( Re[ )] , ( Re[ ) , (
~
) , (
~
) , (
~
2 ) 3 (
2
2
(1)
2
2
(1)
2
2
2
2
2
w r E w r E
c
w
w r E r
c
iw
w r w r E
c
w
w r E
c
w
w r E
xxxx
= + + V

Equation (7) can be solved using the separation of variables method with
z i
j j j
j
e w w z A y x F w r E
0
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
~
=
. The result
equation of the transverse modal functions F
j
(x,y) is
(8) ) ( )]) , , ( Re[ (1 ] [
2 (1)
2
2
2
2
2
2
j j j j j
F w w y x F
c
w
F
y x
= + +
c
c
+
c
c

where

=
=
c
c
+ =
0
0
2
0
2
0
|
!
) (
2 ) (
k
w w k
j
k k
j
j j j
w k
w w
w


. Multiplying Equation (8) by
z i
j j
j
e w w z A
0
) , (

and
transform back to the time domain, yields
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(9) ) , ( ) , ( 2 ) , (
) , ( )] , , ( Re[
c
1
) , (
c
1
) , ( ] [
) (
0
2
(1)
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
0
t z A M e y x F t r E
ds s t r E s y x
t
t r E
t
t r E
y x
j j
t w z i
j j j oj
j j j
j j


+ =

c
c

c
c

c
c
+
c
c
}

Here, the difference (w-w


j
)
k
is replaced by
k k k
t i c c / during the inverse Fourier transform operation. Such that the
differential operator M
j
will become
(10) |
! 1
0

=
=
c
c
c
c
=
k
k
k
w w k
j
k k
j
t w k
i
M


The result in Equation (9) may be substituted into (4) to get
( )
(11)
2
1
t
1

| |
4
1
t
1


t
| |
4
3 1

t
)] ( Im[
z
1 1 1
* * ) 3 ( ) (
2
2
2
1 1
2 ) 3 ( ) (
2
2
2
1
) (
2
2
2
1
) ( ) 3 (
2
1
) (
2
2
(1)
2
1
) ( 2
0
1
) (
2
2
0
0
0 0
0 0 0
(
(

c
c
+
(

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= +
c
c

}

}


=
=
=
= =

= =

N
j k
k
N
j k
k
k k
N
j
j j R
t w z i
k k
N
j
N
j
j j R
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j xxxx
N
j
t w z i
j j
N
j
t w z i
j j j
N
j
t w z i
j j
ds A F A F e A F
c
ds A F e A F
c
e A F e A F
c
e A F r
c
i
e A F e A F
k k
j j
j j j j
j j j j j j




Many simplifications can be done using the mentioned above assumptions, which are:
1) The first term on the left will be
) (
1
2
0 0
0
)
z
2 (
t w z i
N
j
j j
j
j j
j j
e A
A
i F

=


c
c
~



2) The first term on the right will be

~
N
j
t w z i
j j j
j j
e A w F r
1
) ( 2 (1) 0
) ( )] ( Im[


3) The second term on the right will be
t w w w z i
k m n k
n m k
m n j xxxx
k m n k m n
e A A A F F F w
c
) ( ) ( * * 2 ) 3 (
2
0 0 0
4
3
+ +


4) The third and fourth terms on the right will be
t w w w z i
m n k m n k m
n n k
n
N
j k
k
k j k k j
N
k
k k j
k m n k m n
e w w H F F F A A A
c
w w H A F A
c
A F A
c
) ( ) ( * *
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
0 0 0
) (
2
1
) ( | |
4
1
| |
4
1
+ +
=
= =

+ + =




These simplifications will be reduced Equation (11) to
(12) ) (
2
1

) ( | |
4
1
| |
4
1

4
3
)
)] ( Im[
( 2
) ( ) ( * *
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
] ) ( ) [( * * 2
2
) 3 (
2
(1) 2
1
) (
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
t w w w z i
m n k m n k m
n n k
n
N
j k
k
k j k k j
N
k
k k j
t w w w z i
k m n k
n m k
m n j
xxxx
j
j
j
N
j
t w z i
j j
k m n k m n
k m n ok m n j j
e w w H F F F A A A
c
w w H A F A
c
A F A
c
e A A A F F F w
c
A
c
r iw
iA e F
+ +
=
= =
+ +
=

+
+ +
= +


As above mentioned we used the presented ideas in the references that processing FWM and SRS effects, and these
definitions have been token from [10, 24, 27]. Carrying many arrangements and using the definitions.
, ) ( ,
2
, | ) . ( | , ) ( 5 . 0
0
0
0 2
2 1
t h
n
k dxdy y x F kA u w w w
r R j j s R

= = = + = O
}



K
R eff
K
K
eff
j
j
f
dxdy F
dxdy F
A
n
n
k cA
n w


3 2
2
,
| |
),
3
2
1 (
8
3
,
0
0
4
2 2
) 3 (
0 ) 3 (
2 2
2
+
= = + = =
} }
} }



0
is the peak value of ) (t
R
, f
R
represents the fractional contribution of the delay Raman response to the nonlinear
polarization or the relative contribution of molecular vibrations to the total nonlinear response (determined in practice
IPASJ International Journal of Electronics & Communication (IIJEC)
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by fitting the experimental data) [26], which is related to the Raman nonlinear response. Equation (12) will be reduced
to
(13) ) ( | | ) (
) | | 2 | (| ) 1 (
2
) ( *
4
1
2
4
, 1
* 2 2
t d e u u t t h u f i t d u u t t h f i
e u u u u u u f i u
dz
du
t t i
j
j k
k r
j k
k R j j
k
k r R j
j k k i k
z i
m k i j k j R j j
j j
R
ikm
' ' + ' ' +
+
(

+ + = +
' O


= =


=
= =
A
}

}



For relatively broad pulse widths ( ps 1 > ),
j
u can be treated as constants compared with the time scale under which
h
R
(t) is varying. Equation (13) can then be written as
(14) | | | |
) | | 2 | (| ) 1 (
2
* 2
4
1
2
4
, 1
* 2 2
z i
ik
i k
m k i R j jk
j k
k j R j j
k
k R j
j k k i k
z i
m k i j k j R j j
j j
ikm
ikm
e H u u u f i H u u f i u u f i
e u u u u u u f i u
dz
du

A
= =
= =
A


+ + +
+
(

+ + = +

Here ) (
k i ik
w w H H = is the Raman response function h
R
(t) in the frequency domain, which can be separated as real and
imaginary parts
ik ik ik
H i H H ' ' + ' = [26]. Using this substitution into Equation (14) and rearrangement the result, we obtain
(15) ) 1 (
) | | ) 2 ( | | | |
2
*
4
2 2 2
z i
m k i
i k
ik R R j
j
j k
k jk R R j j j jk
j k
k R j
j j
ikm
e u u u H f f i
u u H f f u i u H u f
dz
du

A
= =


+ +
(

' + + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
' ' + +

}
}
=
dxdy F
dxdy F y x I
c
w
j
j
j
j
j
2
2 (1)
2
0
2
| |
| | )] , ( m[

is the attenuation coefficient of jth channel.


}
}
=
dxdy F
dxdy F F F F
c
w
j
j k m n xxxx
j
j
j
2
* * ) 3 (
2
0
2
| |
8
3

is the nonlinearity coefficient of jth channel.

jnkm
=
on
+
0m

0k

0j
is the linear phase-matching condition at jth channel. Equation (15) is new equation that
represents the NLSE for propagation any number of channels in the SMF which is different from other references [10,
24, 27], and it reduce to special equation mentioned in this references when f
R
=0.18 or f
R
=0. Note that, in the next
mathematical management, for simplicity we will assume that
N
= = = ......
2 1
and
N
= = = ......
2 1
. These assumptions
are valid since the fiber is single mode and the variation of frequency is very small, i.e. w/w
j
<<1. It is clearly from
Equation.(15) that
1-The attenuation increased in presence of SRS as showed in the second term in the left side.
2-XPM is changed because of SRS and this represented in the second term in the right side.
3-FWM is changed because of SRS and this represented in the third term in the right side.
If power peak of the incident pulse is above a threshold level, its relatively high threshold (1 W), SRS can transfer
energy to a new pulse at a different wavelength, which may propagate in the same or the opposite direction. A similar
situation occurs when two or more pulses at different wavelengths (separated by more than individual spectral widths)
are incident on the fiber. So that, when the gains provided by the parametric pump are comparable with that of Raman
gains, the combinations of FRAs and FOPAs will form RA-FOPAs. Equation.(15) represents the nonlinear Schrdinger
equation (NLSE) of multichannel propagation in single mode fiber, and is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In
RA-FOPA system there are four coupled equations, pump one, pump two, signal and Idler, which can be solved
numerically to get the signal gain spectrum. Indirect experimental approach is used in practice by noting that the
Raman gain spectrum is related to the imaginary part of the Fourier transform of h
R
(t). We used the experimentally
determined Raman response function h
R
(t) of silica fibers, whose Fourier transform, the complex Raman susceptibility
) (w H (the Fourier transform of h
R
(t) normalized such that h
R
(0) =1) [26].
4. PHASE MATCHING CONDITION
The parameter K=
L
+
NL
describes the total phase mismatch, both the nonlinear effects (SPM and XPM) and the
linear effects (fiber dispersion) contribute to K [27, 28]. Although the nonlinear contribution is constant at a given
pumps power, and it is of the order of P, the linear phase mismatch depends on the wavelengths of the four waves. As
the signal and idler gain spectra are symmetric with respect to the center frequency, it is convenient to use w
c
and w
d

as the two independent parameters, instead of wavelength
1
w and
2
w , and to get maximum parametric gain in
Equation.(15), the total phase mismatch K should be equal to zero or when = (P
1
+ P
2
), and this occurs at signal
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frequencies that satisfy the well-known phase matching condition, + (P
1
+ P
2
)=0. For any channel frequency
(signal) sth, the linear phase mismatch is given by [27]
(17) ] ) ( ) [(
12
] ) ( ) [(
4 4 4 2 2
2
2 1
d s d s p p i s
w w w w A A + A A = + = A



and
(18) ) )( 2 ( ) (
4
0 4
2
0 3 2
w w w w
c c
+ ~
where
2 1
, , , p p i s
are the signal, idler, pump one and pump two propagation constants, respectively, w
c
=(w
1
+w
2
)/2,
w
s
=w
3
w
c
, w
d
=(w
1
w
2
)/2=w
c
w
1
=w
2
w
c
, , where w=2c/, and
2
is the second-order dispersion, and
3
,
4
are
the third- and forth-order dispersions respectively, generally provided by manufacturers, w
0
is the zero-dispersion
wavelength ZDW. Therefore, adjusting separately each the pump central wavelength, ZDW and two pump
wavelengths, the magnitude and shape of the gain spectrum can be optimized. The B term contributes only when two
pumps are used and is independent of the signal and idler frequencies.
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Our simulation of the transmission is characterized by a large number of different parameters, most of which do not
change from simulation to simulation. For completeness, we list a typical parameter set below, and maintain deviations
from values whenever they occur
1550 , 1000 / length section , / 10 0.1
/ 10 1 , 8 . 4
15 . 0 , 001 . 0 , 2 . 1
/ 0 , 180 , 08 . 0
0
3 36 -
3
4 52 -
4
1 1
3 2 1
nm L km ps
km ps W km
km L W P W P P
km dB nm B f
p p
R
= = =
= =
= = = =
= = =



Furthermore, Equations.(17) and (18) are be used to calculate linear phase-mismatching and
2
respectively.
Figure (2) represent the gain spectrum of RA-FWM for different values of amplifier length L and f
R
. It is clear that the
increasing of L leads to increase the gain significantly and distortion the spectrum flatness. This behavior may be
attributed to more interaction through the nonlinear media. Note that, in each case the amplifier divides to the same
sections (dz=L/N). In the first subfigure, we note that the gain has more flatter than other lengths of L. This results
from the fact that the section, the amplification process occurs inside it, is smaller than the other cases which achieves
the assumption that we have adopted to solve system equation, that dz ~0. Furthermore, the value of the bandwidth
and the amount of flatness is calculated through the total phase mismatch factor, in turn, not dependant on L. Thus the
amplifier length has little affects on bandwidth and gain flatness. In general, increasing the amplifier length leads to
non-specific growth of gain. In practice, as the amplifier length and the pump power increases, more power will be
transmitted from the pump to the signal and Idler. With the change in the gain amount for the four cases of L, all the
shapes are acceptable as RA-FOPAs systems if we compare with the input to the output signal. In addition, it is clear
that all forms at f
R
=0 have greater gain than the other cases. The reason for this behavior is that the pulse energy is
not conserved in the presence of intrapulse Raman scattering because a part of the pulse energy is taken by silica
molecules caused by f
R
. Figure (3) represents the gain spectrum of the RA-FOPA system with different values of input
signal power P
3
, which is the signal we want to be amplified, and for two cases of f
R
. It is evident that the increase P
3

by 1mW lead to a decrease the gain significantly and distortion the gain flatness to both cases, and continually increase
P
3
, more distortion will be appear at f
R
=0. This behavior is mathematical result, where gain is resulting from output
to input signal power e.i. P
3out
/ P
3in
, since the gain depends only on pumps, fiber length, and nonlinear parameter
which are constant in this case, only P
3

varying. Subsequently, the ratio will decreases with increase P
3
. The distortion
for the gain results from the convergence between the values of P
1
, P
2


on the one hand and the value of P
3


on the
other hand.


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Figure (2): the gain spectrum for different amplifier length L and f
R
=(0,0.9, 0.18).

Figure (3): the gain spectrum for different input signal power P
3
, and f
R
(0.18, 0).
Figure (4) represents the gain spectrum for the RA-FOPA at different values of the pumps power P
1
and P
2
, assuming
that P
1
= P
2
, and for both cases f
R
(0.18, 0). It is clear that the increases in pumps power values lead to increase the gain
significantly according to rate of increasing and changing gain flatness quality with continually increasing. Note that
the gain at 1mW and f
R
=0 case, will be maximum and has best flatness than case f
R
=0.18, but when increase pumps
power to 1.2W the curves starts convergence and matching in terms of value and flatness. With continually increase the
value to 1.4W, the curves appear inversion status between two cases of f
R
, and this case appears clearly at pumps power
1.6W. The reason for this behavior is due to what is known Raman gain saturation status, where at first subfigure
parametric amplification process by FWM dominant and the gain appear greater at f
R
=0 than at f
R
=0.18. Either
when increasing the pumps power up, parametric amplification process starts decreasing expense of activation the
Raman amplification process, at higher value of pumps power, direct parametric amplification process becomes
saturated because of its higher efficiency, so input signal will get more energy by indirect Raman gain, than direct
Raman amplification. Through the contribution of indirect Raman gain, a maximum gain enhancement can thus be
achieved when the direct Raman gain has not been saturated yet. The input signal thus can gain energy more effectively
by Raman pump through the parametric process rather than directly by Raman pump itself.


Figure (4): the gain spectrum for different values of the pumps P
1
, P
2
,where P
1
= P
2
, and f
R
=0, 0.18.




Figure(5) is the gain spectrum for system at different locations of ZDW
o
, this change represent by fluctuation around
1550 nm that appear through linear phase mismatch and this figure express both values of f
R
. Note from figure that
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the changing of
o
location lead to shifting all the bandwidth toward increasing, to the right of the spectrum. This
shifting is accompanies with change spectrum flatness whenever we move away from the optimal value of
o
(1550nm).

Figure (5): the gain spectrum for different values of
o
, and f
R
=0, 0.18.
This behavior is not accompanies with any change in gain or bandwidth and it is the general behavior of FOPAs which
results from the fact that the ZDW at optimum flatness must stay without any variations. Because =
c
-
o
, this
change in location of
o
in turn leads to breach phasematch condition and makes the spectrum nonuniform. It is
evident that amplified signal can fluctuate over a wide range for different members of the ensemble. This simulation
result has two consequences. First, it is not easy to predict the gain profile based only on the average value of ZDW of
the fiber. Second, even if one goes through many different values of
o
that one of them will yield a uniform gain
spectrum is very small. Such large variations in the gain spectrum would be unacceptable in practice when
o
go
farthest from optimum value. RA-FOPAs can be used in practice in spite of random ZDW variations and mitigated
significantly by reducing the gain bandwidth. This can be achieved by reducing the wavelength separation between the
two pumps and optimizing the average frequency
c
.
6. CONCLUSIONS
For RA-FOPA system, it have greater amount of gain at f
R
=0 (delay Raman response) than the other case (0.18) and
that is the optimum for this system which represent the attenuation in presence of SRS. Increase P
3
lead to a decrease
the gain significantly with the distortion of the gain flatness, so that it is better to put the amplifier, in the
communication system, in the region that the received signal worthless and it is about 0.001 W. Increases P
1
, P
2
values,
without leaving the saturation value, lead to increase the gain significantly. Changing of
o
location leads to shifting of
all the bandwidth, RA-FOPAs can be used in spite of random ZDW variations and mitigated significantly by
reducing the gain bandwidth.
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Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEC/IIJEC.htm
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Volume 2, Issue 8, August 2014 ISSN 2321-5984

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