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NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND

NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS CNATRA P-1218 (REV. 11-98) PAT


TACTICAL FORMATION
FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
T-45TS, ADV, and IUT
1998
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T-45A FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
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Tactical Formation Flight Training Instruction
Original Title page
Original i thru vi
Original 1 thru 46
(11-98) Original
FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
FOR
TACTICAL FORMATION
T-45A
JET PILOT TRAINING
(11-98) ORIGINAL
(11-98) Original
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Page i
Tactical Formation Table of Contents
(11-98) Original
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................... i
FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................... iii
HOW TO USE THIS FTI ............................................................................................................................ v
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 1
BACKGROUND.......................................................................................................................................... 3
LOOSE DEUCE.................................................................................................................................... 3
COMBAT SPREAD ........................................................................................................................ 3
LOOKOUT DOCTRINE ................................................................................................................... 4
ENGAGED/FREE FIGHTER ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ..................................................... 6
VOICE COMMUNICATION.............................................................................................................. 6
WEAPONS ENVELOPE ...................................................................................................................... 6
PURSUIT .............................................................................................................................................. 8
LEAD PURSUIT ............................................................................................................................. 8
PURE PURSUIT ............................................................................................................................. 8
LAG PURSUIT................................................................................................................................ 8
OPERATIONAL MANEUVERABILITY ................................................................................................... 9
FLIGHT PROCEDURES ........................................................................................................................... 11
TRANSITIONING FROM CLOSE FORMATION TO COMBAT SPREAD................................................ 11
COMBAT SPREAD STRAIGHT AND LEVEL........................................................................................ 11
COMBAT SPREAD TURNS ................................................................................................................. 12
CRUISE TURNS............................................................................................................................ 12
SHACKLE TURNS ........................................................................................................................ 15
ENGAGING TURNS ...................................................................................................................... 15
MANEUVERING TURNS ............................................................................................................... 19
LOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE ................................................................................................................ 19
START........................................................................................................................................... 19
HIGH COVER................................................................................................................................ 21
LOW COVER................................................................................................................................ 21
RETURN TO HIGH COVER ........................................................................................................... 22
ENGAGE ...................................................................................................................................... 22
REVERSALS ................................................................................................................................ 22
VARIATIONS ................................................................................................................................. 22
GUNSIGHT TRACKING - HUD ............................................................................................................. 23
GUNSIGHT TRACKING EXERCISE ............................................................................................... 25
SAFETY/EMERGENCY SITUATIONS ..................................................................................................... 31
RELATIVE MOTION/EXCESSIVE CLOSURE....................................................................................... 31
SPATIAL AWARENESS ...................................................................................................................... 31
GOOD START ..................................................................................................................................... 31
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Tactical Formation Table of Contents
(11-98) Original
LOST SIGHT/LOOKOUT ...................................................................................................................... 31
AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 31
SELF-TEST.............................................................................................................................................. 33
APPENDIX A ........................................................................................................................................... 37
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................. 39
INDEX........................................................................................................................................................ 43
Page iii (11-98) Original
Tactical Formation
FIGURES
Figure 1: COMBAT SPREAD ................................................................................................................. 3
Figure 2: LOOKOUT DOCTRINE RESPONSIBILITIES ......................................................................... 5
Figure 3: WEAPONS FIRING ENVELOPE ............................................................................................ 7
Figure 4: TYPES OF PURSUIT.............................................................................................................. 8
Figure 5: CRUISE TURN INTO WINGMAN ......................................................................................... 13
Figure 6: CRUISE TURN AWAY FROM WINGMAN............................................................................. 14
Figure 7: CHECK TURN....................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 8: SHACKLE TURN .................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 9: TAC TURN ............................................................................................................................ 16
Figure 10: IN-PLACE TURN AWAY FROM WINGMAN.......................................................................... 17
Figure 11: IN-PLACE TURN INTO WINGMAN ...................................................................................... 17
Figure 12: CROSS TURN ...................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 13: LOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE ................................................................................................. 20
Figure 14: HUD CONTROLS/INDICATORS........................................................................................... 23
Figure 15: AIR-TO-AIR DATUM ENTRY SEQUENCE ........................................................................... 24
Figure 16: LOW YO-YO ......................................................................................................................... 27
Figure 17: HIGH YO-YO......................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 18: DISPLACEMENT ROLL ........................................................................................................ 29
Figures
Tactical Formation
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Figures
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Tactical Formation How to Use This FTI
HOW TO USE THIS FTI
This Flight Training Instruction (FTI) is your textbook for the Tactical Formation stage of your Jet Pilot
Training and is the source document for all procedures related to TacForm. In addition, it includes sug-
gested techniques for performing each maneuver and making corrections.
Use your FTI to prepare for and afterward to review lessons and flights. This information will help you
effectively prepare for lessons: know all the procedures in the assigned section(s), review the glossary,
and be prepared to ask your instructor about anything that remains unclear. Then you can devote your
attention to flying the T-45A. After a flight, review the FTI to reinforce your understanding and to clarify any
difficult maneuvers or procedures.
Note that this FTI also contains information on emergencies related to this stage. This section of the FTI
amplifies but does not supplant the emergency procedures information contained in the T-45A NATOPS
manual.
Reading requirements for flight procedures lessons (lectures) are listed in Appendix A, Lesson Prepara-
tion, along with the course learning objectives. The end-of-stage exam will be based on these objectives.
Complete the required reading prior to each lesson (lecture).
Tactical Formation
Page vi (11-98) Original
How to Use This FTI
NOTES
Page 1
Tactical Formation Introduction
.
(11-98) Original
INTRODUCTION
The relatively simple aircraft of previous wars relied solely on the gun to kill an adversary; these
aircraft have given way to more sophisticated fighters that employ both guns and extremely
formidable all-aspect firing missiles. This technological advance in weaponry has caused the tactical
community to reexamine and redefine their basic offensive and defensive air combat tactics. As a
result of this reevaluation, a simple and effective tactical formation evolved: combat spread. This
formation combines optimum offensive capability with maximum defensive flexibility. Combat spread
is the basic Naval air-to-air fighter formation from which loose deuce tactics are executed.
A properly understood and effectively employed loose deuce doctrine will enable you to work as a
team to engage the enemy and force him into a predictable flight path. It will allow you to effectively
use your aircraft as a weapons platform. Loose deuce maneuvering will increase your survivability
and offensive capability in combat.
The tactical combat arena is the most demanding and potentially deadly environment you will fly in
as a Naval aviator. During Tactical Formation, you will be introduced to and practice the fundamen-
tals of tactical maneuvering.
This flight training instruction (FTI) provides information and procedures on: 1) maneuvering as a
section in combat spread, 2) loose deuce tactics and exercise, 3) air-to-air use of the HUD, and
4)gunsight tracking maneuvers and exercise.
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Tactical Formation Introduction
(11-98) Original
NOTES
Page 3
Tactical Formation Background
BACKGROUND
LOOSE DEUCE
Loose deuce is the Navys tactical doctrine for air-to-air warfare in which a section of fighters can
coordinate sequential attacks against a single adversary as a free and an engaged fighter in
offensive and defensive situations. Loose deuce consists of a section in combat spread utilizing
proper lookout, precise execution of maneuvers, mutual support by presence, and clear, concise
communications.
COMBAT SPREAD
Combat spread is a section tactical formation maximizing mutual support. It is based on the concept
that two aircraft are separated so they cannot be attacked as a single unit, but are close enough to
support each other. The wingman is positioned 3/4 to 1 nm abeam the lead with a stepup of 1,000 ft
(Figure 1). The lateral and vertical separation is based on visual detectability of the enemy, threat
weapon system envelopes, fighter turn radius, and threat environment. Proper aircraft positioning in
combat spread maximizes maneuverability against air-to-air or surface-to-air threats and forces early
commitment by the threat.
Lead Responsibilities
The lead must ensure mutual support through a successful lookout doctrine, communications, and
flight safety. Flying tactical formation in training, the lead must ensure that the specific training
objectives for the flight are met, keep the section in the training area, and adhere to all other training
rules.
(11-98) Original
Abeam
1,000 ft
3/4 to 1 nm
Figure 1: COMBAT SPREAD
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Tactical Formation Background
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Wingman Responsibilities
Flying tactical formation is a team effort requiring the wingman to share responsibilities with the lead.
The wingman also ensures section integrity by maintaining a good combat spread position.
LOOKOUT DOCTRINE
An effective lookout doctrine is the cornerstone of mutual support, requiring each pilot to develop
and employ a thorough visual scan pattern outside the cockpit.
Coordinated scan patterns between lead and wingman in combat spread ensure maximum visual
coverage and allow sufficient reaction time to engage the bandit.
The threshold of visual detection depends on numerous factors, such as aspect, atmospheric
conditions, and background clutter. Focus your eyes on a distant pointa cloud or ground object
to give your eyes a depth of field from 1 mile to infinity. Pilots employing this technique significantly
increase their detection rates.
Alternate horizontal and vertical search patterns. A horizontal search pattern minimizes light
intensity variations, allowing your eyes to keep their light adjustment for a given horizontal sector. A
vertical search pattern causes your eyes to change their intensity adjustment. A vertical scan will
often cause a bandit on or below the horizon to stand out. Scan vertically no more than a 30-degree
segment of the total area at one time. Learn to scan in a definite pattern. Random searches
produce poor results.
The lead and wingmans primary lookout areas each extend from 30 degrees outside the formation
and sweep through the formation to the aft visual limit (Figure 2). Visual search beyond 30degrees
outside the formation is a secondary responsibility for both lead and wing. Directly behind each
aircraft is a small unseen area referred to as the blind cone. The wingmans blind cone is visually
covered by the lead as part of his primary lookout responsibility. Conversely, the leads blind cone is
visually covered by the wingman as part of his primary lookout responsibility. Even an aggressive
scan meticulously executed within a section in combat spread leaves a mutual blind area formed at
the intersection of each aircrafts aft visual limit between 9,000 to 12,000 ft astern, varying with
differences in lateral separation between aircraft.
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Tactical Formation Background
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Wingman
Wingmans
Secondary
Lead
Primary
Blind
Cone
Blind
Cone
Mutual
Blind
Cone
Leads
Secondary
30 30
Figure 2: LOOKOUT DOCTRINE RESPONSIBILITIES
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Tactical Formation Background
(11-98) Original
ENGAGED/FREE FIGHTER ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Anytime the section is engaged with a bandit, lead and wingman formation roles and responsibilities
are exchanged for engaged and free fighter tactical roles and responsibilities. The engaged fighter
is the fighter actively pursuing the bandit or forcing the bandit into a predictable flight path (offensive/
defensive). The free fighter is the fighter maneuvering to protect the engaged fighter and to obtain a
clear shot at the bandit.
Engaged Fighter
As the engaged fighter, your primary responsibility is to kill the bandit. To do this, you must keep the
bandit in sight and either attack him or defend against his attack. In either case, the engaged fighter
must force the bandit to maneuver hard enough to deplete his energy, thus making him predictable.
It is essential that you communicate with the free fighter to coordinate your tactics effectively.
Free Fighter
As the free fighter, you are also responsible for killing the bandit. Analyze the fight to predict the
bandits flight path and maneuver for a shot while maintaining sight of both the engaged fighter and
the bandit. Use descriptive comm to inform the engaged fighter of your position and directive comm
to provide tactical recommendations to target the bandit. The free fighter should constantly manage
his energy package.
VOICE COMMUNICATION
Clear, concise radio communications of a tactical, directive, and descriptive nature will optimize the
sections effectiveness. You must learn to fly, think, and communicate simultaneously. Typically,
initial communications are of bandit sightings. However, immediate movement of the section utilizing
directive communication is the highest priority radio call made to avoid being targeted by a bandit.
The directive call would be followed immediately by descriptive communication to ensure both
aircraft acquire the bandit and establish the fighter tactical game plan.
WEAPONS ENVELOPE
The basis for an air-to-air kill is flying the aircraft to the firing parameters necessary to employ a
selected weapon system successfully. Those parameters define the weapons envelope (Figure 3) in
terms of range and angle off the tail (AOTfighter position off the bandits tail). A weapons
envelope around the bandit is three-dimensional and dynamic based upon fighter and bandit
airspeed, altitude, g, and specific weapons capability. Firing from within the envelope greatly
increases the probability of a kill (P
K
).
The weapons firing envelopes for CNATRA are rear quarter envelopes only for snap guns, raking
guns, tracking guns, and sidewinders (FOX-2). Figure 3 illustrates maximum and minimum ranges
and angle off. The hot and cold sides are functions of angle off and bandit direction of turn (intercept
geometry). The hot side refers to the area in the direction of turn relative to the bandits longitudinal
axis. The cold side refers to the area away from the direction of turn. Hot and cold do not refer to
the heat source of the target; they are only a function of intercept geometry. The heart of the IR
envelope is 1 nm at the bandits six.
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Tactical Formation Background
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1,500
2 nm 1/2 nm 90 1,000'
60
40
2 nm
Hot Side
30
Cold Side
2 nm
(Sidewinder Maximum Range)
(Sidewinder Minimum Range)
Snap Guns
90
1/2 nm
Raking Guns
Tracking Guns Kill
Sidewinder Kill - Hot Side
Sidewinder Kill - Cold Side
2,000'
Figure 3: WEAPONS FIRING ENVELOPE
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Tactical Formation Background
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PURSUIT
The concept of pursuit geometry between attacker and defender in the ACM environment is basic to
every tactical maneuver (Figure 4). Pursuit is defined by the attackers velocity vector relative to the
defender. All pursuits control closure in some way.
LEAD PURSUIT
Lead pursuit increases your closure rate on the bandit and usually results in decreased nose-to-tail
distance. It also solves for a guns firing solution. To employ lead pursuit as the attacking aircraft,
position your nose ahead of the bandit.
PURE PURSUIT
Use pure pursuit to maintain nose-to-tail separation on the bandit, and to acquire a lock-on tone for
an IR missile shot. To employ pure pursuit as the attacking aircraft, position your nose on the
bandit.
LAG PURSUIT
Lag pursuit decreases closure rate on the bandit and usually results in increased nose-to-tail
distance. Lag pursuit allows you to maintain your energy and may cause visibility problems for the
bandit. To employ lag pursuit, position your aircrafts nose behind the bandit.
LEAD
PURE
LAG
Figure 4: TYPES OF PURSUIT
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Tactical Formation
Background
OPERATIONAL MANEUVERABILITY
Aircraft maneuverabilitythe capability to perform changes in altitude, airspeed, and direction
depends on both fixed and variable factors. The fixed factors are aircraft design (weight, wing
loading, power capabilities, and structural limitations) and aircraft configuration (bombs, rockets,
external tanks, etc.). Variable factors include altitude, airspeed, AOA, and g. Both turn radius and
turn rate are dependent on TAS and g (the ratio of lift to weight) with constant altitude. On a given
wing at a specific AOA, the coefficient of lift is constant regardless of airspeed, gross weight, and
altitude. For turns, lift must exceed weight, and g loads must be greater than 1. As g increases,
AOA increases. The aircraft that can sustain the most g at a constant TAS will have the smallest
turn radius. TAS has a greater effect on turn radius (TAS
2
/g) than on turn rate (g/TAS). Instanta-
neous turn rate is the maximum available turn rate at any given airspeed without regard to energy
sustainability. The aircraft that can sustain the most g at a given TAS will have the fastest turn rate.
The effective application of turn rate/radius principles depends on practice.
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Tactical Formation Background
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NOTES
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
FLIGHT PROCEDURES
TRANSITIONING FROM CLOSE FORMATION TO COMBAT SPREAD
After visually checking the area clear, the lead usually advises the wingman of his heading, altitude,
and airspeed, and then signals the wingman to assume combat spread by pushing his palm out and
away. At the signal, the wingman goes to MRT, accelerating to a 10-15 kt airspeed advantage, and
takes a cut away from the lead to establish a 10-15 degree heading differential. He varies pitch and
AOB to arrive 3/4-1 nm abeam with 1,000 ft of vertical separation.
A common tendency of the wingman while moving into position is to take too great or quick a cut to
combat spread, resulting in a sucked position. Patience is the key. If you find yourself looking
directly down your 3/9 line or forward, correct immediately by reducing your heading differential and/
or varying your rate of climb and/or airspeed to maintain bearing.
COMBAT SPREAD STRAIGHT AND LEVEL
While flying combat spread straight and level, the wingman must maintain position, giving priority
first to the abeam bearing, second to lateral distance, and third to vertical separation. To determine
the abeam position, the wingman looks straight out over his shoulder on a 90-degree relative
bearing.
Once abeam, the wingman should match the leads airspeed by adjusting power and nose attitude
for level flight. The gouge for straight and level combat spread is approximately 1,800 pph to
maintain 300 KIAS.
To remain in combat spread, the wingman must employ a continuous inside/outside scan. Look
inside to scan heading, airspeed, and altitude and outside to check the leads position and scan his
primary/secondary lookout areas.
If the wingman is sucked or acute, close or wide, the lookout suffers, increasing the sections
vulnerability to attack. Whenever necessary, trade altitude for airspeed to maintain bearing.
If the wingman is sucked, he should lower the nose, add power, and accelerate until arriving on the
abeam bearing. When on the bearing line, raise the nose to maintain the bearing and readjust
power for 300 KIAS. During this climb, the indicated airspeed will be in excess of 300 KIAS. By
raising the nose and climbing on the bearing line, the wingman increases his altitude and decreases
his airspeed while maintaining position with the lead. The wingman may lose as much altitude/
airspeed as necessary to regain the bearing line.
If the wingmans position is acute, he pulls the nose up and reduces power. Approaching the bearing
line, he lowers the nose and resets his power to arrive on the bearing at 300 KIAS.
In an acute and wide/close position or a very acute position, the wingman goes to MRT and executes
a series of hard turns at 11 units and at least 30 degrees off heading in the direction necessary to
regain position. He then returns to the original heading and readjusts power when in position, being
careful not to overcorrect, which may lead to a sucked position.
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
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If the wingmans vertical separation is less than 1,000 ft, but he is on the bearing line with proper
distance abeam, he adds power and raises the nose to climb while maintaining 300 KIAS. He
readjusts power when back in position.
The amount of any correction depends on the amount of the positional error. Small errors require
minor maneuvering to finesse the aircraft into proper combat spread. Trading altitude for airspeed is
more fuel efficient than adjusting power. Gross errors require more aggressive flying to correct into
proper position.
COMBAT SPREAD TURNS
All combat maneuvering is designed to maintain maximum maneuvering potential when a section
performs turns. Combat spread turns are used to turn the section as much as 180 degrees during
patrolling flights. There are three types: 1) cruise turns used for navigation, 2) shackle turns used to
align or realign the section, and 3) engaging turns used in a high-threat environment to actually
engage the enemy.
CRUISE TURNS
There are three types of cruise turns: called, uncalled, and check. Called and uncalled cruise turns
turn the section 90 degrees, either into (Figure 5) or away (Figure 6) from the wingman. Check turns
turn the section 30 degrees or less (Figure 7).
Called/Uncalled Cruise Turns
The lead initiates called cruise turns by transmitting, [Call sign], 90 right/left. The wingman
acknowledges by calling [Two], and the lead then initiates the turn into or away from the wingman.
Uncalled cruise turns into or away are executed in the same manner as called cruise turns, except
that no radio communication is used. The lead initiates the turn by giving a wing flash in the
direction of the turn instead of a radio call. Upon recognizing the wing flash, the wingman executes
the turn either into or away, when the lead rolls into his 30-degree AOB turn. If the wingman does
not see the wing flash, he soon discovers the lead turning. If the wingman does not recognize the
wing flash direction, he must assume a turn away to prevent the section from being separated.
Assuming a turn away, the wingman will still maintain sight of the lead and be able to react when he
recognizes the direction of turn.
Into Wingman
The lead initiates cruise turns into the wingman (Figure 5) by transmission/response or wing flash.
The lead begins a 30-degree angle of bank (AOB) turn into the wingman while maintaining his
altitude and 300 KIAS. The wingman simultaneously initiates his turn with a 10-20 degree AOB turn,
varying his AOB according to his distance abeam from the lead. The wingman passes approximately
2,000 ft ahead of the lead with a 15-20 degree heading differential, maintaining his AOB until the
lead disappears below and behind him. As the lead passes below and behind the wingmans six
oclock, he checks the wingmans six and calls, Six clear. As the lead disappears, the wingman
counts 2-4 seconds, then rolls into a 45-60 degree AOB turn until acquiring sight of the lead. After
reacquiring, he will check the leads six and call, Visual, six clear. The wingman adjusts AOB and
nose attitude for the remainder of the turn to arrive in combat spread as the lead rolls out of his 90-
degree turn.
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
If you start the turn acute, raise the nose to slow down initially, using less AOB than normal before
the lead crosses your six. After the lead crosses, use more AOB than normal to arrive in combat
spread.
If you start the turn sucked, lower the nose to increase airspeed initially, using more AOB than
normal before the lead crosses your six. After the lead crosses, use less AOB than normal to arrive
in combat spread.
If you start the turn wide, initially use less AOB than normal before the lead crosses your six. After
the lead crosses, use more AOB than normal to arrive in combat spread.
If you start the turn close, initially use more AOB than normal before the lead crosses your six. After
the lead crosses, use less AOB than normal to arrive in combat spread.
Away from Wingman
The lead initiates cruise turns away from the wingman (Figure 6) by transmission/response or wing
flash. The lead begins a 30-degree AOB turn, maintaining his altitude and 300 KIAS. The wingman
simultaneously initiates his turn toward the inside of the leads turn, using 45-60 degrees AOB, and
slightly lowering his nose to accelerate. After 45 degrees of turn, the wingman passes approximately
2,000 ft aft and slightly below the lead with a 15-20 degree heading advantage and a 25-30 kt
airspeed advantage. The wingman should not need more than a 50-kt airspeed advantage. As the
wingman passes aft and below the lead, he checks the leads six and calls, Six clear. The lead
rolls out of the turn after 90 degrees, obtains a visual, and checks the wingmans six before calling,
Visual, six clear. The wingman then decreases AOB to 15-20degrees and adjusts nose attitude to
arrive in combat spread.
(11-98) Original
Lead
Wingman
Figure 5: CRUISE TURN INTO WINGMAN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(11-98) Original
If you start the turn acute or close, delay 3-4 seconds, lower the nose less than normal and, initially,
use more AOB before crossing the leads six. After crossing, use less AOB than normal to arrive in
combat spread.
If you start the turn sucked, lower the nose more than normal and, initially, use less AOB before
crossing the leads six. After crossing, use more AOB than normal to arrive in combat spread.
If you start the turn wide, lower the nose more than normal and, initially, use more AOB before
crossing the leads six. After crossing, use less AOB than normal to arrive in combat spread.
If you arrive on the bearing line before the lead rolls out of his turn, raise your nose, adjust AOB to
keep from going acute, and play the roll-out to arrive in combat spread as the lead rolls out.
If you find yourself out of position after the turn, it is probably attributable to improper AOB, timing,
and/or airspeed control. If you are sucked, lower the nose, add power, accelerate until arriving on
the abeam bearing, then raise the nose and reduce power to maintain 300 KIAS.
Lead
Wingman
Figure 6: CRUISE TURN AWAY FROM WINGMAN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
Check Turns
The lead initiates the turn (Figure 7) by calling, [Call
sign], check left/right [# of degrees]. The turn may
be 30 degrees or less. The wingman acknowledges,
[Two]. Both members of the section immediately
turn to the new heading, with the wingman correcting
to maintain combat spread position.
SHACKLE TURNS
Shackle turns cross the wingman from one side of
combat spread to the other or redress the flight in an
expedient manner (Figure 8). The lead initiates the
turn by calling, [Call sign], shackle [heading]. The
wingman acknowledges with [Two].
Ideally, both aircraft turn into each other at 14 units.
If the maneuver is begun in proper combat spread
position, both the lead and wingman will conduct
about a 45-degree turn prior to the reversal. If the
wingman is sucked at the beginning of the maneuver,
he should use less pull and less turn prior to the
reversal. If the wingman is acute prior to the
maneuver, he should use a harder pull toward the
lead in an attempt to pull more than 45 degrees prior
to the reversal. The subsequent turn
out of the reversal should be adjusted
so that the wingman rolls out in proper
combat spread. The lead may have
the flight shackle about the original
heading or up to about 30degrees off
the original heading. The wingman
should adjust his pull and time his
reversal accordingly to arrive out of the
turn in combat spread on the heading
called for by the lead.
ENGAGING TURNS
Engaging turns maneuver the section
to engage a bandit who is not an
immediate threat. Therefore, they are
energy-sustaining turns. In an actual
combat arena, these turns are normally
called by the first aircraft (tactical lead)
with the tally. However, in the
CNATRA environment, they will be
called by the lead. There are three
types of engaging turns: tactical (Tac)
(11-98) Original
Lead Wingman
Figure 7: CHECK TURN
Figure 8: SHACKLE TURN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(11-98) Original
(Figure9), in-place (Figures 10 and 11), and cross (Figure 13). A Tac turn maneuvers the section
90 degrees; in-place and cross turns maneuver the section 180 degrees. If the bandit/threat is
abeam the section, use a Tac turn. If the bandit/threat is behind the section, use a cross turn.
When the bandit/threat is behind and offset to one side of the section, use an in-place turn.
Tac Turn
The lead initiates the turn by calling, [Call sign], Tac right/left. The wingman acknowledges,
[Two]. The mechanics of this turn are not dependent on actual lead or wingman position but rather
inside and outside position relative to the direction of turn (Figure 9). The outside man (i.e., the
aircraft farthest from the direction of the turn) will go to MRT and execute a 14-unit AOA turn, using
approximately 70 degrees AOB, tracking the nose of his aircraft on or slightly below the horizon to
maintain 300 KIAS. Upon completing the 90-degree turn, he reduces power to maintain 300 KIAS.
Check the inside mans six and call, Six clear.
The inside man will wait until the outside man is nose on. He then goes to MRT, starts his engaging
turn of 14 units AOA, and maintains 300 KIAS. When he regains sight of the outside man, he will
check his six and call, Visual, six clear.
Outside-man
Inside-man
In-place Turns
An in-place turn may be into or away from the wingman. During the in-place turn away, the wingman
keeps sight of the lead aircraft and adjusts his position with AOB and g accordingly. During the in-
place turn into, the wingman will lose sight of the lead and must adjust for combat spread after
reacquiring.
Away from the Wingman
The lead initiates the turn by calling, [Call sign], in-place right/left. The wingman acknowledges,
[Call sign]. Both lead and wingman then go to MRT and begin engaging (energy-sustaining) turns
of 180 degrees while maintaining 300 KIAS, 14 units AOA, and approximately 70 degrees AOB
Figure 9: TAC TURN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(Figure 10). The wingman continues the turn by varying AOB and g based upon the leads turn.
After 90 degrees, the wingman will check the leads six and call, Six clear. When the lead reac-
quires the wingman visually, he checks the wingmans six and calls, Visual, six clear. The
wingman then continues to maneuver for combat spread. Remember to make corrections for
positional deviation after the first 90 degrees of turn. Failure to correct then causes you to end up
out of position.
(11-98) Original
Into the Wingman
The lead initiates the turn by calling, [Call sign], in-place right/left. The wingman acknowledges,
[Two]. Both lead and wingman go to MRT and begin engaging (energy-sustaining) turns of
180degrees while maintaining 300 KIAS, 14 units AOA, and approximately 70 degrees AOB
(Figure11).
Lead
Wingman
Figure 10: IN-PLACE TURN AWAY FROM WINGMAN
Lead
Wingman
Figure 11: IN-PLACE TURN INTO WINGMAN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(11-98) Original
The wingman loses sight of the lead aircraft, but continues the turn by maintaining airspeed and
AOA. After 90 degrees, the lead will check the wingmans six and call, Six clear. Upon regaining
sight of the lead, the wingman checks his six and calls, Visual, six clear. The wingman then
continues to maneuver to combat spread, maintaining 300 KIAS. Make corrections after reacquiring
the lead at approximately 135 degrees of turn. Failure to correct causes you to end up out of
position. The wingman should constantly use an inside/outside scan in order to maintain position.
Cross Turn
The lead initiates the turn by calling, [Flights call sign], cross turn; [leads call sign] high/low. (In
the CNATRA scenario, the lead usually goes low.) The wingman acknowledges, [Call sign, high/
low]. The high man immediately goes to MRT and turns in the low mans direction at 17units
(Figure 12). The pilot going low goes to MRT and executes a 17-unit AOA, at 300 KIAS, and a 70-
degree AOB turn in the high mans direction with the nose tracking on or slightly below the horizon.
After 90 degrees of turn, he checks the high mans six and calls, Six clear. As the high man
approaches 90 degrees of turn with approximately 1,000 ft of vertical separation, he checks the low
mans six and calls, Six clear. After the cross, the wingman pulls beyond the new reciprocal
heading, taking a 10-30 degree cut into the lead to arrive back in combat spread at 300KIAS.
Aircraft separation is achieved by the 1,000 ft of stepup maintained by the wingman.
Lead
Wingman
Figure 12: CROSS TURN
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
MANEUVERING TURNS
The three types of maneuvering turnsengaging, hard, and breakare executed during engage-
ments with the enemy.
Engaging Turn (Energy-Sustaining)
Executed at MRT, 14 units AOA, and slightly nose-low, the engaging turn allows the pilot to maintain
his energy package while maneuvering for an engagement. Engaging turns employ an efficient turn
rate and radius and may include trading altitude for airspeed. Engaging turns are employed when
the pilot detects the bandit outside the bandits weapons range.
Hard Turn
Executed at MRT and 17 units, the hard turn compromises between turn rate increase and energy
bleed-off. Use it defensively when the bandit becomes a threat and offensively to obtain a firing
solution.
Break Turn
The break turn is a maximum-g, defensive turn executed at MRT and 19-21 units AOA. Designed to
defeat an employed weapon or to destroy a bandits firing solution by forcing an overshoot. It results
in maximum instantaneous turn rate with maximum lift, but rapid energy bleed-off.
LOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE
This training command exercise (Figure 13) teaches you to talk and fly at the same time in a
structured tactical sequence. It is practiced with two aircraft maneuvering against a simulated
bandit. You establish engaged and free fighter roles, maneuver through the positions associated
with those roles, swap roles, and practice tactical communications to develop proficiency at preserv-
ing energy and communicating effectively during basic tactical maneuvers.
START
The loose deuce exercise starts with the section in combat spread when the lead spots a simulated
bandit and calls out a tally report of an imminent threat, thus setting the stage for the wingman to
react (Figure 13). The lead calls for the wingman to turn into the bandit to avoid a shot by the
banditfor example, Murph, hard right. The lead follows the initial movement call with position of
the banditBandit, right, four high. You, as the wingman, simultaneously execute the turn and
respond to leads call with your call sign, bandit in sight, and role definitionMurphs tally, Im
engaged. The lead calls back confirmation of his role, Torchs free. Now that the tactical roles of
engaged and free fighter are identified, the formal roles of lead and wingman are dropped during the
engagement.
Although the engaged fighter (wingman) has a tally, the free fighter (lead) is better positioned to
direct the fight and calls the initial bandit overshoot. Once the engaged fighter has turned hard into
the threat, the bandit overshoots and reverses to neutralize the attack of the free fighter. The free
fighter becomes the new engaged fighter (lead) when he calls: directive action, bandit information,
role change, position, and the bandit position in relation to himselffor example, Reverse, bandit
overshot, Im engaged at your left seven, bandits on my nose 1/2 mile. At this time, the new free
fighter (wingman) reverses to get a tally on the bandit and a visual on the engaged fighter who is in a
turn away, low and inside. Now that you are the free fighter, acknowledge sight of both aircraft, and
identify your role by calling, Tally, visual, Im free. You now move into a high-cover position
approximately 2,000 ft behind the engaged fighter outside his turn with approximately 2,000 ft of
vertical separation.
(11-98) Original
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(11-98) Original
Torch (Lead) Murph
Bandit
"Murph, reverse,
bandit overshot."
"Torch is engaged
at your left 9, low.
Bandit on my nose,
1/2 mile."
"Murph, hard right,
bandit right 4, high."
"Torchs free."
"Murphs tally,
Im engaged."
"Tally visual,
Murphs free."
Figure 13: LOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE
Page 21
Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
HIGH COVER
The engaged fighter reduces power to approximately 92% and continues his turn. Since your (free
fighter) turn is now outside the engaged fighter, the necessary nose-to-tail separation should quickly
develop. Maintain power at MRT and adjust the nose as necessary to slide into high cover. Three
problems may arise shortly after the reversal: 1) nose-to-tail separation does not adequately
develop, 2) you drift into and on top of the engaged fighter, or 3) you maintain high cover too long
generating too much nose-to-tail separation. Correct by momentarily rolling wings level to place your
back outside his turn.
High cover is an offensive free fighter position. To maintain high cover and preserve your vertical
separation, reduce AOB as necessary to hold up the nose. Remain outside the engaged fighters
turn by reducing AOB until proper nose-to-tail separation develops. Adjust your radius of turn to
maintain position as necessary.
LOW COVER
The free fighter flies to low cover when called on to engage or whenever he needs to close nose-to-
tail distance. The low-cover position is inside the engaged fighters turn at 4 or 8 oclock, but no
closer than 500-ft nose-to-tail separation. As the free fighter, you may be called on to engage at any
time during the transition from high-to-low cover. Once you have reached approximately 2,000 ft
nose-to-tail, overbank the aircraft down and inside the engaged fighters turn, smoothly pulling your
nose in front of the engaged fighter (lead pursuit). You will close on the engaged fighter and be in
position to assume the role of engaged fighter, if necessary. When transitioning from high-to-low or
low-to-high cover, transmit your intentions and check the engaged fighters sixfor example,
Murphs high cover, going low, your six is clear.
Do not allow too much closure to develop through an excessive lead pursuit angle or increased
airspeed (50 kts overtake maximum). High closure may force you to make a hard, energy-bleeding
roll away to avoid an overshoot. Recognize closure early. It is always better to roll away too soon,
rather than too late. You can successfully transition from high-to-low or low-to-high cover by
smoothly controlling pitch and roll rate. Be fluid, not erratic.
At this point in the exercise, you have three options:
1) Return to high cover when nose-to-tail distance is inside 1,000 ft.
Example: Free fighter: Murphs low cover, going high, your six is clear.
2) Engage at the engaged fighters request.
Example: Engaged fighter: My guns are jammed, can you engage?
Free fighter: Roger, Murphs in.
Engaged fighter: Torchs off.
New engaged fighter: Murphs engaged at your left nine low, bandits on my nose,
1/2 mile.
New free fighter: Tally, visual, Torchs free.
3) Remain in low cover because nose-to-tail distance is greater than 1,000 ft.
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
(11-98) Original
RETURN TO HIGH COVER
If not engaging, continue until reaching approximately 1,000 ft of nose-to-tail. Ensure that you pass
no closer than 500 ft to the engaged fighter. Reduce AOB and increase back stick in order to fly
outside and above the engaged fighters turn. Be careful not to fly through the engaged fighters jet
wash and, as always, maintain sight of the engaged fighter. Continue above and outside the
engaged fighters turn until nose-to-tail distance matches that of the high-cover position.
ENGAGE
The free fighter should always be in position to engage from either high or low cover. As the free
fighter assumes the engaged role, he continues to pull inside the engaged fighter to acquire appro-
priate lead on the bandit. The engaged fighter relinquishes his role as he calls Off, rolls wings
level, and pulls noseup. The new engaged fighter winds up below and inside the new free fighter as
he continues moving into a high-cover position. The fighter who is engaging is responsible for safe
separation.
The free fighter is tasked with the overall responsibility for maintaining separation, keeping sight and
preserving the 500-ft bubble while either changing roles or transitioning from low/high cover. The
free fighter will never engage from forward of the 4/8 position of the engaged fighter because of the
midair potential. Both fighters are responsible for avoiding midair collisions. Although the engaged
fighter cannot always maintain visual contact, he must attempt to keep the free fighter in sight as
much as possible.
REVERSALS
The engaged fighter may call a bandit reversal anytime during the exercise by saying, Bandits
reversed, and the free fighter must maneuver his aircraft to stay in a cover position.
High Cover
The free fighter may use two maneuvers when reacting to the engaged fighters (bandit) reversals,
1)the displacement roll reversal, or 2)the basic reversal. Select the appropriate maneuver based
on your capability to keep sight and to maintain vertical and lateral separation.
Displacement Roll Reversal
When the engaged fighter reverses, reduce your AOB and raise the nose. Canopy roll to the outside
of the engaged fighters new turn and remain in high cover. Maintaining sight of the engaged fighter
is the primary advantage of this reversal.
Basic Reversal
As the engaged fighter crosses your nose, reverse to maintain the high-cover position. Momentarily
losing sight of the engaged fighter under your nose is the disadvantage of this maneuver.
Low Cover
When you hear the bandits reversed call from the engaged fighter, you reverse and either 1) pull
inside the engaged fighters turn and slide back into low cover or 2) move into high cover with the
appropriate voice call.
VARIATIONS
As you progress through the TacForm syllabus and become more proficient, your instructor will vary
the sequence of maneuvers. You will trade engaged and free fighter roles often during the loose
deuce exercise. Be prepared to react to a dynamic situation.
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Tactical Formation Flight Procedures
GUNSIGHT TRACKING - HUD
Tracking a maneuvering target for a gun shot involves solving the complex geometry of g, gravity,
and range while flying your aircraft to the edge of the envelope. The HUD (Figure 14) will help you
achieve a gun firing solution by combining essential flight-performance and aiming information on the
pilots display unit (PDU) as you keep your eyes on the bandit. The submode identifier appears on
the right side of the display below the radar altitude and indicates the submode: lead angle comput-
ing (LAC) or real time gunsight (RTGS).
(11-98) Original
Fwd Cockpit
VIDEO RECORDER
SWITCH
DATA ENTRY PANEL
ARMAMENT
CONTROL
PANEL
PILOTS DISPLAY
UNIT
GUN
A/A
A/G
ROCKETS
BOMBS
OFF
L STA R STA
L STA R STA
ARM
READY
GUN
ARM
GUN
SAFE
MASTER
ARM
VCR
AUTO
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
BRT
AUTO
DAY
1
N
2 3
W
4 5
E
6
S
8
+
9
DCL ENT
0
CLR DATA
MODE
7
-
+
SET
DEP
-
BARO
SET
Figure 14: HUD CONTROLS/INDICATORS
Page 24
Tactical Formation
(11-98) Original
Air-to-Air Data Entry
During preflight, after you have
completed the interactive BIT and
entered the altimeter and field height
(Figure 15), set the weapons
selector to GUN A/A for the air-to-air
guns master mode of the HUD. The
air-to-air display initially appears in
the lead angle computing (LAC)
submode. Select the real-time
gunsight (RTGS) submode by
depressing the MODE button on the
HUD data entry panel (DEP). To
verify the target wingspan setting,
depress the DATA key. The scratch
pad area displays the default
wingspan of 31 ft, the T-45A
wingspan. Press ENT to accept this
value or enter a new value for the
wingspan of the bandit and then
press ENT. After completing the air-
to-air data entry, set the weapons
selector to OFF in order to return the
HUD to the navigation mode for the
flight to the operating area. Once in
the operating area, place the
weapons selector to GUN A/A, press the GUN select switch, and place the VCR switch in ON or
AUTO, as briefed.
HUD Air-to-Air Symbology
In the air-to-air mode, the aircraft symbol is displayed on the waterline, and heading, true airspeed,
and bank angle indicators are not displayed. Because you are maneuvering in relation to the other
aircraft, heading and specific bank angle are unimportant; the pitch bars will still be displayed and
you can use them as a bank angle reference. The selected submode is indicated by LAC or RTGS
displayed just above GUN on the right center of the PDU. An X over GUN indicates that the master
armament switch on the weapons selector panel is set to SAFE. The X is removed when the
master armament switch is set to ARM.
The wingspan setting you entered sets the diameter of the reticle in both LAC or RTGS. With the
bandits wingspan set, the reticle can be used to estimate range. At 1,000 ft, the bandits wings fill
the inside diameter of the reticle. The center of the A/A aiming reticle, the pipper, indicates the
computed impact point. Each submode computes the impact point differently. The reticle flashes if
it reaches the edge of your field of view.
In LAC, the pipper indicates the impact point of the round at 1,000ft, but you need to track the target
for at least 1 second to get a valid aiming solution. Therefore, LAC is used for a mildly maneuvering
target.
Enter New Value
Press DATA
Press ENT
Press ENT
Previous Wingspan
Displays
Select A/A GUN
Figure 15: AIR-TO-AIR DATUM ENTRY SEQUENCE
Flight Procedures
Page 25
Tactical Formation
In RTGS, the pipper indicates the instantaneous impact point of the round at 1,000 ft. Since it will
take 1/3 of a second for the round to travel 1,000 ft, you need to place the pipper ahead of your
targets flight path to account for the rounds time of flight. At 400KIAS, the bandit travels 222 ft in
1/3 of a second. So, with 30 degrees angle off, place the pipper about the inner diameter of the
reticle ahead of the aircraft. RTGS is used for a hard-maneuvering target.
The technique for using the HUD is basically a matter of experience. As you maneuver your aircraft,
the reticle will move on the PDU as it compensates for g and yaw. For this reason, the more
smoothly you maneuver your aircraft while tracking, the more accurate the aiming solution. During
hard maneuvering, the reticle may peg to the side of the PDU and begin to flash. At this point, the
aiming solution is invalid, and you should continue to maneuver to place the bandit on your nose.
When the reticle stops flashing, the aiming solution is accurate.
Declutter
The declutter function works the same in the air-to-air mode as in the navigation mode. Declutter
One removes AOA, Mach number, and g from the display. Because heading and AOB are not
displayed in air-to-air mode, selecting Declutter Two will not change the display. Using declutter in
TacForm is not practical, because you will lose AOA and g from the HUD display.
HUD Failures (A/A mode)
HUD failures are almost always identified by a loss of symbology. Do not assume, however, that a
failure exists until you are certain that declutter has not been selected and that data is not out of
limits. In A/A gun, declutter 1 removes angle of attack, Mach number, and g-load from the PDU.
Missing symbology because of data that is out of limits due to rapid roll rates or rapid g-load
transitions will return as soon as your flight parameters stabilize.
If you get a HUD failure on the ground or in transit to/from the MOA, cycle the power to the HUD to
see if it clears the failure. If cycling the power does not clear the problem, you have confirmed the
failure. Follow CNATRA policy for your flight to determine if you can still fly.
If the reticle disappears during gunsight tracking and will not reappear after cycling the power to the
HUD, push the MODE key to switch the submode to RTGS. If this does not produce a usable reticle,
continue tracking using guidance or demonstrations from the back seat. The rear cockpit is
equipped with a conventional sight and will not be affected by a HUD failure. Coordinate with your
instructor to select other HUD submodes that may produce a usable reticle.
Sealed Video Module
The sealed video module records the view through the HUD. The entire module is placed in the VCR
receptacle located in the aft cockpit, right console, and is secured by placing the locking bar in the
LOCKED position. In the RECORD position, the VCR begins recording shortly after power is applied
to the aircraft. With the aft cockpit VCR switch in STBY or OFF, the forward cockpit VCR switch
controls VCR operation. The forward cockpit VCR switch has three positions: (1) ON, VCR starts
recording; (2) OFF, the aft cockpit controls VCR operation; (3) AUTO, VCR starts recording when the
master armament switch is set to ARM.
GUNSIGHT TRACKING EXERCISE
This will be your first opportunity to maneuver your jet into a weapons envelope and engage a
noncooperative bandit (your lead). It is also an excellent opportunity to introduce the concepts that
you will need to master as a fighter pilot.
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Flight Procedures
Page 26
Tactical Formation
(11-98) Original
The exercise begins with the fighter (thats you) on a 45-degree offensive perch, at 300 KIAS, with
1,000 ft of stepup on the bandit. When you have announced that you are speed and angels
(aircraft airspeed and altitude is established), the bandit will clear you in. Now what?
If you have familiarized yourself with the CNATRA missile parameters, youll realize an immediate
shot opportunity exists once you bring your nose to bear. Take it! Aggressively dig to put the
waterline on the bandit and shoot him! Since the bandit is unlikely to sit there and take the shot
without some type of defensive counter, we can assume that he will survive this shot. What next?
It is here that we need to define the control zone. This is a cone running from approximately
2,000ft aft and 20 degrees either side of the bandits flight path to 4,000 ft aft and 40 degrees either
side. It is comprised of many little control points defined as one turn radius aft of a max-performing
bandit (the length of the radius varies with airspeed giving us multiple points). Ill let you in on a
secret. If you can manage to establish yourself inside this control zone with fuselage alignment,
there is very little the bandit can do to shake you. In fact, once you have established yourself here,
driving into a gunsight tracking solution is easy. But unless your bandit is a grape of the feeblest
kind, you have to get to his control zone before you can track him steady state.
Pursuit
If youll recall, there are essentially three types of pursuit curves: lead, pure and lag. The intelligent
use of these pursuit curves (along with a willingness to max perform your airplane) that allows you to
reach 1,000 ft in trail of the bandit sending a steady stream of tracers up his can.
As long as there are angles between you and the bandit, closure will be determined by the pursuit
curve you choose. Your nose position will define the pursuit when in the same plane-of-motion
(POM) as the bandit, and your lift vector will perform the same function when in different POM.
Given the set, you know that youre pretty close to the bandits control zone, but youre not there yet.
You must perform some type of lag pursuit maneuver to get there. If you put your nose on or pull
lead pursuit on this break-turning bandit immediately following the Fox-2, you will probably get a
shot, but it will not be a tracking shot. However, holding the nose on initially is not a bad idea. It
allows you to assess the quality of his break turn and forces him to move his lift vector off of you for
as long as you are attempting to gun him (therefore, limiting the angles being developed). The range
at which you move to lag pursuit should be early enough to allow for entry into the control zone with
tactical airspeed. Well touch on this a little bit more in a second.
If youll refer to your gun envelope, it becomes apparent that the longer you pull lead or hold the nose
on, the more aggravated the angles become. At anything inside 2,000 ft, what youre more likely to
see is a fleeting snapshot. While youre holding the pipper on the bandit, salivating at the prospect
of real cool HUD footage to show your friends, the bandit is generating angles. If he brings you into
minimum range (1,000 ft), there is no lag maneuver known to man that will prevent your T-45A from
overshooting the bandit.
In case you werent already aware, in-close, high track-crossing rate (TCR) overshoots are bad. At
best, you lost the opportunity for any follow-on shots. At worst, you still have the opportunity for
follow-on shotsbut it will be the bandit taking them.
Lets go back to your initial lag maneuver and put you back where you belongaggressively driving
to that bandits control zone. The lag maneuver you choose should be one that preserves your
Flight Procedures
Page 27
Tactical Formation
airspeed. This can be either a momentary unload followed by a max-performance pull to lead or
pure, or a simple relaxation of the pull to eat up the lateral separation while preserving no less than
300 KIAS.
If a second missile shot presents itself, take it. If you misjudged to pull to lead pursuit and overshot
the control zone, or if you just cant manage the turn rate needed to bring the nose to bear, attempt a
low yo-yo.
Low Yo-Yo
Pull the nose down toward the inside of the bandits turn and position it well in front of the bandit
(lead pursuitFigure 16).
Upon approaching the desired weapons range, work the nose back up toward the bandit, avoiding
heavy buffet. As you close on the bandit, determine if the bandit is within your weapons parameters.
At this point, either fire the selected weapon or continue maneuvering to the weapons envelope.
Should you generate excessive closure, use a high yo-yo to stop closure and maintain nose-to-tail
separation.
(11-98) Original
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
Attacker
Defender
Figure 16: LOW YO-YO
Flight Procedures
Page 28
Tactical Formation
(11-98) Original
High Yo-Yo
The high yo-yo is a lag pursuit maneuver designed to reduce angle off and closure rate (Figure17).
It is used to prevent an in-close/low-to-medium angle off overshoot and to control nose-to-tail
separation. The out-of-plane maneuvering places the velocity vector of the fighter above the plane
of attack against the bandit and exchanges airspeed for altitude. The combination of the out-of-
plane maneuvering and the slower airspeed allows you to turn with a smaller horizontal radius while
aligning fuselages and reducing angle off the bandit. Slowing down also reduces your closure rate,
allowing you to maintain or increase nose-to-tail.
Start the high yo-yo when you recognize excessive closure or potential overshoot. Quarter roll
away from the bandits maneuvering plane and pull the aircraft nose up. As you pull above the
bandits plane of maneuvering, you should be slowing sufficiently to stay inside the bandits turn. If
it becomes obvious that you will not be able to stay inside the bandits turn, maintain the pullup
until the bandits relative speed advantage results in increased nose-to-tail separation allowing you
sufficient separation to come down. As angle off decreases and you acquire appropriate nose-to-
tail distance, roll the aircraft back toward inside the turn. Overbank, pull the nose through the
horizon to the appropriate pursuit. A low-angle overshoot at range is far better than a high angle
overshoot in-close.
One other lag maneuver that can help displace lateral separation is the displacement roll (Figure
18). For this to be a valid option, your fuselage should be very nearly aligned with the bandits.
As you recognize excessive closure, attempt to align fuselages on the inside of the bandits turn.
Raise the nose above the bandits aircraft. Roll away from the turn toward the bandits six, varying
g as necessary to displace your flight path. Use rudder to maintain fuselage alignment. Control
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
1
2
3
2
3
Attacker
Defender
Figure 17: HIGH YO-YO
Flight Procedures
Page 29
Tactical Formation
the rate of roll and heading differential in order to arrive in range with lead pursuit. Use either a slow
roll rate to increase nose-to-tail distance or a rapid roll rate to maintain nose-to-tail.
1
1
2
3
2
3
Attacker
Defender
1
1
2
2
3
3
Figure 18: DISPLACEMENT ROLL
Normally, a high yo-yo is a much better tactic to prevent in-close overshoots and an unload or
relaxed pull works better at range. If youve executed the initial maneuver well, youll arrive at the
control zone with a turn rate advantage. You can now close to guns through a combination of
excess airspeed and lead pursuit. Angles that develop should be easily controllable with either a
momentary power reduction or a mild lag maneuver. Now you may track the bandit at will.
Tracking
As you approach 1,000 ft nose-to-tail separation, the targets wingspan should begin to fill the inner
area of the aiming reticle. Place the pipper over the target and hold it there for at least one second
prior to firing. This allows the reticle to stabilize on the target. After stabilizing, the pipper will have
compensated for the lead required due to g and time of flight at 1,000 ft (pilot reaction time is not
compensated for by the HUD). Smooth g application is paramount for a valid tracking solution.
Maintain 1,000 ft nose-to-tail with power/speed brakes as necessary. When youre established in the
gun envelope, place the pipper on the bandit, pull the trigger, and call Pippers on, tracking. Call
Pippers off when you stop tracking, or whenever the reticle is off the target.
Be aware that the bandit will attempt to get out of your POM and destroy your tracking solution by
trading whatever airspeed he has for angles. If you do nothing to control the closure (reset your
power!), you will fly out in front of him. A lag maneuver will probably not help you here because the
savvy bandit will simply oppose your nose, further aggravating the angles. When youre inside the
control zone, do not become complacent until the bandit no longer breathes! At track gun ranges,
hes got options.
Good luck. Were all counting on you.
(11-98) Original
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Tactical Formation
(11-98) Original
NOTES
Flight Procedures
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Tactical Formation
SAFETY/EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Always remember that safety is paramount. As you move further into the tactical phase of flight
training, the potential for an incident increases significantly. If, however, you think only about being
safe, you will never achieve the level of proficiency necessary to be a competent tactical aviator.
Safety is the natural and number one by-product of operational proficiency. Complete knowledge,
thorough preparation, and continuous practice are the keys to achieving operational proficiency.
The following specific areas will go a long way in making you a safe and effective tactical jet pilot.
RELATIVE MOTION/EXCESSIVE CLOSURE
All midair collisions are a result of pilots failing to recognize constant bearing and decreasing range
until it is too late to take evasive action. Up until now, all your flying in close proximity to other
aircraft has been static, and rates of change have always been tightly controlled. This will not be the
case in the rest of your tactical flying.
SPATIAL AWARENESS
Spatial awareness is the ability to project the flight paths of your aircraft and other aircraft in relation
to each other. By developing spatial awareness and fully understanding your aircrafts capabilities,
you will prevent midair collisions.
GOOD START
As you learned in CQ, if you arent in good position at the abeam, the chances are by the time you
get to the ramp you are not in a good position to land. Similarly, in TacForm, near misses are often
caused by the wingman being out of position at the start of the maneuver. Strive to be in position at
all times.
LOST SIGHT/LOOKOUT
In order to minimize the potential for a midair collision, especially in the air-to-air phase, you must
keep your head on a swivel. Learn to take quick glances into the cockpit to get the information you
want and then to look back outside immediately. Any aircraft that loses sight for more than an
instant must transmit Lost sight. The other aircraft will provide descriptive/directive commentary to
help the lost-sight aircraft reacquire sight. If this is unsuccessful, the instructor will call, Knock it
off.
AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS
All aircraft have specific structural/aerodynamic limitations. If you do not heed these limitations, you
could damage the aircraft. It is mandatory that you know all the aircraft limitations and procedures.
(11-98) Original
Safety/Emergency Situations
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Tactical Formation
(11-98) Original
NOTES
Safety/Emergency Situations
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Tactical Formation
SELF-TEST
BACKGROUNDLOOSE DEUCE, COMBAT SPREAD
1. What is the purpose of combat spread?
ANSWER: To provide mutual support
2. What is the wingmans position in combat spread?
ANSWER: 3/4 to 1 nm abeam the lead with 1,000 ft of vertical separation
3. What are the wingmans responsibilities in combat spread?
ANSWER: Maneuver the aircraft to maintain combat spread and employ proper lookout,
communications, and flight safety.
4. What are the leads responsibilities in combat spread?
ANSWER: Maneuver the section in a tactical environment, optimizing the sections capabili-
ties while carrying out specific flight objectives, navigating, and ensuring flight
safety.
BACKGROUNDLOOSE DEUCE, LOOKOUT DOCTRINE
5. While in combat spread, the primary lookout for the _________ is from 30 degrees outside the
formation sweeping through the formation to the aft visual limit.
ANSWER: lead and wingman
BACKGROUNDENGAGED/FREE FIGHTER ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
6. What are the significant differences between engaged and free fighter responsibilities?
ANSWER: The free fighter also has the responsibility of:
a. keeping the engaged fighter in sight.
b. clearing the engaged fighters six.
c. coordinating movement with the engaged fighter for a shot.
d. keeping or regaining a high-energy state.
BACKGROUNDOPERATIONAL MANEUVERABILITY
7. For two aircraft at a given TAS, the aircraft that can sustain the most g will have the ______
turn radius and the ______ turn rate.
ANSWER: smallest, greatest
FLIGHT PROCEDURESTRANSITIONING FROM CLOSE FORMATION TO COMBAT SPREAD
8. As you take a cut to combat spread, how will AOB affect your position?
ANSWER: Too much AOB (leading to too much heading differential) will cause you to go
sucked; conversely, too little AOB will cause you to go acute.
Self-Test
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Tactical Formation
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FLIGHT PROCEDURESCOMBAT SPREAD TURNS, CRUISE TURNS
9. Why would you assume a turn away if you did not see/recognize the wing flash?
ANSWER: The section would become separated and the wingman might lose sight, making it
more difficult to join-up again.
10. If you find yourself in a sucked position and the lead initiates a cruise turn in your direction,
what is your initial action?
ANSWER: Use more AOB than normal and lower the nose to increase airspeed.
11. If you find yourself in a sucked position and the lead initiates a cruise turn away from you, what
is your initial action?
ANSWER: Use less AOB than normal and lower the nose to increase airspeed.
12. At the end of a check turn, what should the wingman do?
ANSWER: Maneuver as necessary to combat spread.
FLIGHT PROCEDURESCOMBAT SPREAD TURNS, ENGAGING TURNS
13. Why do you think we use engaging turns instead of cruise turns?
ANSWER: Engaging turns are used to maintain energy and aggressively maneuver the
section.
14. When, if at all, will the wingman lose sight of the lead during an in-place turn away from the
wingman?
ANSWER: After 135 degrees of turn
15. As the inside man in a TAC turn, when do you advance to MRT and start your engaging turn of
14 units?
ANSWER: When the outside man approaches nose on
16. When does the wingman regain sight of the lead aircraft during an in-place turn into the
wingman?
ANSWER: After 135 degrees of turn
17. When does the high man overbank to pass nose low, inside the low mans turn with approxi-
mately 1,000 ft of vertical separation?
ANSWER: When approaching 90 degrees into the turn
Self-Test
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Tactical Formation
FLIGHT PROCEDURESCOMBAT SPREAD TURNS, MANEUVERING TURNS
18. Which maneuvering turn has an energy efficient turn rate and radius?
ANSWER: Engaging turn
FLIGHT PROCEDURESLOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE
19. Describe a tactical application of lead, lag and pure pursuit in the loose deuce exercise.
ANSWER: Several tactical uses may be acceptable based upon lesson content, instructor
examples or student deductions. The attacking aircrafts nose position in relation
to the bandit must be included in each answer.
20. How does voice comm during the initial move of the loose deuce exercise demonstrate priority
directive/descriptive voice communication procedures for loose deuce maneuvering?
ANSWER: Hard right is a directive voice call emphasizing immediate movement for a
member of the section, therefore the priority. Bandit, right 4 high, is an example
of descriptive voice comm which is secondary to immediate movement. Additional
voice comm during the initial move sequence either directs or describes action as
necessary.
21. What are the significant differences in maintaining the high- or low-cover position?
ANSWER: In high cover, the free fighter flies outside the engaged fighters turn while main-
taining approximately 2,000 ft of vertical separation and approximately 2,000-ft
nose-to-tail. In low cover, the free fighter flies inside the engaged fighters turn
with little or no vertical separation and a minimum of 500-ft nose-to-tail.
FLIGHT PROCEDURESLOOSE DEUCE EXERCISE, HIGH COVER
22. While engaging from high cover, what happens if you pull too hard or aft of the engaged
fighter?
ANSWER: The aircraft nose becomes buried.
FLIGHT PROCEDURESGUNSIGHT TRACKING, GUNSIGHT TRACKING EXERCISE
23. What are the significant differences between a FOX-2 and a guns tracking solution?
ANSWER: Significant differences exist in:
a. Range and angle off
b. Pure pursuit is used for the missile shot
c. Lead pursuit is used for the guns solution
FLIGHT PROCEDURESGUNSIGHT TRACKING, HIGH YO-YO
24. Which maneuver is a form of lag pursuit used to control a high rate of closure to prevent an
overshoot and reduces angles off?
ANSWER: High yo-yo
Self-Test
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Tactical Formation
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FLIGHT PROCEDURESGUNSIGHT TRACKING, LOW YO-YO
25. Which maneuver decreases range and increases the rate of closure?
ANSWER: Low yo-yo
Self-Test
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Tactical Formation
APPENDIX A
Study Resources for Tactical Formation:
[A] T-45A NATOPS Flight Manual, A1-T45AB-NFM-000
[B] Tactical Formation Flight Training Instruction (FTI)
[C] MIL lesson for Eng-02, and CAI lessons for ONFP-01, ONFP-02, and WepFP-01
TFFP-01: HUD, 0.7 hr, CAI
Lesson Preparation:
* [A] Review Part VIII, Chapter 22, Armament System
* [C] Review
Lesson Objectives:
* Interpret HUD air-to-air symbology
* Recall settings for air-to-air submodes
* Recall procedure to enter air-to-air data
* Identify failure of HUD air-to-air modes
* Recall procedure for responding to a failure of the air-to-air modes
TFFP-02: Introduction to Tactical FormationSection Turns, 1.5 hr, Classroom
Lesson Preparation:
* [A] Review Part IV, Flight Characteristics, Part V, Emergency Procedures, and Part VIII,
Chapter 22, Armament System
* [B] Read
Lesson Objectives:
* Describe the correct position and purpose of the combat spread formation
* Describe the concept of mutual support in a tactical situation
* Recall the responsibilities of the lead aircraft in combat spread
* Recall the responsibilities of the wingman in combat spread
* Describe the lookout responsibilities of lead and wingman
* Recall procedures for cruise turns into wingman
* Recall procedures for cruise turns away from wingman
* Recall procedures for performing uncalled cruise turns into and away from wingman
* Recall procedures/techniques for performing check turns
* Recall the types and purposes of engaging turns
* Recall procedures/techniques for performing tactical turns
* Recall procedures/techniques for performing in-place turns
* Recall procedures/techniques for performing cross turns
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Appendix A
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Tactical Formation
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TFFP-03: Tactical Formation, 1.5 hr, Classroom
Lesson Preparation:
* [A] Review Part IV, Flight Characteristics, Part V, Emergency Procedures, and Part VIII,
Chapter 22, Armament System
* [B] Read
Lesson Objectives:
* Describe the relationship between AOA and airspeed to turn radius and rate
* Describe various maneuvering turns from combat spread
* Describe engaged fighter responsibilities
* Recall free fighter responsibilities
* Recall the tactical applications of lead pursuit
* Recall the techniques for lead pursuit
* State the tactical applications of lag pursuit
* Recall the techniques for lag pursuit
* Recall the tactical applications of pure pursuit
* Recall the techniques for pure pursuit
* Recall voice procedures for performing loose deuce exercise
* Recall the techniques of an initial turn from combat spread to loose deuce exercise
* Recall the techniques of maintaining high-cover position
* Describe the low-cover position
* Describe the procedure for going from low cover to high cover
* Recall the procedure for engaging from high cover
* Recall procedures and techniques for gunsight tracking
* Describe the tactical use of high yo-yo maneuvering
* Describe the procedures for performing high yo-yo maneuvering
* Describe the tactical use of low yo-yo maneuvering
* Describe the procedures for performing low yo-yo maneuvering
* Recall the tactical use of the displacement roll
* Recall procedures/techniques for performing a displacement roll
Appendix A
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Tactical Formation Glossary
GLOSSARY
A
Angle Of Attack (AOA): The angle between the wing chord and the relative wind. Referred to as
units rather than degrees because there is no zero reference.
Angle Of Bank (AOB): The angle between the wing and the horizon, assuming no wing dihedral.
Angle Off The Tail (AOT): Angle between defenders longitudinal axis and attackers line-of-sight.
More simply, attackers position off defenders tail.
Angels: Altitude of aircraft above mean sea level in thousands of ft.
B
Bandit: Air contact identified as hostile.
Blind: I do not see lead/wingman/friendly.
Bogey: Unidentified air contact.
Boresight: Synonymous with nose of aircraft when tracking a target.
Break Turn: Maximum rate turn (20 units AOA) executed to defeat an employed weapon.
Buster: Fly at MRT.
C
Check Turns: Type of cruise turn that maneuvers the section 30 degrees or less.
Combat Spread: Two-aircraft tactical formation designed for mutual support.
Cross Turn: An engaging turn that maneuvers a section 180 degrees by turning lead and wingman
into each other.
Cruise Turn: Called or uncalled turns that maneuver a section 90 degrees, either into or away from
the wingman.
D
Deck: Minimum altitude.
Descriptive Comm: Radio calls of an informative nature used to build a mental picture.
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Tactical Formation
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Directive Comm: Radio calls giving specific instructions to another aircraft.
E
Energy Package: The combination of the aircrafts altitude (potential energy) and airspeed (kinetic
energy) making up the aircrafts total energy.
Engaged Fighter: A fighter actively engaged in air-to-air combat with a bandit either offensively or
defensively.
F
FOX-2: AIM-9 IR missile firing solution.
Free Fighter: Fighter maneuvering to protect the engaged fighter and to obtain a clear shot at the
bandit.
G
GUNS: Rear-quarter steady-state or snap guns firing solution.
H
Hard Turn: Compromise between maximum rate turn and energy-conserving turn (300 KIAS at
17units AOA).
High Cover: An offensive position of the free fighter in loose deuce, high and outside the engaged
fighters turn.
HUD: Head-up display used in the T-45A for flight/weapons information.
I
In-place Turn: An engaging turn that maneuvers a section 180 degrees by turning lead and
wingman in the same direction.
K
Knock It Off: Stop fight or current maneuvers.
Glossary
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Tactical Formation
L
LAC: Lead Angle Computing.
Lag Pursuit: Nose of the attacking aircraft tracking behind the bandit.
Lead Pursuit: Nose of the attacking aircraft tracking ahead of the bandit.
Lift Vector: Imaginary line that runs perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
Line Of Sight (LOS): Bearing to bandit relative to fighter.
Loose Deuce: Navy tactical doctrine for employment of a section of aircraft in air-to-air warfare.
Low Cover: An offensive position of the free fighter in loose deuce low and inside the engaged
fighters turn.
M
MRT: Maximum-rated thrust.
N
No Joy: I do not see the bandit.
P
P
K
: Probability of kill for a given weapon.
Pad Lock: I have tally and cant take my eyes off bandit (for fear of losing contact due to visibility/
range, etc.).
Pigeons: Magnetic bearing of and distance from home base (or unit indicated).
Popeye: In clouds or area of reduced visibility.
Pure Pursuit: Nose of the attacking aircraft tracking on the bandit.
R
Range: Linear distance between two aircraft stated in nautical miles (nm) or ft.
RTGS: Real Time Gunsight
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Glossary
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Tactical Formation
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S
Section: A pair of fighter aircraft working together as a unit.
Shackle: To redress the section by crossing member to other side, thus reassuming proper combat
spread position.
Six: Abbreviated reference to the 6 oclock position directly behind an aircraft.
Spatial Awareness: Ability to project the flight paths of aircraft in relation to each other.
T
Tac Turn: An engaging turn that maneuvers a section 90 degrees in the direction of the bandit.
Tally: Bandit visually sighted.
Track Crossing Angle (TCA): Angular difference in velocity vectors at any instant.
V
Velocity Vector: Projected flight path of the aircraft at a given moment.
Visual: Wingman in sight.
W
Weapons Envelope: Airspace around an aircraft within which an employed weapon has a high
probability of destroying the aircraft. Defined in terms of weapon, angle off, and range.
Glossary
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Tactical Formation
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Index
INDEX
A
Air-to-air data entry ...................................... 23
Air-to-air symbology .............................. 24, 37
B
Bandit .............................. 4, 6, 8, 15, 16, 19,
21-23, 25-29, 35, 39-42
Basic reversal ............................................... 22
Blind cone ........................................................ 4
Bogey ............................................................ 39
Break turn .............................................. 19, 39
C
Called/uncalled cruise turns ........................ 12
Check turns ............................. 12, 15, 37, 39
Combat spread ........................ 1, 3, 4, 11-19,
33-35, 37-39, 42
Combat spread turns ..................... 12, 34, 35
Communication ................................ 6, 12, 35
Cross turn ....................................... 16, 18, 39
Cruise turns ............................. 12, 13, 34, 37
D
Declutter ....................................................... 25
Displacement roll ............... 22, 23, 28, 29, 38
Displacement roll reversal ........................... 22
E
Engaged fighter ................... 3, 6, 19, 21, 22,
33, 35, 38, 40, 41
Engaging turn (energy-sustaining ............... 19
Engaging turns ................. 12, 15, 19, 34, 37
F
Fixed factors.................................................... 9
Free fighter .......................... 6, 19, 21-23, 33,
35, 38, 40, 41
G
Gunsight tracking ........ 1, 23, 26, 35, 36, 38
H
Hard turn.......................................... 19, 26, 40
High cover ........................ 21, 22, 35, 38, 40
High yo-yo........................... 23, 26-28, 35, 38
HUD ............................... 1, 23-26, 28, 37, 40
I
In-place turns ........................................ 16, 37
L
Lag pursuit ........................ 8, 26, 35, 38, 41
Lead pursuit .......... 8, 21, 28, 29, 35, 38, 41
Lead responsibilities ....................................... 3
Lookout doctrine................................... 3-5, 33
Loose deuce ........................ 1, 3, 19, 20, 23,
33, 35, 38, 40, 41
Loose deuce doctrine.................................... 1
Loose deuce exercise ...... 19, 20, 23, 35, 38
Loose deuce tactics ........................................ 1
Low cover ......................... 21, 22, 35, 38, 41
Low yo-yo ......................... 23, 27-29, 36, 38
M
Maneuvering turns ......................... 19, 35, 38
Mutual blind area............................................. 4
Mutual support ...................... 3, 4, 33, 37, 39
O
Operational maneuverability ................... 9, 33
P
Primary lookout areas ..................................... 4
Pure pursuit ........................ 8, 26, 35, 38, 41
R
Reversals........................................ 22, 23, 29
S
Safety/emergency situations ....................... 31
Sealed video module.................................... 26
Secondary lookout areas .............................. 11
Shackle turns......................................... 12, 15
Spatial awareness ................................. 31, 42
T
Training rules................................................... 3
V
Variable factors ............................................... 9
VCR ...................................................... 23, 26
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Tactical Formation
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Index
W
Weapons envelope .......................... 6, 28, 42
Wingman responsibilities ................................ 4
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Tactical Formation
NOTES
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Index
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Tactical Formation
NOTES
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Index